면실유

면실유(棉實油)는 목화 에서 짜낸 식용유를 가리키는 단어이다. 주로 유지와 마가린을 만들거나 요리할 때, 또는 샐러드용 기름으로 사용한다. 목화 씨에는 기름이 15 ~ 24% 포함되어 있는데, 우선 씨의 겉껍질을 제거한 다음 기름을 뽑아낸다. 공장에서는 기름을 뽑아내는 용액에 씨앗을 담그는 용매 추출법으로 얻는다.

면실

속성편집

식물성 기름의 성분[1][2]
유형 가공
처리[3]
포화
지방산
단일불포화
지방산
고도불포화
지방산
발연점
전체[1] 올레

(ω-9)
전체[1] α-리놀렌

(ω-3)
리놀레

(ω-6)
ω-6:3
비율
아몬드
아보카도[4] 11.6 70.6 52-66[5] 13.5 1 12.5 12.5:1 250 °C (482 °F)[6]
브라질너트[7] 24.8 32.7 31.3 42.0 0.1 41.9 419:1 208 °C (406 °F)[8]
카놀라[9] 7.4 63.3 61.8 28.1 9.1 18.6 2:1 238 °C (460 °F)[8]
캐슈나무
치아씨
카카오 버터 기름
코코넛[10] 82.5 6.3 6 1.7 175 °C (347 °F)[8]
옥수수[11] 12.9 27.6 27.3 54.7 1 58 58:1 232 °C (450 °F)[12]
면실[13] 25.9 17.8 19 51.9 1 54 54:1 216 °C (420 °F)[12]
아마씨[14] 9.0 18.4 18 67.8 53 13 0.2:1 107 °C (225 °F)
포도씨   10.5 14.3 14.3   74.7 - 74.7 매우 높음 216 °C (421 °F)[15]
삼씨[16] 7.0 9.0 9.0 82.0 22.0 54.0 2.5:1 166 °C (330 °F)[17]
우라드콩
겨자기름
올리브[18] 13.8 73.0 71.3 10.5 0.7 9.8 14:1 193 °C (380 °F)[8]
[19] 49.3 37.0 40 9.3 0.2 9.1 45.5:1 235 °C (455 °F)
땅콩[20] 20.3 48.1 46.5 31.5 0 31.4 매우 높음 232 °C (450 °F)[12]
피칸 기름
들기름
겨기름
잇꽃[21] 7.5 75.2 75.2 12.8 0 12.8 매우 높음 212 °C (414 °F)[8]
참깨[22] ? 14.2 39.7 39.3 41.7 0.3 41.3 138:1
[23] 부분 경화 14.9 43.0 42.5 37.6 2.6 34.9 13.4:1
[24] 15.6 22.8 22.6 57.7 7 51 7.3:1 238 °C (460 °F)[12]
호두기름
해바라기씨 (표준)[25] 10.3 19.5 19.5 65.7 0 65.7 매우 높음 227 °C (440 °F)[12]
해바라기씨 (< 60% linoleic)[26] 10.1 45.4 45.3 40.1 0.2 39.8 199:1
해바라기씨 (> 70% oleic)[27] 9.9 83.7 82.6 3.8 0.2 3.6 18:1 232 °C (450 °F)[28]
면실[29] 경화 93.6 1.5 0.6 0.2 0.3 1.5:1
[30] 경화 88.2 5.7 0
영양 수치는 총 지방 무게 당 백분율(%)로 표현된다.


같이 보기편집

참고 자료편집

각주편집

  1. “US National Nutrient Database, Release 28”. United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016.  All values in this table are from this database unless otherwise cited.
  2. “Fats and fatty acids contents per 100 g (click for "more details"). Example: Avocado oil (user can search for other oils).”. Nutritiondata.com, Conde Nast for the USDA National Nutrient Database, Standard Release 21. 2014. 2017년 9월 7일에 확인함.  Values from Nutritiondata.com (SR 21) may need to be reconciled with most recent release from the USDA SR 28 as of Sept 2017.
  3. “USDA Specifications for Vegetable Oil Margarine Effective August 28, 1996” (PDF). 
  4. “Avocado oil, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. 2017년 9월 6일에 확인함. 
  5. Feramuz Ozdemir; Ayhan Topuz (May 2003). “Changes in dry matter, oil content and fatty acids composition of avocado during harvesting time and post-harvesting ripening period” (PDF). Elsevier. 2020년 1월 15일에 확인함. 
  6. Marie Wong; Cecilia Requejo-Jackman; Allan Woolf (April 2010). “What is unrefined, extra virgin cold-pressed avocado oil?”. 《Aocs.org》. The American Oil Chemists’ Society. 2019년 12월 26일에 확인함. 
  7. “Brazil nut oil, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. 2017년 9월 6일에 확인함. 
  8. Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2010). “Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils”. 《Food Chemistry》 120: 59–65. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070. 
  9. “Canola oil, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. 2017년 9월 6일에 확인함. 
  10. “Coconut oil, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. 2017년 9월 6일에 확인함. 
  11. “Corn oil, industrial and retail, all purpose salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. 2017년 9월 6일에 확인함. 
  12. Wolke, Robert L. (2007년 5월 16일). “Where There's Smoke, There's a Fryer”. 《The Washington Post》. 2011년 3월 5일에 확인함. 
  13. “Cottonseed oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. 2017년 9월 6일에 확인함. 
  14. “Linseed/Flaxseed oil, cold pressed, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. 2017년 9월 6일에 확인함. 
  15. Garavaglia J, Markoski MM, Oliveira A, Marcadenti A (2016). “Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health”. 《Nutrition and Metabolic Insights》 9: 59–64. doi:10.4137/NMI.S32910. PMC 4988453. PMID 27559299. 
  16. Callaway J, Schwab U, Harvima I, Halonen P, Mykkänen O, Hyvönen P, Järvinen T (April 2005). “Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis”. 《The Journal of Dermatological Treatment》 16 (2): 87–94. doi:10.1080/09546630510035832. PMID 16019622. 
  17. “Smoke points of oils” (PDF). 
  18. “Olive oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. 2017년 9월 6일에 확인함. 
  19. “Palm oil, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. 2017년 9월 6일에 확인함. 
  20. Vegetable Oils in Food Technology (2011), 61쪽.
  21. “Safflower oil, salad or cooking, high oleic, primary commerce, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. 2017년 9월 6일에 확인함. 
  22. “Soybean oil”. FoodData Central. 《fdc.nal.usda.gov》. 
  23. “Soybean oil, salad or cooking, (partially hydrogenated), fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. 2017년 9월 6일에 확인함. 
  24. “Soybean oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. 2017년 9월 6일에 확인함. 
  25. “Sunflower oil, 65% linoleic, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. 2018년 11월 15일에 확인함. 
  26. “Sunflower oil, less than 60% of total fats as linoleic acid, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. 2017년 9월 6일에 확인함. 
  27. “Sunflower oil, high oleic - 70% or more as oleic acid, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. 2017년 9월 6일에 확인함. 
  28. “Smoke Point of Oils”. 《Baseline of Health》. Jonbarron.org. 2012년 4월 17일. 2016년 5월 28일에 확인함. 
  29. “Cottonseed oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. 2017년 9월 6일에 확인함. 
  30. “Palm oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, filling fat, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. 2017년 9월 6일에 확인함.