- For instance, Wayne Hudson in Historicizing Suffering, Chapter 14 of Perspectives on Human Suffering (Jeff Malpas and Norelle Lickiss, editors, Springer, 2012) : "According to the standard account suffering is a universal human experience described as a negative basic feeling or emotion that involves a subjective character of unpleasantness, aversion, harm or threat of harm to body or mind (Spelman 1997; Cassell 1991)."
- Examples of physical suffering: pain of various types, excessive heat, excessive cold, itching, hunger, thirst, nausea, air hunger, sleep deprivation. “IASP Pain Terminology”. 2008년 9월 26일에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 2008년 9월 11일에 확인함.“UAB – School of Medicine – Center for Palliative and Supportive Care”. 2007년 10월 28일에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 2008년 9월 11일에 확인함. Other examples are given by L. W. Sumner, on p. 103 of Welfare, Happiness, and Ethics: "Think for a moment of the many physical symptoms which, when persistent, can make our lives miserable: nausea, hiccups, sneezing, dizziness, disorientation, loss of balance, itching, 'pins and needles', 'restless legs', tics, twitching, fatigue, difficulty in breathing, and so on."
- Mental suffering can also be called psychological or emotional (see Psychological pain). Examples of mental suffering: depression (mood) / hopelessness, grief, sadness / loneliness / heartbreak, disgust, irritation, anger, jealousy, envy, craving or yearning, frustration, anguish, angst, fear, anxiety / panic, shame / guilt, regret, embarrassment / humiliation, restlessness.
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