사용자:구순돌/연습장/붐뱁

틀:Infobox music genre

틀:Use American English 틀:Use mdy dates Boom bap is a subgenre and music production style that was prominent in the East Coast during the golden age of hip hop from the late 1980s to the early 1990s.[1]

The term "boom bap" is an onomatopoeia that represents the sounds used for the bass (kick) drum and snare drum, respectively. The style is usually recognized by a main drum loop that uses a hard-hitting, acoustic bass drum sample on the downbeats, a snappy acoustic snare drum sample on the upbeats, and an "in your face" audio mix emphasizing the drum loop, and the kick-snare combination in particular.[2]

Prominent hip hop artists that incorporated "boom bap" in their music include Craig Mack, Run-DMC, Nas, LL Cool J, Gang Starr,[3] KRS-One, Mobb Deep, R.A. the Rugged Man, Boot Camp Clik, Griselda, Wu-Tang Clan, Jay-Z, Common, A Tribe Called Quest[4] and The Notorious B.I.G.[5]

Key producers include DJ Premier,[6][7] Easy Mo Bee, Large Professor, Pete Rock, Marley Marl, J Dilla, Statik Selektah, RZA, Q-Tip, The Alchemist, Black Milk, Apollo Brown, 9th Wonder, Havoc, Da Beatminerz, Buckwild, Lord Finesse, Diamond D, and Showbiz.

History편집

The term boom bap originated in 1984 when it was used by T La Rock to describe the beat of the kick drum and the snare in the song "It's Yours".[8] T La Rock spoke in an off-script fashion, using the words "boom bap" to mimic the sound of the rhythm. This was the first recorded onomatopoeic expression of the beat. The term later became a universal name for the subgenre of hip hop as a whole. DJ Premier suggested that boom bap existed before the production of "It's Yours". He states the term was used by the wider hip-hop community as a term to describe all hip hop and the beat that is produced for it.[9] The subgenre became increasingly better known when KRS-One released an album under the title Return of the Boom Bap.[8] The success of the album popularised the term boom bap.[10]

Development of the style편집

The original songs produced within the subgenre used the actual sounds of kick drums and hard-hitting snare drums or samples from vinyl records.[11] The focus originally was on the simplicity of the beat whereas in later developments of the subgenre electronic samplers and beatmakers were used to generate the iconic beat.[12] Over time more percussion instruments were added to add to the complexity of the beat. Some examples of percussion instruments included were shakers, tambourines, bongos, and cowbells.[13] Musical programmers used digital sampling synthesizers to create more complex layers of sampled sounds and multi-layered drumbeats.[14] The original artist recognised by the hip hop industry as the first to experiment with these samples in boom bap was DJ Marley Marl.[8] The main purpose in using electronic instruments for the production of the music was to take the tedious repetition of the beat out of the creative process. This allowed artists to focus more on their lyrics and the meaning they were trying to convey.[9]

Notable producers편집

DJ Premier and Pete Rock gained notable fame as producers for their work within the boom bap industry.[9] These artists believe that the subgenre demonstrates "strength and power" through its harsh-sounding beat and roughness.[9] Boom bap was known for its popularity on the East Coast of the US and in particular its roots in New York. Where the West Coast hip hop scene displayed elements of smoothness, the East Coast and boom bap focused on hard edges and strong beats.[15] These artists in particular pioneered the subgenre by focusing on the rough elements of a stripped back beat and a strong focus on the lyrics.[16]

The beat편집

KRS-One when describing the beat common to the subgenre states "The vibe of boom bap is to use the least amount of instruments to create the most amount of rhythmic sound".[9]

The typical boom bap beat will be a loop of quarter notes.[1] The first and the third being the kick drum and the second and fourth the snare.[17] The beat has become synonymous with the golden age of hip hop.[18] More modern hip-hop songs are influenced by boom bap and the underlying tone that is common to all songs in the subgenre.[19] The balance of the music tracks are brought together by the prominent kick and snare drum. The timbre is brought about by "the emphasized low end of the kick drum and the presence of the hard-hitting snare drum".[8] The arrangement of the beat is made of the isolated drum hits and other brief instrumental hits from percussion instruments.[11] The rhythmic qualities of the beat are made up of highly swung programming, which can be produced either by a deliberate delay in the analogue percussion hits or by a quantization algorithm programmed on an electronic sampler.[20] Other qualities that are present in boom bap rhythm are "tight drum-instrumental syncopation", "re-arranged phrases or rhythms", and "percussive programming of instrumental phrases".[8] When an artist or producer wished to add even more complexity or intense sounds to their track they could use a synthesiser. A common practise within boom bap was to use sub-synthesis.[14] This extra element would increase the amplitude of the bass and also intensify the sound of the kick drum.[14] This was a desirable feature of the hip hop style's unpolished and harsh style.

The beat is designed to "exist solely as a basis for the artist to rap over".[17] It intends to be "visceral and rousing, it is hip hop at its brawniest".[9]

Scratching편집

The beat in some boom bap songs is interrupted by scratching. The process in which a disc jockey or hip hop producer will forcefully move the vinyl record back and forth underneath the needle.[21] This can also by achieved by using some CDs. The purpose of scratching was to disjoint the flow of the beat, to add some complexity or to develop a bridge in the song.[22] It was effective for rap battles and breaks in a rappers delivery. Scratching can also encompass the use of multiple vinyls, allowing the DJ to experiment with other works within the scope of their own song.[23] A scratch hook can be used as a method of sampling. For example DJ Premier's songs would often have a scratch hook of vocals. He commonly implemented this into his chorus.[24]

Sampling편집

Sampling is used in boom bap music to enhance the beat beyond a simple drum pattern. Since the foundations of the beat are designed to be minimalistic, samples are used to add to the rhythm of the song and to create more diversity in the sounds.[25] Two of the most common electronic samplers used in this style are the Akai MPC and the SP1200.[1][25] Composers in this style use ‘short excerpts of the audio from a previous recording, recontextualized into a new composition’.[26] This can be heard in LL Cool J's "Around the Way Girl", a song and artist that utilizes boom bap features to create the hip hop beat.[27]

Swing quantization is used to create a more complex sound.[8] It allows the producer to keep precision on the 'on' beats and to offset the 'off' beats by a small margin. This influences the rhythmic flow of the piece. In this process, the producer is able to edit the timing of the musical performance.[28] The music sample can be stretched or condensed, and in some cases the beats are manipulated directly to achieve a perfect synchronisation. Swing quantization looks to provide a ratio of perfectly timed beats to off-timed beats.[29] The swing ratio can be adjusted on samplers such as the Akai MPC series.[26]

The general consensus at times was that electronic samplers brough a machine-like element to the style of music.[12] To maintain a human feel to the style, drum touch pads on the MPC and SP1200 were used so that artists could input their chosen samples at times they thought was best for the feel and the rhythm of the music.[30] The addition of touch pads allowed the artist to add improvements in "not just timing, but also accents and velocity variations".[8]

Lyrics편집

Boom bap music is often accompanied by rapping.[31] The lyrics are a conversation with the audience, they are often introspective and reflective of current affairs and society.[32] Boom bap songs rarely demonstrate a sense of progression within the song and don’t come to a chorus or climax.[8] Boom bap lyrics often make no attempt to be catchy or commercial. This style of lyrics is often classified as "macho" and "dominant".[17]

The rapping itself follows contemporary conventions of lyrics in hip hop.[33] Lyrics have a very important part of the song in this style. Since the beat and instrumentals are often repetitive and provide the backing for the rapper. The rapper themselves is what makes the song unique from others.[8] Lyrics often involve multi-syllable rhyming, rap battling, insulting, sociological observations, puns, and other forms of word play. Word play would often encompass poetic devices like extended metaphors and alliteration.[17] The lyrics associated with boom bap have been described by music scholars as ‘raw’ and ‘direct’.[13] A focus on the rhythm and flow of the words allows it to complement the beat. Along with the distinct beat, boom bap is also differentiated from other subgenres by the attitude in the vocals.[17] In songs such as Run-DMC's "Sucker M.C.'s" the rapper does not attempt to "sound catchy or commercial".[17] The rappers input is merely to add variation to the song, to tell a story or to speak to the audience about a chosen topic.[1]

The lyrics within boom bap can sometimes be confused with hardcore rap which does exhibit a similar style of "aggressive" and "street-style" rap.[10] Although boom bap as a subgenre focuses more on the auditory experience of the beat rather than the intense rap lyrics.[14]

The simplicity of the backing beat, allows the rapper to express freely their opinions and stories.[19] Boom bap lyrics are often associated with stories of growing up in segrated neighbourhoods, gang violence, drugs, wealth, sex, profanity, gentrification and social neglect.[19] The lyrics would often reflect the African-American social experience on the East Coast of the United States in the late 80's and early 90's.[8]

Popularity편집

The subgenre of boom bap was popularised by KRS-One and his album Return of the Boom Bap. This album reached its peak on the United States weekly album chart the Billboard 200 at number 37 on 16 October 1993.[34] The album also peaked at number 5 on the Billboard Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums on the same day that the album peaked on the top 200.[35]

Boom bap began to gain popularity in the 1980s, but it had limited recognition on mainstream popular music charts. It existed more as an underground type of music.[36] The beat is often made synonymous with New York hip hop in the era. Welbeck states that "the poly-rhythms of the 'boom-bap' rhythmic phrasings became a fixture of New York rap music in the late 1980s".[37]

The boom bap movement after hitting its peak in the early 1990s made its way across the Atlantic and infiltrated some of the European music scenes.[38] Boom bap can often be found as a foundation for many modern day English rappers, which exhibit similar on-off beat. Boom bap also had a prominent influence on south-east Asia in the late 1990s and early 2000s.[39]

Boom bap is commonly recognised as delivering some of the founding elements of modern hip hop and rap music.[18] The simple style makes it easy to adapt and for artists to make their own impression upon the work.[18]

The decline of boom bap편집

Due to much tighter copyright laws in the United States and around the world in recent years, the accessibility for sampling and regenerating sounds based on other's work has become increasingly difficult.[40][41] Some modern artists working for large record labels enjoy production budgets that permit them to pay to use others' work. However, this limits home-grown music production and thus leads hip hop enthusiasts to other more accessible forms of hip hop.[40] Artists gravitated away from sampling due to financial and career risks. One's creative ability can also be impacted when choosing to sample within a song. Hence, an overall drive for new content has emerged in the music industry.[42]

The Red Bull Music Academy states that in the modern world "the notion of tagging something as boom bap has become more of a backhanded compliment. The phrase is frequently applied to East Coast hip hop to suggest that its architects are dated and trading on former glories".[9]

In the London music scene boom bap is well known for its "hard bass drum" and "snapping snare", but it is commonly associated with "old school" tracks.[43]

Modern usage편집

Although not commercially popular, in the recent years boom bap has seen a small resurgence. In 2019, the Bristol-based rapper Wish Master (Liam Wish Kole) released an album called Boom Bap to the Future, and used the rhythmical quality as the foundation of the album's instrumental scoring, as well an allegory for retaining artistic self-control. However, critics were not entirely happy with the album, referring to its weak textual life, although commendable attempts at reviving the forgotten style.[44] Another regeneration of the boom bap style is being constructed through the London-based music collective called Sons of Boom Bap (S.O.B), whose mission is to reignite interest and lend social status to the old-school aesthetics of rapping, which include boom bap and other foundational stylistic attributes.[45]

However during the pandemic and with influence of platforms such as Verzuz,[46] multiple artist have released singles or full length projects with a boom bap aesthetic: J.Cole, Griselda, Redman, Dj Kay Slay, Lloyd Banks, Hrsmn, Rosenberg among others.[47][48][49][50][51]

각주편집

  1. “Boom Bap Music | Discogs”. 《discogs.com》. 2021년 4월 15일에 확인함. 
  2. Reynolds, Simon (2009년 6월 16일). “The cult of J Dilla”. 《The Guardian》. ISSN 0261-3077. 2020년 5월 8일에 확인함. Sometimes rendered boom-boom-bap, it's a phonetic evocation of hip-hop's classic drum pattern. The booms are the kicks, the bap is the snare, and the combination is that loping midtempo groove that tugs at your neck and your head, not so much at your hips or your feet. 
  3. Petridis, Alexis (2019년 10월 31일). “Gang Starr: One of the Best Yet review – rap duo stand tall beyond the grave”. 《The Guardian》. ISSN 0261-3077. 2020년 5월 8일에 확인함. 
  4. Watson, Richard (2017년 6월 21일). “A Tribe Called Quest – 10 of the best”. 《The Guardian》. ISSN 0261-3077. 2020년 5월 8일에 확인함. 
  5. Hatchman, Jonathan (2015년 12월 16일). “The Notorious BIG – 10 of the best”. 《The Guardian》. ISSN 0261-3077. 2020년 5월 8일에 확인함. 
  6. Hobbs, Thomas (2019년 5월 12일). “Gods of Rap review – Chuck D, De La Soul and Wu-Tang Clan nostalgia trip”. 《The Guardian》. ISSN 0261-3077. 2020년 5월 8일에 확인함. 
  7. Watson, Richard (2010년 10월 1일). “Chiddy Bang, Kid Cudi and Kidz In The Hall prefer blog-rocking beats to old soul samples”. 《The Guardian》. ISSN 0261-3077. 2020년 5월 8일에 확인함. 
  8. 《Boom Bap Ex Machina : Hip-Hop Aesthetics and the Akai MPC》. Routledge. 2019년 3월 28일. doi:10.4324/9781315212241-3. ISBN 978-1-315-21224-1. 
  9. “In Search of Boom Bap”. 《daily.redbullmusicacademy.com》. 2021년 4월 27일에 확인함. 
  10. “Evolution of Boom Bap”. 《Recording Arts Canada》. 2021년 5월 18일에 확인함. 
  11. Exarchos (A.K.A. Stereo Mike), Michail (2018년 8월 1일). “Hip-Hop pedagogy as production practice: Reverse-engineering the sample-based aesthetic”. 《Journal of Popular Music Education》 2 (1): 45–63. doi:10.1386/jpme.2.1-2.45_1. ISSN 2397-6721. 
  12. Ewell, Philip (January 2006). Making Beats: the Art of Sample-Based Hip-Hop. By Joseph G. Schloss. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2004. 226 pp. ISBN 0-8195-6695-0 (cloth), ISBN 0-8195-6696-9 (paperback)”. 《Popular Music》 25 (1): 138–140. doi:10.1017/s0261143006250773. ISSN 0261-1430. 
  13. “Beat Breakdown: '90s Style Boom Bap Hip-Hop”. 《Noisegate》. 2018년 12월 17일. 2021년 5월 18일에 확인함. 
  14. “Airshafts, Loudspeakers, and the Hip Hop Sample: Contexts and African American Musical Aesthetics”, 《That's the Joint!》 (Routledge), 2004년 9월 16일, 469–485쪽, doi:10.4324/9780203642191-44, ISBN 978-0-203-64219-1, 2021년 5월 18일에 확인함 
  15. “Boom Bap! Re-creating '90s East Coast Hip-Hop Beats in the Home Studio... | Sweetwater”. 《inSync》. 2021년 2월 3일. 2021년 5월 18일에 확인함. 
  16. Berry, Michael (2020년 2월 26일), “Computer Programmed With Just One Finger”, 《The Routledge Companion to Music Theory Pedagogy》 (Routledge), 63–67쪽, doi:10.4324/9780429505584-11, ISBN 978-0-429-50558-4, 2021년 5월 18일에 확인함 
  17. ya Salaam, Mtume (1995). “The Aesthetics of Rap”. 《African American Review》 29 (2): 303–315. doi:10.2307/3042309. ISSN 1062-4783. JSTOR 3042309. 
  18. Duinker, Ben; Martin, Denis (2017년 9월 26일). “In Search of the Golden Age Hip-Hop Sound (1986–1996)”. 《Empirical Musicology Review》 12 (1–2): 80. doi:10.18061/emr.v12i1-2.5410. ISSN 1559-5749. 
  19. Katz, Mark (2019년 12월 26일), “Boom Bap Diplomacy: Connecting Cultures, Transforming Conflict”, 《Build》 (Oxford University Press), 55–80쪽, doi:10.1093/oso/9780190056117.003.0003, ISBN 978-0-19-005611-7, 2021년 5월 18일에 확인함 
  20. Rodgers, Tara (2003). “On the process and aesthetics of sampling in electronic music production”. 《Organised Sound》 8 (3): 313–320. doi:10.1017/s1355771803000293. ISSN 1355-7718. 
  21. Hansen, Kjetil Falkenberg (2002년 12월 1일). “The Basics of Scratching”. 《Journal of New Music Research》 31 (4): 357–365. doi:10.1076/jnmr.31.4.357.14171. ISSN 0929-8215. 
  22. Hansen, Kjetil Falkenberg; Fabiani, Marco; Bresin, Roberto (2011년 3월 1일). “Analysis of the Acoustics and Playing Strategies of Turntable Scratching”. 《Acta Acustica United with Acustica》 97 (2): 303–314. doi:10.3813/aaa.918410. ISSN 1610-1928. 
  23. Forman, Murray (2012). “Groove Music: The Art and Culture of the Hip-Hop DJ (Mark Katz)”. 《Dancecult》 4 (2): 71–73. doi:10.12801/1947-5403.2012.04.02.05. ISSN 1947-5403. 
  24. Campbell, Mark v. (2014년 11월 6일). “Scratch, Look & Listen: Improvisation and Digital DJ Interfaces”. 《Critical Studies in Improvisation》 10 (1). doi:10.21083/csieci.v10i1.3071. ISSN 1712-0624. 
  25. Brett, Thomas (2018년 9월 10일), Burton, Justin D; Oakes, Jason Lee, 편집., “Rhythm Technologies, Workflows, and Convergence Culture in Amateur Hip Hop Beat-Making YouTube Videos”, 《The Oxford Handbook of Hip Hop Music》 (Oxford University Press), doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190281090.013.23, ISBN 978-0-19-028109-0, 2021년 5월 18일에 확인함 
  26. Frane, Andrew V. (2017년 2월 1일). “Swing Rhythm in Classic Drum Breaks From Hip-Hop's Breakbeat Canon”. 《Music Perception》 34 (3): 291–302. doi:10.1525/mp.2017.34.3.291. ISSN 0730-7829. 
  27. Alridge, Derrick P.; Stewart, James B. (2005). “Introduction: Hip Hop in History: Past, Present, and Future”. 《The Journal of African American History》 90 (3): 190–195. doi:10.1086/jaahv90n3p190. ISSN 1548-1867. 
  28. Mar 07, G. W. Childs IV on; comments, 2018 in Audio Software 1. “A Music Producer's Guide To Quantization”. 《ask.audio》. 2021년 5월 26일에 확인함. 
  29. Hepworth-Sawyer, Russ; Hodgson, Jay, 편집. (2016년 12월 1일). 《Mixing Music》. 96쪽. doi:10.4324/9781315646602. ISBN 978-1-317-29551-8. 
  30. Draper, Jason (2018년 11월 15일). “A Brief History Of Sampling”. 《uDiscover Music》. 2021년 5월 26일에 확인함. 
  31. “Hip-Hop Timeline”, 《Hip-Hop Authenticity and the London Scene》 (Routledge), 2017년 2월 17일, 135–141쪽, doi:10.4324/9781315661049-7, ISBN 978-1-315-66104-9, 2021년 5월 18일에 확인함 
  32. Hunter, Margaret (2011). “Shake it, Baby, Shake it: Consumption and the New Gender Relation in Hip-Hop”. 《Sociological Perspectives》 54 (1): 15–36. doi:10.1525/sop.2011.54.1.15. ISSN 0731-1214. 
  33. Motley, Carol M.; Henderson, Geraldine Rosa (2008). “The global hip-hop Diaspora: Understanding the culture”. 《Journal of Business Research》 61 (3): 243–253. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2007.06.020. ISSN 0148-2963. 
  34. “KRS-One”. 《Billboard》. 2021년 5월 26일에 확인함. 
  35. “KRS-One”. 《Billboard》. 2021년 5월 26일에 확인함. 
  36. 〈The Hip-Hop Underground and African American Culture〉, 《The Hip-Hop Underground and African American Culture》, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, doi:10.1057/9781137305251.0006, ISBN 978-1-137-30525-1, 2021년 5월 27일에 확인함 
  37. Welbeck, Timothy N. (2017년 4월 3일). “People's Instinctive Travels and the Paths to Rhythms: Hip-Hop's Continuation of the Enduring Tradition of African and African American Rhetorical Forms and Tropes”. 《Changing English》 24 (2): 123–136. doi:10.1080/1358684X.2017.1310461. ISSN 1358-684X. 
  38. Kerr, David (2019년 5월 30일). “Experiments in sound: generating sonic landscapes in online spaces”. 《Journal of African Cultural Studies》 32 (1): 24–41. doi:10.1080/13696815.2019.1615419. ISSN 1369-6815. 
  39. Potter, Russell A. (2017년 9월 29일), “The future is history: hip-hop in the aftermath of (post)modernity”, 《The Resisting Muse: Popular Music and Social Protest》 (Routledge), 65–74쪽, doi:10.4324/9781351218061-5, ISBN 978-1-351-21806-1, 2021년 5월 30일에 확인함 
  40. Marshall, Wayne (2006). “Giving up Hip-Hop's Firstborn: A Quest for the Real after the Death of Sampling”. 《Callaloo》 29 (3): 868–892. doi:10.1353/cal.2006.0149. ISSN 1080-6512. 
  41. Schuster, Mike; Mitchell, David; Brown, Kenneth (2019년 2월 26일). “Sampling Increases Music Sales: An Empirical Copyright Study”. 《American Business Law Journal》 56 (1): 177–229. doi:10.1111/ablj.12137. ISSN 0002-7766. 
  42. Tanaka, Atau (2006), 《Interaction, Experience and the Future of Music》, Computer Supported Cooperative Work 35, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 267–288쪽, doi:10.1007/1-4020-4097-0_13, ISBN 1-4020-4031-8, 2021년 5월 18일에 확인함 
  43. Speers, Laura (2017년 2월 17일). 《Hip-Hop Authenticity and the London Scene》. Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315661049. ISBN 978-1-315-66104-9. 
  44. Jost, Matt. “Wish Master :: Boombap to the Future – RapReviews”. 2021년 5월 15일에 확인함. 
  45. “Who are the Sons of Boombap?”. 《Sons of Boombap》. 2021년 5월 15일에 확인함. 
  46. Cochrane, Naima (2021년 6월 18일). “How Verzuz is bridging the musical generation gap”. 《The Undefeated》 (미국 영어). 2021년 6월 28일에 확인함. 
  47. “ALBUM REVIEW: J. Cole walks a fine line on 'The Off-Season'. 《RIFF Magazine》 (미국 영어). 2021년 5월 14일. 2021년 6월 28일에 확인함. 
  48. “The Best Hip Hop Albums Of 2021”. 《Hip Hop Golden Age》. 2021년 6월 28일에 확인함. 
  49. Camaj, Margaritë "Magi" (2020년 12월 11일). “Da Inphamus Amadeuz brings us back to the '90s with 'Any Day Now (The Sequel)'. 《EARMILK》 (미국 영어). 2021년 6월 28일에 확인함. 
  50. “Lloyd Banks Hasn't Lost A Step On "Sidewalks". 《HotNewHipHop》 (영어). 2021년 6월 28일에 확인함. 
  51. Grove, Rashad. “Media Personality Peter Rosenberg Is Right On Time With ‘Real Late’ Album”. 《Forbes》 (영어). 2021년 7월 20일에 확인함.