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메시아닉 유대교

(메시아닉쥬에서 넘어옴)
메시아닉 유대교의 상징

메시아닉 유대교(히브리어: יהדות משיחית 야하두트 메시히트)는 1960년대와 70년대 사이에 일어난 종교운동으로 생긴 종파이며[8] 복음주의 기독교유대교에서 파생된 것으로 여겨진다.[9][14] 메시아닉 유대교는 일반적으로 예수를 유대교의 메시아삼위일체성자로 인정하지만[18] 일부는 삼위일체설을 믿지 않는다.[19] 또한 거의 대부분의 메시아닉 유대교도가 히브리 성서신약성경 둘다를 신에 의해 쓰여진 권위적인 성서라고 믿는다.

메시아닉 유대교는 예수를 자신의 구세주로 받아들여야 구원이 이루어진다고 말한다.[20] 또한 모든 죄가 예수의 죽음과 부활로 속죄되었다고 믿으며 유대법과 유대 관습은 단지 문화적인 것일 뿐 구원에 도움을 주는 것은 아니라고 주장한다.[10] 주류 기독교 교파들은 메시아닉 유대교를 기독교의 한 종파로 받아들인다.[21]

메시아닉 유대교의 몇몇 지지자들은 민족적으로 유대인이며,[22] 그들 중 많은 이들이 메시아닉 유대교가 유대교의 한 종파라고 주장한다.[23] 이들은 자신들을 여전히 유대교를 믿고 있는, 개종하지 않은 유대인이며 기독교인이 아니라고 말한다.[24] 유대인 단체들과 이스라엘 최고 법원은 이러한 주장이 귀환법과 관련된 문제를 야기할 것으로 보고 메시아닉 유대교가 유대교의 일부라는 이들의 주장을 거부했으며, 대신 메시아닉 유대교를 기독교의 한 종류로 정의내렸다.[25][26] 2003년에서 2007년까지 메시아닉 유대교는 예배당이 미국에서 150개에서 438개로, 이스라엘에서 100개 이상으로, 전세계에선 그보다 더 많이 늘어났으며 많은 신자들이 규모가 큰 메시아닉 단체나 연합체들에 소속되게 되었다.[27][28] 또한 2008년에 메시아닉 유대교는 최소 6,000여명에서 많게는 15,000여명 정도의 신자들을 이스라엘에서,[29] 250,000여명의 신자들을 미국에서 거느리고 있는 것으로 알려졌다.[30]

각주편집

  1. Feher, Shoshanah. Passing over Easter: Constructing the Boundaries of Messianic Judaism, Rowman Altamira, 1998, ISBN 978-0-7619-8953-0, p. 140. "This interest in developing a Jewish ethnic identity may not be surprising when we consider the 1960s, when Messianic Judaism arose."
  2. Ariel, Yaakov (2006). 〈Judaism and Christianity Unite! The Unique Culture of Messianic Judaism〉. Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. 《Jewish and Christian Traditions》. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America 2. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group. 191쪽. ISBN 978-0-275-98714-5. LCCN 2006022954. OCLC 315689134. 
  3. Ariel, Yaakov (2006). 〈Judaism and Christianity Unite! The Unique Culture of Messianic Judaism〉. Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. 《Jewish and Christian Traditions》. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America 2. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group. 194쪽. ISBN 978-0-275-98714-5. LCCN 2006022954. OCLC 315689134. 
  4. Melton, J. Gordon. Encyclopedia of Protestantism. Infobase Publishing, 2005, ISBN 978-0-8160-5456-5, p. 373. "Messianic Judaism is a Protestant movement that emerged in the last half of the 20th century among believers who were ethnically Jewish but had adopted an Evangelical Christian faith... By the 1960s, a new effort to create a culturally Jewish Protestant Christianity emerged among individuals who began to call themselves Messianic Jews."
  5. Lewis, James R. (2001). 《Odd Gods: New Religions & the Cult Controversy》. Prometheus Books. 179쪽. ISBN 978-1-57392-842-7. The origins of Messianic Judaism date to the 1960s when it began among American Jews who converted to Christianity. 
  6. Cohn-Sherbok, Dan (2010). 〈Modern Jewish Movements〉. 《Judaism Today》. London; New York: Continuum International Publishing Group. 100쪽. ISBN 978-0-8264-2231-6. LCCN 2009045430. In the 1970s a number of American Jewish converts to Christianity, known as Hebrew Christians, were committed to a church-based conception of Hebrew Christianity. Yet, at the same time, there emerged a growing segment of the Hebrew Christian community that sought a more Jewish lifestyle. Eventually, a division emerged between those who wished to identify as Jews and those who sought to pursue Hebrew Christian goals.…In time, the name of the movement was changed to Messianic Judaism. 
  7. Şenay, Bülent. “Messianic Judaism/Jewish Christianity”. 《Overview of World Religions》. Division of Religion and Philosophy at the University of Cumbria. 2012년 5월 14일에 확인함. Hebrew Christians are quite happy to be integrated into local Christian churches, but Messianic Jews seek an 'indigenous' expression of theology, worship and lifestyle within the whole church. The latter group emerged in the 1960s when some Christian Jews adopted the name Messianic Jews… 
  8. Please see references:[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]
  9. Kessler, Edward (2005). 〈Messianic Jews〉. Kessler, Edward; Wenborn, Neil. 《A Dictionary Of Jewish-Christian Relations》. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 292쪽. ISBN 978-0-521-82692-1. LCCN 2005012923. [Messianic Judaism's] syncretism confuses Christians and Jews… 
  10. Ariel, Yaakov (2006). 〈Judaism and Christianity Unite! The Unique Culture of Messianic Judaism〉. Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. 《Jewish and Christian Traditions》. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America 2. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group. 191쪽. ISBN 978-0-275-98714-5. LCCN 2006022954. OCLC 315689134. 
  11. Ariel, Yaakov (2006). 〈Judaism and Christianity Unite! The Unique Culture of Messianic Judaism〉. Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. 《Jewish and Christian Traditions》. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America 2. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group. 194–195쪽. ISBN 978-0-275-98714-5. LCCN 2006022954. OCLC 315689134. 
  12. Cohn-Sherbok, Dan (2000). 〈Messianic Jewish mission〉. 《Messianic Judaism》. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. 179쪽. ISBN 978-0-8264-5458-4. OCLC 42719687. 2010년 8월 10일에 확인함. 
  13. Ariel, Yaakov S. (2000). 〈Chapter 20: The Rise of Messianic Judaism〉. 《Evangelizing the chosen people: missions to the Jews in America, 1880–2000》 (Google Books). Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 223쪽. ISBN 978-0-8078-4880-7. OCLC 43708450. 2010년 8월 10일에 확인함. 
  14. Please see references:[4][10][11][12][13]
  15. Cohn-Sherbok, Dan (2000). 〈Messianic Jewish theology〉. 《Messianic Judaism》. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. 170쪽. ISBN 978-0-8264-5458-4. OCLC 42719687. 2010년 8월 10일에 확인함. 
  16. “What are the Standards of the UMJC?”. 《FAQ》. Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations. June 2004. 2011년 7월 24일에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 2010년 9월 13일에 확인함. 1. We believe that there is one G-d, eternally existent in three persons, Father, Son and Holy Spirit.
    2. We believe in the deity of the L-RD Yeshua, the Messiah, in His virgin birth, in His sinless life, in His miracles, in His vicarious and atoning death through His shed blood, in His bodily resurrection, in His ascension to the right hand of the Father, and in His personal return in power and glory.
     
  17. “Our Beliefs”. Memphis, Tennessee: B'rit Hadasha Messianic Jewish Synagogue. 2005. 2012년 8월 8일에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 2010년 10월 20일에 확인함. WE BELIEVE:…
    *There is one God as declared in the Shema [Deuteronomy 6:4], who is “Echad,” a compound unity, eternally existent in three persons: God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit [Isaiah 48:16-17; Ephesians 4:4-6]. *In the Deity of our Lord, Messiah Yeshua, in His virgin birth, in His sinless life, in His miracles, in His vicarious atoning death, in His bodily resurrection, in His ascension to the right hand of the Father, in His personal future return to this earth in power and glory to rule.
     
  18. Please see references:[15][16][17]
  19. Israel b. Betzalel (2009). “Trinitarianism”. JerusalemCouncil.org. 2009년 7월 3일에 확인함. This then is who Yeshua is: He is not just a man, and as a man, he is not from Adam, but from God. He is the Word of HaShem, the Memra, the Davar, the Righteous One, he didn’t become righteous, he is righteous. He is called God’s Son, he is the agent of HaShem called HaShem, and he is “HaShem” who we interact with and not die. 
  20. “Do I need to be Circumcised?”. JerusalemCouncil.org. 2009년 2월 10일. 2010년 8월 18일에 확인함. To convert to the Jewish sect of HaDerech, accepting Yeshua as your King is the first act after one’s heart turns toward HaShem and His Torah – as one can not obey a commandment of God if they first do not love God, and we love God by following his Messiah. Without first accepting Yeshua as the King and thus obeying Him, then getting circumcised for the purpose of Jewish conversion only gains you access to the Jewish community. It means nothing when it comes to inheriting a place in the World to Come.…Getting circumcised apart from desiring to be obedient to HaShem, and apart from accepting Yeshua as your King, is nothing but a surgical procedure, or worse, could lead to you believe that Jewish identity grants you a portion in the World to Come – at which point, what good is Messiah Yeshua, the Word of HaShem to you? He would have died for nothing!…As a convert from the nations, part of your obligation in keeping the Covenant, if you are a male, is to get circumcised in fulfillment of the commandment regarding circumcision. Circumcision is not an absolute requirement of being a Covenant member (that is, being made righteous before HaShem, and thus obtaining eternal life), but it is a requirement of obedience to God’s commandments, because circumcision is commanded for those who are of the seed of Abraham, whether born into the family, adopted, or converted.…If after reading all of this you understand what circumcision is, and that is an act of obedience, rather than an act of gaining favor before HaShem for the purpose of receiving eternal life, then if you are male believer in Yeshua the Messiah for the redemption from death, the consequence of your sin of rebellion against Him, then pursue circumcision, and thus conversion into Judaism, as an act of obedience to the Messiah. 
    • Harries, Richard (August 2003). 〈Should Christians Try to Convert Jews?〉. 《After the evil: Christianity and Judaism in the shadow of the Holocaust》. New York, New York: Oxford University Press. g. 119쪽. ISBN 978-0-19-926313-4. LCCN 2003273342. Thirdly, there is Jews for Jesus or, more generally, Messianic Judaism. This is a movement of people often of Jewish background who have come to believe Jesus is the expected Jewish messiah.…They often have congregations independent of other churches and specifically target Jews for conversion to their form of Christianity. 
    • Harris-Shapiro, Carol (1999). 〈Studying the Messianic Jews〉. 《Messianic Judaism: A Rabbi’s Journey Through Religious Change in America》 (GoogleBooks). Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon Press. g. 3쪽. ISBN 978-0-8070-1040-2. LCCN 98054864. OCLC 45729039. And while many evangelical Churches are openly supportive of Messianic Judaism, they treat it as an ethnic church squarely within evangelical Christianity, rather than as a separate entity. 
    • Stetzer, Ed (October 13, 2005). "A Missional Church" Archived 2011년 7월 23일 - 웨이백 머신, The Christian Index. "Missional churches are indigenous. Churches that are indigenous have taken root in the soil and reflect, to some degree, the culture of their community... The messianic congregation (is)... in this case indigenous to Jewish culture."
  21. Kessler, Edward (2005). 〈Messianic Jews〉 (GoogleBooks). Kessler, Edward; Wenborn, Neil. 《A Dictionary Of Jewish-Christian Relations》. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 292–293쪽. ISBN 978-0-521-82692-1. LCCN 2005012923. OCLC 60340826. 2011년 11월 2일에 확인함. Messianic Judaism is proactive in seeking Jewish converts and is condemned by the vast majority of the Jewish community. Although a Jewish convert to Christianity may still be categorised a Jew according to a strict interpretation of the halakhah (Jewish law), most Jews are adamantly opposed to the idea that one can convert to Christianity and still remain a Jew or be considered part of Jewish life. From a mainstream Christian perspective Messianic Judaisms can also provoke hostility for misrepresenting Christianity. 

  22. Spector, Stephen (2008년 11월 5일). 《Evangelicals and Israel》. Oxford University Press. 116쪽. ISBN 978-0-19-970979-3. 
  23. Orthodox
    Simmons, Shraga. “Why Jews Don't Believe in Jesus”. Aish HaTorah. 2010년 7월 28일에 확인함. Jews do not accept Jesus as the messiah because:
    1. Jesus did not fulfill the messianic prophecies.
    2. Jesus did not embody the personal qualifications of the Messiah.
    3. Biblical verses "referring" to Jesus are mistranslations.
    4. Jewish belief is based on national revelation.  |quote=에 라인 피드 문자가 있음(위치 49) (도움말)
    Conservative
    Waxman, Jonathan (2006). “Messianic Jews Are Not Jews”. United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism. 2006년 6월 28일에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 2007년 2월 14일에 확인함. Hebrew Christian, Jewish Christian, Jew for Jesus, Messianic Jew, Fulfilled Jew. The name may have changed over the course of time, but all of the names reflect the same phenomenon: one who asserts that s/he is straddling the theological fence between Christianity and Judaism, but in truth is firmly on the Christian side.…we must affirm as did the Israeli Supreme Court in the well-known Brother Daniel case that to adopt Christianity is to have crossed the line out of the Jewish community. 
    Reform
    “Missionary Impossible”. Hebrew Union College. 1999년 8월 9일. 2006년 9월 28일에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 2007년 2월 14일에 확인함. Missionary Impossible, an imaginative video and curriculum guide for teachers, educators, and rabbis to teach Jewish youth how to recognize and respond to "Jews-for-Jesus," "Messianic Jews," and other Christian proselytizers, has been produced by six rabbinic students at Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion's Cincinnati School. The students created the video as a tool for teaching why Jewish college and high school youth and Jews in intermarried couples are primary targets of Christian missionaries. 
    Reconstructionist/Renewal
    “FAQ's About Jewish Renewal”. Aleph.org. 2007. 2014년 10월 23일에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 2007년 12월 20일에 확인함. What is ALEPH's position on so called messianic Judaism? ALEPH has a policy of respect for other spiritual traditions, but objects to deceptive practices and will not collaborate with denominations which actively target Jews for recruitment. Our position on so-called "Messianic Judaism" is that it is Christianity and its proponents would be more honest to call it that.  |publisher=에 외부 링크가 있음 (도움말)
  24. Berman, Daphna (2006년 6월 10일). “Aliyah with a cat, a dog and Jesus”. Haaretz. 2008년 1월 17일에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 2010년 8월 9일에 확인함. In rejecting their petition, Supreme Court Justice Menachem Elon cited their belief in Jesus. ‘In the last two thousand years of history…the Jewish people have decided that messianic Jews do not belong to the Jewish nation…and have no right to force themselves on it,’ he wrote, concluding that ‘those who believe in Jesus, are, in fact Christians.’ 
  25. Schoeman, Roy H. (2003). 《Salvation is from the Jews: the role of Judaism in salvation history from Abraham to the Second Coming》. San Francisco, California: Ignatius Press. 351쪽. ISBN 978-0-89870-975-9. LCCN 2003105176. By the mid 1970s, Time magazine placed the number of Messianic Jews in the U.S. at over 50,000; by 1993 this number had grown to 160,000 in the U.S. and about 350,000 worldwide (1989 estimate).…There are currently over 400 Messianic synagogues worldwide, with at least 150 in the U.S. 
  26. Yeoman, Barry (2007년 11월 15일). “Evangelical movement on the rise”. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 2012년 5월 27일에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 2011년 3월 30일에 확인함. 
  27. McGirk, Tim (2008년 6월 6일). “Israel's Messianic Jews Under Attack”. 《Time. 2010년 8월 4일에 확인함. 
  28. Wagner, Matthew (2006년 6월 26일). “Messianic Jews to protest 'discrimination'. The Jerusalem Post. 2008에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 2010년 8월 9일에 확인함. There are an estimated 12,000 Messianic Jews living in Israel, most of whom made aliya under the Law of Return. There are about a quarter of a million Messianic Jews living in the US.