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사용자:배우는사람/문서:Nimrod 1.2 (18-54) - Nimrod


NIM-ROD (18-54)편집

[Page 18]

SECTION I (Page 18)편집

Circumstances under which Nimrod usurped the Kingly and Sacerdotal power편집

I. How and under what circumstances he usurped the Kingly and Sacerdotal (사제의) power is not recorded in Holy Writ; but it seems more than probable that it was mainly achieved by that species of imposture called by a well-known Indian name, Avatar.

And this is probable,

Nim-Rod pretended an Universal Monarchy, Avatar편집

1. Upon general grounds, when we consider that Mortals, such as Noah and Adam, obtained divine honours and were revered as incarnate Gods, and that the minds of men were fixed upon a divine promise of God that he would send the Man Jehovah, of which promise the completion was to be in the person and reign of an Universal King and Universal High Priest. Prophecy was from the beginning; and it was from the beginning similar to what it always was; Enoch predicted the same events as the Israelitish bards in the like phraseology, and the words of the lost old authour of Proverbs or Parables.

A fire hath gone forth from Heshbon and consumed Ar of Moab, &c. (Numbers 21:28) are adopted verbatim by the late prophet Jeremiah, and delivered by him as predictions of events still future; a fact which proves that the patriarchal, like the Israelitish, prophecies were at times (가끔은[때로는]) of double application.

Some people are apt to argue as if they took for granted that there never were any Holy Scriptures in the world, before Moses wrote his for the use of a single people, and as if the patriarchs had neither any sacred histories of the wars of Jehovah, nor any prophecies or inspired poems concerning their religion, which is a false assumption; it implies an erroneous

[Page 19] notion of the purpose of the Levitical dispensation (레위 사람[지파](Levite)의; [성서] 레위기에 적힌 율법의[에 정해진]; 특별 허가, 시혜, 베풂, (특정 시기의 정치적・종교적) 제도[체제]), and may be refuted by the evidence of Scripture itself. It is therefore unlikely that the immediate posterity of Enoch, Noah, and Shem, should have been ignorant of the Kingly and Priestly and Divine character of the promised Seed. But Nim-Rod's pretensions were those of Universal Monarchy founded upon Catholic High Priesthood.

Levant around 830 BC

Numbers 21:26-29

King James Version (KJV)

26 For Heshbon was the city of Sihon the king of the Amorites, who had fought against the former king of Moab, and taken all his land out of his hand, even unto Arnon.

27 Wherefore they that speak in proverbs say, Come into Heshbon, let the city of Sihon be built and prepared:

28 For there is a fire gone out of Heshbon, a flame from the city of Sihon: it hath consumed ar of Moab, and the lords of the high places of Arnon.

29 Woe to thee, Moab! thou art undone, O people of Chemosh: he hath given his sons that escaped, and his daughters, into captivity unto Sihon king of the Amorites.

Et cetera (in English; /ɛtˈsɛtərə/; 틀:IPA-la) (rare: etceteros) (abbreviation: etc. or &c) is a Latin expression that means "and other things", or "and so forth". It is taken directly from the Latin expression which literally means "and the rest (of such things)" and is a loan-translation of the Greek "καὶ τὰ ἕτερα" (kai ta hetera; "and the other things". The more usual Greek form is "καὶ τὰ λοιπά" kai ta loipa: "and the remainder"). Et means "and"; cētera means "the rest".

Heshbon (also Hesebon, Esebon, Esbous, Esebus; Esebus; حشبون; חשבון) was an ancient town located east of the Jordan River in the modern kingdom of Jordan and historically within the territories of Ammon and Ancient Israel.

Biblical references

Ancient Heshbon was beyond the Jordan. Heshbon was taken by the Israelites on their entry to the Promised Land, and was assigned to the tribe of Reuben;[1] afterwards it was given to the Tribe of Gad.[2]

The reference in the Tanakh to Heshbon is found in the Book of Deuteronomy,[3] where it is mentioned as the capital of Amorite king, Sihon (Sehon). It is also mentioned in Numbers,[4] which tells the story of the Israelite victory over Sihon the Amorite during the time of The Exodus under Moses. In this passage, Heshbon is highlighted due to its importance as the capital of Sihon, King of the Amorites:

"For Heshbon was the city of Sihon, king of the Amorites, who had
fought against the former king of Moab and had taken all his land
out of his hand, as far as the Arnon."[5]

Similar passages appear in Deuteronomy and Joshua, with the primary emphasis being the victory of the Israelites over King Sihon at the site of Heshbon, which was his capital. These events occurred during the time of Moses, who soon after died in the region, after viewing the "promised land" from the top of Mount Nebo.

Following the death of Moses, Heshbon became a town at the border between the Tribe of Reuben and the Tribe of Gad. Further biblical evidence suggests that the town later came under Moabite control, as mentioned by Isaiah[6] and Jeremiah[7] in their denunciations of Moab.

Heshbon also appears in the Song of Solomon where the poet likens his love's eyes to "the pools of Heshbon", which refers to the magnificent fish-pools of Heshbon.[8]


Ar is mentioned in the Bible several times as a city of ancient Moab (Numbers 21:15). While the exact location is unknown, it was likely in the southern part of the Arnon Valley, which is the present day Wadi Mujib gorge in Jordan.[1] The city was one of Moab's most prominent, being listed by the prophet Isaiah in his denunciation of the Moabite nation (Isaiah 15:1).

The Bible later speaks of Ar as being captured by the Amorite King Sihon (Isaiah 21:28).

Modern scholars believe that the word "Ar" likely meant "city".[2]


Wadi Mujib near Dhiban, looking southwest
Wadi Mujib2.jpeg

Wadi Mujib, historically known as Arnon, is a gorge in Jordan which enters the Dead Sea at 410 미터 (1,350 ft) below sea level. The Mujib Reserve of Wadi Mujib is the lowest nature reserve in the world,[1] located in the mountainous landscape to the east of the Dead Sea, approximately 90 km south of Amman.


Gorge of the River Arnon Near Its Mouth. From Stade, "Geschichte des Volkes Israel."

The Arnon has always been an important boundary-line. Before the Hebrew period it separated, for a time at least, the Moabites from the Amorites (Num. 21:13, 26; Deut. 3:8; Judges 11:18). After the Hebrew settlement it divided, theoretically at least, Moab from the tribes of Reuben and Gad (Deut. 3:12, 16). But in fact Moab lay as much to the north as it did to the south of the Arnon. To the north, for example, were Aroer, Dibon, Medeba, and other Moabite towns. Even under Omri and Ahab, who held part of the Moabite territory, Israel did not hold sway farther south than Ataroth, about ten miles north of the Arnon. Mesha in his inscription (Moabite Stone, line 10) says that the Gadites (not the Reubenites) formerly occupied Ataroth, whence he in turn expelled the people of Israel. He mentions (line 26) his having constructed a road along the Arnon. The ancient importance of the river and of the towns in its vicinity is attested by the numerous ruins of bridges, forts, and buildings found upon or near it. Its fords are alluded to by Isaiah (16:2). Its "heights," crowned with the castles of chiefs, were also celebrated in verse (Num. 21:28).

In Rabbinical literature

The Haggadah tells the following story of a miracle witnessed at the Arnon, which seems to be alluded to in the Bible (Num. 21:14,15). While the Israelites were crossing the deep Arnon valley on the way to the promised land, the Amorites hid in the caves, intending to attack the unsuspecting travelers. But the Ark of the Covenant, which preceded the Israelites, caused the heights to sink and the valley to rise. As a result, the concealed Amorites were crushed in the caves and the Israelites saved from their planned attack. The miracle would have been unnoticed by the Israelites, had not God caused the well which accompanied them to throw up portions of the corpses. At this point the Israelites sang the Song of the Well (Num. 21:17 ff.). In commemoration of this miracle, the Rabbis decided that a special benediction should be uttered upon seeing the Arnon (Ber. 54a ff. Num. R. 19:25; Tan., Ḥuḳḳat., 20.).

This, however, is most likely a later legend based on the following raw materials:

  • Num. 21:13 compares the crossing of the Arnon to that of the Red Sea, perhaps implying that the Arnon split for the Israelite passage, like the Red Sea and later the Jordan (Josh. 3:16,17).
  • The Song of the Well recalls the victory song over the Egyptians at the Red Sea (Ex. 15). (However, textually, the Song of the Well seems to refer to a miracle in which the Israelites receive water to drink, rather than a victory over the Amorites.)
  • Amorite corpses rising up in the well of Be'er are reminiscent of the Egyptians washing ashore the Red Sea (Ex. 14:30).


  1. 《Jordan Eco & Nature》. Jordan Tourism Board, 2006. 

Divine pretensions were not uncommon among the conquerors of the heroic times편집

2. From the precedents of Indian and Greek Mythology, from which it appears that Divine pretensions were not uncommon among the conquerors of the heroic times, though invariably the cause of dreadful wars and dissensions (알력, 불화);


from the corresponding pretensions of Alexander son of Philip (= Philip II of Macedon), who like the son of Hyrieus disclaimed (부인하다) his natural father, and who like Nimrod was engaged in founding a new Iranian dynasty at the time of his imposture, and probably acted upon the precedents of the Peishdadian or Assyrio-Persian line, and in conformity with the national superstitions of Iran;

Pishdadian (Persian: پیشدادیان) were first dynasty of Aryan people in the Shahnameh, Avesta and Iranian mythology.[1]

Pishdadi Kings in Shahnameh

  1. Keyumars
  2. Hushang
  3. Tahmuras
  4. Jamshid
  5. Zahhak
  6. Fereydun
  7. Īraj
  8. Manuchehr
  9. Nowzar
  10. Zaav or Zou (King)
  11. Garshasp (King)

Sources and references

  1. Persian Wikipedia

Zingis Khan편집

from the similar part acted by Tamuzin, or Zingis Khan1), the Mighty Hunter of the thirteenth century, and a character closely resembling Nimrod, whose descent, from three miraculously engendered Sons of Heaven, presents the notion of the Tripator, and unto whom a prophet called the Image of God, having ridden up to heaven on a white horse, brought down from heaven the title of Zin-gis, the Most Great;

1) Abul Gazl Khan, pt. 2. p. 145-148. 155.194, 5. Hyde Pers. Rel. p. 149, Gibbon, vi. p. 42.

Scythian Church편집

from the fact that the Royal head of the Scythian Church has retained to this day, from what time no man knows, the rank of God Incarnate;

Brahminical Church편집

and that, even the institutes of the Brahminical Church declare that the Spirit of the Gods dwells in the bodies of KINGS.


Attila, king of the Huns,2) added to his titles that of "Nepos magni Nembrod, nutritus in Engaddi (= Nembrod a great grandson, brought up in the Engaddi)," which means that he had been prompted (하다[촉발하다]) to represent himself as that "man child, who was to rule all nations with a rod of iron," and

[Page 20] who had been nursed "in the wilderness, in a place prepared of God." His mother was the woman clothed with the Sun, and standing upon the Moon, and crowned with the twelve stars of Israel, and the effect was, that he offered himself to Christendom as a new Messiah.

2) Olaus Epise. Strigon. ap. Bonfin. Hung. p. 863. See Revel c 12. v. 5, 6.

It seems that he assumed this honour after the treaty which he imposed upon Theodosius II. in the year 446, and before the battle of Chalons (= AD 451), because it was in that interval that some strange superstitions3) seem to have existed concerning him; but the idea was not new to him, for the Hunnish sovereigns from of old time were styled Tanjou, meaning, as Mons. de Guignes saith, Son of Heaven; nor was the name of Nembrod, associated to his own, unconnected therewith.

3) After that treaty, and before the battle of Chalons, the Devil appeared in the form of Moses, and invited the Jews to assemble in Crete, promising to lead them dry-shod through the sea, and re-establish them in that island; and they followed him a little way, until the waters closed and destroyed them like the host of Pharaoh. Goth. Viterb. part xvi. p. 425. Postellus, de Obis Concordia. L. 2. p. 201. L. 4. p. 418.

The map shows the general routes taken by Attila's forces as they invaded Gaul, and the major cities that were sacked or threatened by the Huns and their allies.

The Battle of the Catalaunian Plains (or Fields), also called the Battle of Châlons or the Battle of Maurica,[1] took place in AD 451 between a coalition led by the Roman general Flavius Aëtius and the Visigothic king Theodoric I against the Huns and their allies commanded by their leader Attila. It was one of the last major military operations of the Western Roman Empire though Visigothic soldiers also formed the core of the allied Roman army.[2] The battle was a strategic victory for the Romans, stopping the Huns' attempt to conquer Roman Gaul. The Huns were later destroyed by a coalition of Germanic peoples at the Battle of Nedao in 454.

"Emperor" is the normal translation of 皇帝 (huangdi), a Chinese term that is not to be confused with the homophonic 黄帝, which refers to the Yellow Emperor.

The Emperor (Chinese: 皇帝; pinyin: Huángdì, 틀:IPA-cmn) refers to any sovereign of Imperial China reigning between the founding of Qin Dynasty of China, united by the King of Qin in 221 BCE, and the fall of Yuan Shikai's Empire of China in 1916. When referred to as the Son of Heaven (Chinese: 天子; pinyin: tiānzǐ, 틀:IPA-cmn), a title that predates the Qin unification, the Emperor was recognized as the ruler of "All under heaven" (i.e., the world). In practice not every Emperor held supreme power, though this was most often the case.

Emperors from the same family are generally classified in historical periods known as Dynasties. Most of China's imperial rulers have commonly been considered members of the Han ethnicity, although recent scholarship tends to be wary of applying current ethnic categories to historical situations. During the Yuan and Qing dynasties China was ruled by ethnic Mongols and Manchus respectively after being conquered by them. The orthodox historical view over the years sees these as non-native dynasties that were sinicized over time, though some more recent scholars argue that the interaction between politics and ethnicity was far more complex.[3] Nevertheless, in both cases these rulers claimed the Mandate of Heaven to assume the role of traditional Confucian emperors in order to rule over China proper.

Ruler of the Hunnic Empire
Atilla fléau de dieu.jpg
Renaissance medal with the legend, "Atila, Flagelum Dei"
(Latin for "Attila, Scourge of God")
PredecessorBleda and Rugila
Religious beliefsunknown

Attila (/ˈæt[unsupported input]lə/ or /əˈtɪlə/; ?–453), frequently referred to as Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in 453. He was leader of the Hunnic Empire, which stretched from the Ural River to the Rhine River and from the Danube River to the Baltic Sea.

During his reign he was one of the most feared enemies of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires. He crossed the Danube twice and plundered the Balkans, but was unable to take Constantinople. He also attempted to conquer Roman Gaul (modern France), crossing the Rhine in 451 and marching as far as Aurelianum (Orléans) before being defeated at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains.

Subsequently he invaded Italy, devastating the northern provinces, but was unable to take Rome. He planned for further campaigns against the Romans but died in 453.


The origin of Attila's name is unclear. Menander used the term Attila as the name of the Volga River.[4] Pritsak considers it to mean "universal ruler" in a Turkic language related to Danube Bulgarian.[5]

Maenchen-Helfen suggests an East Germanic origin and rejects a Turkic etymology: "Attila is formed from Gothic or Gepidic atta, "father", by means of the diminutive suffix -ila." He finds Pritsak's etymology "ingenious but for many reasons unacceptable". However, he suggests that these names were

not the true names of the Hun princes and lords. What we have are Hunnic names in Germanic dress, modified to fit the Gothic tongue, or popular Gothic etymologies, or both. Mikkola thought Attila might go back to Turkish atlïg, "famous"; Poucha finds in it Tokharian atär, "hero." The first etymology is too farfetched to be taken seriously, the second is nonsense.[6]

The name has many variants in modern languages: Atli and Atle in Norse, Attila/Atilla/Etele in Hungarian (Attila is the most popular), Etzel in German Nibelungenlied, Attila, Atilla, Atilay or Atila in Turkish, and Adil and Edil in Kazakh or Adil ("same/similar") or Edil ("to use") in Mongolian.

Historiography and sources

The historiography of Attila is faced with a major challenge, in that the only complete sources are written in Greek and Latin, by the enemies of the Huns. His contemporaries left many testimonials of his life, but only fragments of these remain.[7] Priscus, a Roman diplomat and historian who wrote in Greek, was both a witness to and an actor in the story of Attila, as a member of the embassy of Theodosius II at the Hunnic court in 449. Although he was obviously biased by his political position, his writing is a major source for the life of Attila and he is the only person known to have recorded a physical description of him. He was the author of an eight-volume work of history covering the period from 434 to 452.

Today we have only fragments of this work, but it was cited extensively by the 6th-century historians Procopius and Jordanes,[8] especially in Jordanes's The Origins and Deeds of the Goths. As it contains numerous references to Priscus's history, it is an important source of information about the Hunnic empire and its neighbours. Here, he describes the legacy of Attila and the Hunnic people for a century after Attila's death. Marcellinus Comes, a chancellor of Justinian during the same era, also describes the relations between the Huns and the Eastern Roman Empire.[9]

Numerous ecclesiastical writings contain useful albeit scattered information, sometimes difficult to authenticate or distorted by years of hand-copying between the 6th and 17th centuries. The Hungarian writers of the 12th century, wishing to portray the Huns in a positive light as their glorious ancestors, repressed certain historical elements and added their own legends.[10]

The literature and knowledge of the Huns themselves was transmitted solely orally, by means of epics and chanted poems that were handed down from generation to generation.[11] Indirectly, this oral history has reached us via the literature of the Scandinavians and Germans, literate neighbours of the Huns who wrote between the 9th and 13th centuries. Attila is a major character in many Medieval epics, such as the Nibelungenlied, as well as various Eddas and sagas.[10][11]

Archaeological investigation has uncovered some details about the lifestyle, art and warfare of the Huns. There are a few traces of battles and sieges, but today the tomb of Attila and the location of his capital have not yet been found.[12]

Appearance and character

While there is no surviving first-person account of Attila's appearance, there is a possible second-hand source, provided by Jordanes, who cites a description given by Priscus.[13][14]

Short of stature, with a broad chest and a large head; his eyes were small, his beard thin and sprinkled with grey; and he had a flat nose and tanned skin, showing evidence of his origin.[15]

Early life and background

The Huns were a group of Eurasian nomads, appearing from east of the Volga, who migrated into Europe c. 370 and built up an enormous empire there. Their main military techniques were mounted archery and javelin throwing. They were possibly the descendants of the Xiongnu who had been northern neighbours of China three hundred years before[16] and may be the first expansion of Turkic people across Eurasia.[17][18][19][20][21] Even though they were in the process of developing settlements before their arrival in Europe, the Huns were a society of pastoral warriors[22] whose primary form of nourishment was meat and milk, products of their herds.

The origin and language of the Huns has been the subject of debate for centuries. According to some theories, their leaders at least may have spoken a Turkic language, perhaps closest to the modern Chuvash language.[23] One scholar suggests a relationship to Yeniseian.[24] According to the Encyclopedia of European Peoples, "the Huns, especially those who migrated to the west, may have been a combination of central Asian Turkic, Mongolic, and Ugric stocks."[25]

Attila's father, Mundzuk,[26] was the brother of the kings Octar and Rugila, who reigned jointly over the Hunnic empire in the early fifth century. This form of diarchy was recurrent with the Huns, but historians are unsure whether it was institutionalized, merely customary, or an occasional occurrence.[27] His family was from a noble lineage, but it is uncertain whether they constituted a royal dynasty. Attila's birthdate is not known, but the journalist Éric Deschodt and the writer Herman Schreiber have proposed a date of 395.[28][29] However, the historian Iaroslav Lebedynsky and archaeologist Katalin Escher prefer an estimate between the 390s and the first decade of the fifth century.[30]

Attila grew up in a rapidly changing world. His people were nomads who had only recently arrived in Europe.[31] After crossing the Volga river during the 370s and annexing the territory of the Alans, they attacked the Gothic kingdom between the Carpathian mountains and the Danube. They were a very mobile people, whose mounted archers had acquired a reputation of invincibility, and the Germanic tribes seemed unable to withstand them.[32] Vast populations fleeing the Huns moved from Germania into the Roman Empire in the west and south, and along the banks of the Rhine and Danube. In 376, the Goths crossed the Danube, initially submitting to the Romans but soon rebelling against the emperor Valens, whom they killed in the Battle of Adrianople in 378.[33] On 31 December 406, to escape the Huns, large numbers of Vandals, Alans, Suebi and Burgundians crossed the Rhine and invaded Roman Gaul.[34] The Roman Empire had been split into half since 395 and was ruled by two distinct governments, one based in Ravenna in the West, and the other in Constantinople in the East. In Attila's lifetime, despite several power struggles, the Roman Emperors both East and West were generally from the same family, the Theodosians.[35]

The Huns dominated a vast territory with nebulous borders determined by the will of a constellation of ethnically varied peoples. Some were assimilated to Hunnic nationality, whereas many retained their own identities and rulers but acknowledged the suzerainty of the king of the Huns.[36] While the Huns were the indirect source of many of the Romans' problems by driving various Germanic tribes into Roman territory, relations between the two empires were cordial: the Romans used the Huns as mercenaries against the Germans and even in their civil wars. Thus, the usurper Joannes was able to recruit thousands of Huns for his army against Valentinian III in 424.[Note 1] They exchanged ambassadors and hostages, the alliance lasting from 401 to 450 and permitting the Romans numerous military victories.[37] The Huns considered the Romans to be paying them tribute, whereas the Romans preferred to view this as payment for services rendered. By the time Attila came of age during the reign of his uncle Rugila, the Huns had become a great power, to the point that the Patriarch of Constantinople, Nestorius, deplored the situation with these words: "They have become both masters and slaves of the Romans."[38]

Campaigns against the Eastern Roman Empire

The death of Rugila (also known as Rua or Ruga) in 434 left the sons of his brother Mundzuk, Attila and Bleda (Buda), in control of the united Hun tribes. At the time of two brothers' accession, the Hun tribes were bargaining with Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II's envoys for the return of several renegades (possibly Hunnic nobles who disagreed with the brothers' assumption of leadership) who had taken refuge within the Eastern Roman Empire.

The following year Attila and Bleda met with the imperial legation at Margus (Požarevac) and, all seated on horseback in the Hunnic manner,[39] negotiated a successful treaty. The Romans agreed, not only to return the fugitives, but also to double their previous tribute of 350 Roman pounds (ca. 115 kg) of gold, to open their markets to Hunnish traders, and to pay a ransom of eight solidi for each Roman taken prisoner by the Huns. The Huns, satisfied with the treaty, decamped from the Roman Empire and returned to their home in the Great Hungarian Plain, perhaps to consolidate and strengthen their empire. Theodosius used this opportunity to strengthen the walls of Constantinople, building the city's first sea wall, and to build up his border defenses along the Danube.

The Huns remained out of Roman sight for the next few years while they invaded the Sassanid Empire. When defeated in Armenia by the Sassanids, the Huns abandoned their invasion and turned their attentions back to Europe. In 440 they reappeared in force on the borders of the Roman Empire, attacking the merchants at the market on the north bank of the Danube that had been established by the treaty.

Crossing the Danube, they laid waste to the cities of Illyricum and forts on the river, including (according to Priscus) Viminacium, a city of Moesia. Their advance began at Margus, where they demanded that the Romans turn over a bishop who had retained property that Attila regarded as his. While the Romans discussed turning the bishop over, he slipped away secretly to the Huns and betrayed the city to them.

While the Huns attacked city-states along the Danube, the Vandals led by Geiseric captured the Western Roman province of Africa and its capital of Carthage. Carthage was the richest province of the Western Empire and a main source of food for Rome. The Sassanid Shah Yazdegerd II invaded Armenia in 441.

The Romans stripped the Balkan area of forces, sending them to Sicily in order to mount an expedition against the Vandals in Africa. This left Attila and Bleda a clear path through Illyricum into the Balkans, which they invaded in 441. The Hunnish army sacked Margus and Viminacium, and then took Singidunum (Belgrade) and Sirmium. During 442 Theodosius recalled his troops from Sicily and ordered a large issue of new coins to finance operations against the Huns. Believing he could defeat the Huns, he refused the Hunnish kings' demands.

Attila responded with a campaign in 443.[40] Striking along the Danube, the Huns, equipped with new military weapons like the battering rams and rolling siege towers, overran the military centres of Ratiara and successfully besieged Naissus (Niš).

Advancing along the Nišava River, the Huns next took Serdica (Sofia), Philippopolis (Plovdiv), and Arcadiopolis (Lüleburgaz). They encountered and destroyed a Roman army outside Constantinople but were stopped by the double walls of the Eastern capital. They defeated a second army near Callipolis (Gelibolu).

Theodosius, stripped of his armed forces, admitted defeat, sending the Magister militum per Orientem Anatolius to negotiate peace terms. The terms were harsher than the previous treaty: the Emperor agreed to hand over 6,000 Roman pounds (ca. 2000 kg) of gold as punishment for having disobeyed the terms of the treaty during the invasion; the yearly tribute was tripled, rising to 2,100 Roman pounds (ca. 700 kg) in gold; and the ransom for each Roman prisoner rose to 12 solidi.

Their demands were met for a time, the Hun kings withdrew into the interior of their empire. Following the Huns' withdrawal from Byzantium (probably around 445), Bleda died. Attila then took the throne for himself, becoming the sole ruler of the Huns.[41]

Solitary kingship

Mór Than's painting The Feast of Attila, based on a fragment of Priscus

In 447 Attila again rode south into the Eastern Roman Empire through Moesia. The Roman army under the Gothic magister militum Arnegisclus met him in the Battle of the Utus and was defeated, though not without inflicting heavy losses. The Huns were left unopposed and rampaged through the Balkans as far as Thermopylae.

Constantinople itself was saved by the Isaurian troops of the magister militum per Orientem Zeno and protected by the intervention of the prefect Constantinus, who organized the reconstruction of the walls that had been previously damaged by earthquakes, and, in some places, to construct a new line of fortification in front of the old. An account of this invasion survives:

The barbarian nation of the Huns, which was in Thrace, became so great that more than a hundred cities were captured and Constantinople almost came into danger and most men fled from it. ... And there were so many murders and blood-lettings that the dead could not be numbered. Ay, for they took captive the churches and monasteries and slew the monks and maidens in great numbers. (Callinicus, in his Life of Saint Hypatius)

In the west

The general path of the Hun forces in the invasion of Gaul

In 450, Attila proclaimed his intent to attack the Visigoth kingdom of Toulouse by making an alliance with Emperor Valentinian III. He had previously been on good terms with the Western Roman Empire and its influential general Flavius Aëtius. Aëtius had spent a brief exile among the Huns in 433, and the troops Attila provided against the Goths and Bagaudae had helped earn him the largely honorary title of magister militum in the west. The gifts and diplomatic efforts of Geiseric, who opposed and feared the Visigoths, may also have influenced Attila's plans.

However, Valentinian's sister was Honoria, who, in order to escape her forced betrothal to a Roman senator, had sent the Hunnish king a plea for help – and her engagement ring – in the spring of 450. Though Honoria may not have intended a proposal of marriage, Attila chose to interpret her message as such. He accepted, asking for half of the western Empire as dowry.

When Valentinian discovered the plan, only the influence of his mother Galla Placidia convinced him to exile, rather than kill, Honoria. He also wrote to Attila strenuously denying the legitimacy of the supposed marriage proposal. Attila sent an emissary to Ravenna to proclaim that Honoria was innocent, that the proposal had been legitimate, and that he would come to claim what was rightfully his.

Attila the Hun on horseback by George S. Stuart

Attila interfered in a succession struggle after the death of a Frankish ruler. Attila supported the elder son, while Aëtius supported the younger. (The location and identity of these kings is not known and subject to conjecture.) Attila gathered his vassalsGepids, Ostrogoths, Rugians, Scirians, Heruls, Thuringians, Alans, Burgundians, among others and began his march west. In 451, he arrived in Belgica with an army exaggerated by Jordanes to half a million strong. J.B. Bury believes that Attila's intent, by the time he marched west, was to extend his kingdom – already the strongest on the continent – across Gaul to the Atlantic Ocean.[42]

On April 7, he captured Metz. Other cities attacked can be determined by the hagiographic vitae written to commemorate their bishops: Nicasius was slaughtered before the altar of his church in Rheims; Servatus is alleged to have saved Tongeren with his prayers, as Saint Genevieve is to have saved Paris.[43] Lupus, bishop of Troyes, is also credited with saving his city by meeting Attila in person.[44]

Aëtius moved to oppose Attila, gathering troops from among the Franks, the Burgundians, and the Celts. A mission by Avitus, and Attila's continued westward advance, convinced the Visigoth king Theodoric I (Theodorid) to ally with the Romans. The combined armies reached Orléans ahead of Attila, (Later accounts of the battle site the Huns either already within the city or in the midst of storming it when the Roman-Visigoth army arrived; Jordanes mentions no such thing. See Bury, ibid.) thus checking and turning back the Hunnish advance. Aëtius gave chase and caught the Huns at a place usually assumed to be near Catalaunum (modern Châlons-en-Champagne).

The two armies clashed in the Battle of Châlons, whose outcome is commonly considered to be a strategic victory for the Visigothic-Roman alliance. Theodoric was killed in the fighting and Aëtius failed to press his advantage, according to Edward Gibbon and Edward Creasy, because he feared the consequences of an overwhelming Visigothic triumph as much as he did a defeat. From Aëtius' point of view, the best outcome was what occurred: Theodoric died, Attila was in retreat and disarray, and the Romans had the benefit of appearing victorious.

Invasion of Italy and death

Raphael's The Meeting between Leo the Great and Attila depicts Leo, escorted by Saint Peter and Saint Paul, meeting with the Hun king outside Rome

Attila returned in 452 to claim his marriage to Honoria anew, invading and ravaging Italy along the way. The city of Venice was founded as a result of these attacks when the residents fled to small islands in the Venetian Lagoon. His army sacked numerous cities and razed Aquileia completely, leaving no trace of it behind.

Legend has it he built a castle on top of a hill north of Aquileia to watch the city burn, thus founding the town of Udine, where the castle can still be found. Aëtius, who lacked the strength to offer battle, managed to harass and slow Attila's advance with only a shadow force. Attila finally halted at the River Po. By this point disease and starvation may have broken out in Attila's camp, thus helping to stop his invasion.

Emperor Valentinian III sent three envoys, the high civilian officers Gennadius Avienus and Trigetius, as well as the Bishop of Rome Leo I, who met Attila at Mincio in the vicinity of Mantua, and obtained from him the promise that he would withdraw from Italy and negotiate peace with the Emperor.[45] Prosper of Aquitaine gives a short description of the historic meeting, but gives all the credit of the successful negotiation to Leo. Priscus reports that superstitious fear of the fate of Alaric—who died shortly after sacking Rome in 410—gave him pause.

In reality, Italy had suffered from a terrible famine in 451 and her crops were faring little better in 452; Attila's devastating invasion of the plains of northern Italy this year did not improve the harvest.[46] To advance on Rome would have required supplies which were not available in Italy, and taking the city would not have improved Attila's supply situation. Therefore, it was more profitable for Attila to conclude peace and retreat back to his homeland.[47]

Secondly, an East Roman force had crossed the Danube under the command of another officer also named Aetius—who had participated in the Council of Chalcedon the previous year—and proceeded to defeat the Huns who had been left behind by Attila to safeguard their home territories.[48] Attila, hence, faced heavy human and natural pressures to retire "from Italy without ever setting foot south of the Po."[48] As Hydatius writes:[49]

The Huns, who had been plundering Italy and who had also stormed a number of cities, were victims of divine punishment, being visited with heaven-sent disasters: famine and some kind of disaster. In addition, they were slaughtered by auxiliaries sent by the Emperor Marcian and led by Aetius, at the same time, they were crushed in their [home] settlements....Thus crushed, they made peace with the Romans and all retired to their homes.

— Hydatius, Chron Min. ii pp.26ff
The Huns, led by Attila, invade Italy

After Attila left Italy and returned to his palace across the Danube, he planned to strike at Constantinople again and reclaim the tribute which Marcian had stopped. (Marcian was the successor of Theodosius and had ceased paying tribute in late 450 while Attila was occupied in the west; multiple invasions by the Huns and others had left the Balkans with little to plunder). However, Attila died in the early months of 453.

The conventional account, from Priscus, says that at a feast celebrating his latest marriage to the beautiful and young Ildico (if uncorrupted, the name suggests a Gothic, more likely Ostrogoth origin)[50] he suffered a severe nosebleed and choked to death in a stupor. An alternative theory is that he succumbed to internal bleeding after heavy drinking, possibly a condition called esophageal varices, where dilated veins in the lower part of the esophagus rupture leading to death by hemorrhage.[51]

Another account of his death, first recorded 80 years after the events by the Roman chronicler Count Marcellinus, reports that "Attila, King of the Huns and ravager of the provinces of Europe, was pierced by the hand and blade of his wife."[52] The Volsunga saga and the Poetic Edda also claim that King Atli (Attila) died at the hands of his wife, Gudrun.[53] Most scholars reject these accounts as no more than hearsay, preferring instead the account given by Attila's contemporary Priscus. Priscus' version, however, has recently come under renewed scrutiny by Michael A. Babcock.[54] Based on detailed philological analysis, Babcock concludes that the account of natural death, given by Priscus, was an ecclesiastical "cover story" and that Emperor Marcian (who ruled the Eastern Roman Empire from 450 to 457) was the political force behind Attila's death.

Jordanes says: "The greatest of all warriors should be mourned with no feminine lamentations and with no tears, but with the blood of men." His horsemen galloped in circles around the silken tent where Attila lay in state, singing in his dirge, according to Cassiodorus and Jordanes: "Who can rate this as death, when none believes it calls for vengeance?"

Then they celebrated a strava (lamentation) over his burial place with great feasting. Legend says that he was laid to rest in a triple coffin made of gold, silver, and iron, along with some of the spoils of his conquests. His men diverted a section of the river, buried the coffin under the riverbed, and then were killed to keep the exact location a secret.

His sons Ellac (his appointed successor), Dengizich, and Ernakh fought over the division of his legacy, specifically which vassal kings would belong to which brother. As a consequence they were divided, defeated and scattered the following year in the Battle of Nedao by the Ostrogoths and the Gepids under Ardaric who had been Attila's most prized chieftain.

Attila's many children and relatives are known by name and some even by deeds, but soon valid genealogical sources all but dry up and there seems to be no verifiable way to trace Attila's descendants. This has not stopped many genealogists from attempting to reconstruct a valid line of descent for various medieval rulers. One of the most credible claims has been that of the khans of Bulgaria (see Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans). A popular, but ultimately unconfirmed, attempt tries to relate Attila to Charlemagne.

Later folklore and iconography

Attila himself is said to have claimed the titles "Descendant of the Great Nimrod", and "King of the Huns, the Goths, the Danes, and the Medes" – the last two peoples being mentioned to show the extent of his control over subject nations even on the peripheries of his domain.[55]

Jordanes embellished the report of Priscus, reporting that Attila had possessed the "Holy War Sword of the Scythians", which was given to him by Mars and made him a "prince of the entire world."[56][57]

Attila was the standard source of legitimacy on the European steppe until Genghis Khan. By the end of the 12th century the royal court of Hungary proclaimed their descent from Attila. Lampert of Hersfeld's contemporary chronicles report that shortly before the year 1071, the Sword of Attila had been presented to Otto of Nordheim by the exiled queen of Hungary, Anastasia of Kiev.[58] This sword, a cavalry sabre now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, appears to be the work of Hungarian goldsmiths of the ninth or tenth century.[59]

Illustration of the meeting between Attila and Pope Leo from the Chronicon Pictum, ca. 1360

Later writers developed the meeting of Leo I and Attila into a pious "fable which has been represented by the pencil of Raphael and the chisel of Algardi",[60] reporting that the Pope, aided by Saint Peter and Saint Paul, convinced Attila to turn away from the city.[61]

According to a version of this legend related in the Chronicon Pictum, a mediaeval Hungarian chronicle, the Pope promised Attila that if he left Rome in peace, one of his successors would receive a holy crown (which has been understood as referring to the Holy Crown of Hungary)

Attila in the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493)

Some histories and chronicles describe him as a great and noble king, and he plays major roles in three Norse sagas: Atlakviða,[62] Völsungasaga,[63] and Atlamál.[64] The Polish Chronicle represents Attila's name as Aquila.[출처 필요]

Frutolf of Michelsberg and Otto of Freising pointed out that some songs as "vulgar fables" made Theoderic the Great, Attila and Ermanaric contemporaries, when any reader of Jordanes knew that this was not the case.[65]

In 1812, Ludwig van Beethoven conceived the idea of writing an opera about Attila and approached August von Kotzebue to write the libretto. It was, however, never written.

In World War I, Allied propaganda referred to Germans as the "Huns", based on a 1900 speech by Emperor Wilhelm II praising Attila the Hun's military prowess, according to the Glimpses of World History by Jawaharlal Nehru.[66]Der Spiegel commented on November 6, 1948 that the Sword of Attila was hanging menacingly over Austria.[67]

American writer Cecelia Holland wrote The Death of Attila (1973), a historical novel in which Attila appears as a powerful background figure whose life and death deeply impact the protagonists, a young Hunnish warrior and a Germanic one.

In modern Hungary and in Turkey, "Attila" and its Turkish variation "Atilla" are commonly used as a male first name. In Hungary, several public places are named after Attila; for instance, in Budapest there are 10 Attila Streets, one of which is an important street behind the Buda Castle. When the Turkish Armed Forces invaded Cyprus in 1974, the operations were named after Attila (Atilla I and Atilla II).[68]

The 1954 Universal International film Sign of the Pagan starred Jack Palance as Attila.

Depictions of Attila

See also


  1. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, volume II, p.537
  2. Encyclopedia of European People
  3. Sinicization vs. Manchuness: The Success of Manchu Rule
  4. The Journey of William of Rubruck to the Eastern Parts of the World, 1253–55: As Narrated by Himself with Two Accounts of the Earlier Journey of John of Pian de Carpine, page 107, Willem Van Ruysbroeck, William Woodville Rockhill, Asian Educational Services, 1998. ISBN 978-81-206-1338-6
  5. "Άττίλα/Αίίϋα.95 in 1955 I showed that 'Αττίλας/Attila should be analyzed as a composite title consisting of *es 'great, old', *t4l· 'sea, ocean', and the suffix /a/. The stressed back syllabic til (= tlill) assimilated the front member es, so it became *as.96 The consonantic sequence s-t (aş til-) became, due to metathesis, t-s, which by assimilation resulted in tt.97 in 1981 I was able to establish a Danube-Bulgarian nominative-suffix /A/ from the consonantic stems.98 Recalling that Danube-Bulgarian was a Hunnic language, I can now add to the data in the article of 1955 the following: the Hunnic title attila is a nominative,(in /A/) form of attil- (< *etsil < *es til) with the meaning "the oceanic, universal [ruler];" cf. the title of the Pećeneg ruler Куря, i.e., Kür+ä,meaning "universal" (cf. no. 3)." Pritsak, Omeljan. 1982 "The Hunnic Language of the Attila Clan." Harvard Ukrainian Studies, vol. 6, pp. 428-476.[1]
  6. Maenchen-Helfen, Otto (1973). 〈Chapter 9.4〉. 《The World of the Huns》. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-01596-8. 
  7. (Escher & Lebedynsky 2007, 25쪽)
  8. (Rouche 2009, 413쪽)
  9. (Escher & Lebedynsky 2007, 30쪽)
  10. (Escher & Lebedynsky 2007, 32쪽)
  11. (Rouche 2009, 354쪽)
  12. (Escher & Lebedynsky 2007, 33–37쪽)
  13. Bakker, Marco. “Attila the Hun”. 《Reportret》. 2013년 3월 9일에 확인함. 
  14. Herwig Wolfram, The Roman Empire and its Germanic peoples, University of California Press, 1997, ISBN 978-0-520-08511-4, p. 143.
  15. The Goths by Jordanes. Translated by Charles Christopher Mierow. Chapter 35: Attila the Hun. http://www.romansonline.com/Src_Frame.asp?DocID=Gth_Goth_35
  16. De Guignes, Joseph (1756–1758). “Histoire générale des Huns, des Turcs, des Mongols et des autres Tartares”. 
  17. Transylvania through the age of migrations. Eliznik.org.uk. 2010년 8월 22일에 확인함. 
  18. Calise, J.M.P. (2002). 'Pictish Sourcebook: Documents of Medieval Legend and Dark Age History'. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p279, ISBN 0-313-32295-3
  19. Peckham, D. Paulston, C. B. (1998). Linguistic Minorities in Central and Eastern Europe. Clevedon, UK : Multilingual Matters. p100, ISBN 1-85359-416-4
  20. Canfield, R.L. (1991). Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p49, ISBN 0-521-52291-9
  21. Frazee, C.A. (2002). Two Thousand Years Ago: The World at the Time of Jesus. Wm. B. Eerdmans [출처 필요]
  22. (Rouche 2009, 259쪽)
  23. Omeljan Pritsak (1982). “Hunnic names of the Attila clan” (PDF). 《Harvard Ukrainian Studies》 VI: 444. 
  24. Alexander Vovin 2000
  25. Carl Waldman,Catherine Mason (2006). Encyclopedia of European Peoples. Infobase Publishing. p.393. ISBN 1438129181
  26. Jordanès, XXXV
  27. (Escher & Lebedynsky 2007, 80쪽)
  28. 틀:Ouvrage
  29. 틀:Ouvrage
  30. (Escher & Lebedynsky 2007, 40쪽)
  31. (Bóna 2002, 15쪽)
  32. (Rouche 2009, 133–151쪽)
  33. (Rouche 2009, 100쪽)
  34. (Escher & Lebedynsky 2007, 233쪽)
  35. (Lebedynsky 2011, 13쪽)
  36. (Lebedynsky 2011, 11쪽)
  37. (Rouche 2009, 111쪽)
  38. (Rouche 2009, 128쪽)
  39. Howarth, Patrick (1995). 《Attila, King of the Huns》. New York: Barnes & Noble Publishing. 191–92쪽. ISBN 978-0-7607-0033-4. 
  40. Dupuy, R. Ernest and Trevor N. Dupuy, The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History , 4th Edition, (HarperCollins Publishers, 1993), 189
  41. “Priscus of Panium: fragments from the Embassy to Attila”. 9.homepage.villanova.edu. 2010년 8월 22일에 확인함. 
  42. J.B. Bury, The Invasion of Europe by the Barbarians, lecture IX (e-text)
  43. The vitae are summarized in Thomas Hodgkin, Italy and Her Invaders (New York: Russell & Russell, 1967 reprint of the original 1880–89 edition), volume II pp. 128ff.
  44. Catholic Online (2008년 7월 31일). “St. Lupus – Saints & Angels – Catholic Online”. Catholic.org. 2010년 7월 30일에 보존된 문서. 2010년 8월 22일에 확인함. 
  45. Wikisource-logo.svg "Pope St. Leo I (the Great)" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  46. E.A. Thompson, The Huns, revised with an afterword by Peter Heather, Blackwell Publishers, 1996. p.161
  47. Thompson-Heather, pp. 160–161
  48. Thompson-Heather, p.163
  49. Hydatius, Chron Min. ii pp.26ff
  50. Thompson, The Huns, p. 164.
  51. Man, Nigel (2006). 《Attila》. Thomas Dunne Books. 264쪽. ISBN 978-0-312-34939-4. 
  52. Marcellinus Comes, Chronicon (e-text), quoted in Hector Munro Chadwick: The Heroic Age (London, Cambridge University Press, 1926), p. 39 n. 1.
  53. Volsunga Saga, Chapter 39; Poetic Edda, Atlamol En Grönlenzku, The Greenland Ballad of Atli
  54. Babcock, Michael A. The Night Attila Died: Solving the Murder of Attila the Hun, Berkley Books, 2005 ISBN 0-425-20272-0
  55. Creasy, Decisive Battles of the World, pp 178–179.
  56. Living with the dead in the Middle Ages, page 63, Patrick J. Geary, Cornell University Press, 1994. ISBN 978-0-8014-8098-0
  57. European weapons and armour : from the Renaissance to the industrial revolution, page 151, R Ewart Oakeshott, North Hollywood, Calif. : Beinfeld Pub., 1980. ISBN 978-0-917714-27-6
  58. Hungarians and Europe in the early Middle Ages. András Róna-Tas. English edition 1999, translated by Nicholas Bodoczky, Central European University Press. ISBN 978-963-9116-48-1. pp 424–427.
  59. Hermann Fillitz, Die Schatzkammer in Wien: Symbole abendländischen Kaisertums; ChicagoHungarians.com Illustration of the Vienna Kunsthistorisches Museum's ninth-tenth century "Sword of God"
  60. HISTORY OF THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE. Edward Gibbon, Esq. With notes by the Rev. H. H. Milman. Volume Three, Complete Contents. 1782 (Written), 1845 (Revised) Chapter XXXV: Invasion By Attila.
  61. “Medieval Sourcebook, Leo I and Attila”. Fordham.edu. 2010년 9월 30일에 보존된 문서. 2010년 8월 22일에 확인함. 
  62. Atlakvitha en grönlenzka Henry Adams Bellows' translation and commentary
  63. R. G. Finch (ed. and trans.), The Saga of the Volsungs (London: Nelson, 1965), available at [2]
  64. Atlamol en grönlenzku Translation and commentary by Henry A. Bellows
  65. The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, page 245, Yitzhak Hen, Matthew Innes, Cambridge University Press, 2000. ISBN 9780521639989
  66. Glimpses of World History, page 919, Jawaharlal Nehru, Lindsay Drummond limited, 1949.
  67. Der Spiegel 6th November 1948
  68. Edmund Wright,Thomas Edmund Farnsworth Wright, A dictionary of world history, Oxford University Press, 2006, ISBN 978-0-19-920247-8, p. 41. The invasion, which was likened to the action of Attila the Hun, put into effect Turkey's scheme for the partition of Cyprus (Atilla Plan).


Primary sources


  • Babcock, Michael A. (2005). The Night Attila Died: Solving the Murder of Attila the Hun (Berkley Publishing Group, ISBN 0-425-20272-0)
  • Blockley, R.C. (1983). The Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire, vol. II (ISBN 0-905205-15-4). This is a collection of fragments from Priscus, Olympiodorus, and others, with original text and translation.
  • Gibbon, Edward (1776–1789). 《History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire》. London: Strahan & Cadell. 
  • Gordon, C. D. (1960). The Age of Attila: Fifth-century Byzantium and the Barbarians (Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 0-472-06111-9). This is a translated collection, with commentary and annotation, of ancient writings on the subject, including Priscus.
  • Heather, Peter (2005). The Fall of the Roman Empire—A New History of Rome and the Barbarians (Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-515954-3)
  • Howarth, Patrick (1994). Attila, King of the Huns: The Man and the Myth (ISBN 0786709308).
  • Macartney, C. A. (1934). “The End of the Huns”. 《Journal of Hellenic Studies》 10: 106–114. 
  • Maenchen-Helfen, J. Otto (1973). The World of the Huns: Studies in Their History and Culture (Berkeley, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-01596-7)
  • Man, John (2005) Attila: The Barbarian King Who Challenged Rome (Bantam Press, ISBN 0-593-05291-9)
  • Thompson, E. A. (1948). A History of Attila and the Huns (London, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-8371-7640-9). [This is the authoritative English work on the subject. It was reprinted in 1999 as The Huns in the Peoples of Europe series (ISBN 0-631-21443-7). Thompson did not enter controversies over Hunnic origins and considers that Attila's victories were achieved only when there was no concerted opposition.]

Hunnic rulers
jointly with Bleda
434 – 453

Nimrod passed for the son of a certain God or Gods from the very statements of ancient Mythology편집

3. From the very statements of ancient Mythology, that he (= Nimrod) did not pass for (~으로 통하다) his own father's son, but for the son of a certain God or Gods; which statements are strongly corroborated, by the contradiction given to his false pretences in Scripture, in the form of a distinct and special4) averment (언명, 단언), that he was the son of a natural father.

4) Gen. x. v. 8.

Genesis 10:8

King James Version (KJV)

8 And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one in the earth.

Genesis 10:8 in all English translations

The meaning of the name Nimrod is NIN or Ninus편집

4. But chiefly and most conclusively, in the opinion of some critics, from the meaning of his name. This name, according to Greek and Assyrian writers, was NIN; and a city which sacred and profane history refer to him, as its founder, was also called NIN.

Primus omnium Ninus5), rex Assyriorum, veterem et
[Page 21] quasi avitum gentium morem nova imperii cupiditate mutavit, et primus intulit bella finitimis, et rudes adhuc ad resistendum populos usque terminos Libyae perdomuit.
[구글 번역] He was the first of all by Ninus, king of the Assyrians, the old and the new lust of empire, as it were, ancestral custom of nations has changed, and the first made war on their neighbors, and yet untrained to resist as far as the borders of the peoples of Libya.

5) Justin. L. 1. c 1. Fabius Pictor (as published by Annius) hath very similar words: Circa finem aurei saeculi, primus olim Ninus (= Near the end of the golden age, the first time Ninus [구글 번역]) etc. p. 413. Antw. 1552. I cannot tell when, why, or by whom, this little bundle of forgeries was put together; but the identity of Ninus and Nimrod, here implied, is contrary to the idle notions of Annius of Viterbo; see p. 10. p. 242; and Postel mentions that parts of the pseudo-Berosus were extant in France and Germany, before ever they were known to Annius. De Etruriae Originibus, p. 20.

Nin or NIN may refer to:

Ninus from Guillaume Rouillé's Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum

Ninus (Νίνος), according to Greek historians writing in the Hellenistic period and later, was accepted as the eponymous founder of Nineveh (also called Νίνου πόλις "city of Ninus" in Greek), ancient capital of Assyria. His name is not attested on the Assyrian King List or in any cuneiform literature; he does not seem to represent any one personage known to modern history, and is more likely a conflation of several real and/or fictional figures of antiquity, as seen to the Greeks through the mists of time.

Legendary career in Hellenic historiography

Many early accomplishments are attributed to him, such as training the first hunting dogs, and taming horses for riding[출처 필요]. For this accomplishment, he is sometimes represented in Greek mythology as a centaur.

The figures of King Ninus and Queen Semiramis first appear in the history of Persia written by Ctesias of Cnidus (c. 400 BC), who claimed, as court physician to Artaxerxes II, to have access to the royal historical records.[1] Ctesias' account was later expanded on by Diodorus Siculus. Ninus continued to be mentioned by European historians (e.g. Alfred the Great), even up until knowledge of cuneiform enabled a more precise reconstruction of Assyrian and Babylonian history from the mid 19th century onwards.

He was said to have been the son of Belus or Bel, a name that may represent a Semitic title such as Ba'al, "lord". According to Castor of Rhodes (apud Syncellus p. 167), his reign lasted 52 years, its commencement falling in 2189 BC according to Ctesias. He was reputed to have conquered the whole of western Asia in 17 years with the help of Ariaeus, king of Arabia, and to have founded the first empire, defeating the legendary kings Barzanes of Armenia (whom he spared) and Pharnus of Medea (whom he had crucified).

Ninus' Empire according to Diodoros

As the story goes, Ninus, having conquered all neighboring Asian countries apart from India and Bactriana, then made war on Oxyartes, king of Bactriana, with an army of nearly two million, taking all but the capital, Bactra. During the siege of Bactra, he met Semiramis, the wife of one of his officers, Onnes, whom he took from her husband and married. The fruit of the marriage was Ninyas, said to have succeeded Ninus.

Ctesias (as known from Diodorus) also related that after the death of Ninus, his widow Semiramis, who was rumored to have murdered Ninus, erected to him a temple-tomb, 9 stadia high and 10 stadia broad, near Babylon, where the story of Pyramus and Thisbe (Πύραμος; Θίσβη) was later based. She was further said to have made war on the last remaining independent monarch in Asia, king Stabrobates of India, but was defeated and wounded, abdicating in favour of her son Ninyas.


A number of historians, beginning with the Roman Cephalion (c. AD 120) asserted that Ninus' opponent, the king of Bactria, was actually Zoroaster (or first of several to bear this name), rather than Oxyartes.

Ninus was first identified in the Recognitions (part of Clementine literature) with the biblical Nimrod, who, the author says, taught the Persians to worship fire. In many modern interpretations of the Hebrew text of Genesis 10, it is Nimrod, the son of Cush, who founded Nineveh; other translations (e.g., the KJV) render the same Torah verse as naming Ashur (Assyria), son of Shem, as the founder of Nineveh.

More recently, the identification in Recognitions of Nimrod with Ninus (and also with Zoroaster, as in Homilies) formed a major part of Alexander Hislop's thesis in the 19th century tract The Two Babylons.


The decipherment of a vast quantity of Cuneiform texts has allowed modern Assyriologists to piece together a more accurate history of Sumer, Akkad, Assyria, Babylonia and Chaldea. Ninus is not attested in any of the extensive king lists compiled by the Mesopotamians themselves, nor mentioned in any Mesopotamian literature, and it is highly likely that this Hellenic creation was inspired by the deeds of one or more real kings of Assyria, or Assyro-Babylonian mythology. Similarly, the Biblical character of Nimrod is not attested anywhere in Assyrian, Babylonian, Akkadian or Sumerian literature or king lists, but is believed by many scholars to have been inspired by one or more real kings, the most likely being Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria who ruled the Middle Assyrian Empire during the 13th century BC, or the Assyrian war god Ninurta. An Assyrian queen Shammuramat is known to be historical, and for five years from 810 BC ruled the Neo-Assyrian Empire as regent for her son Adad-nirari III, and had been the wife of Shamshi-Adad V, The later Hellenic myths surrounding Semiramis are considered by some[누가?] to be inspired by the novelty of a woman ruling such an empire. Another opinion holds that Shamurammat could have been a namesake of an earlier Semiramis, and not necessarily the inspiration for her.

In culture

Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream has the story of Pyramus and Thisbe as a play-within-a-play. The actors constantly mispronounce the location "Ninus' Tomb" as "Ninny's Tomb," though they are corrected initially, and in vain, by "director" Peter Quince.

The story of Ninus and Semiramis is taken up in a different form in a 1st-century AD Hellenistic romance called the Ninus Romance, the Novel of Ninus and Semiramis, or the Ninus Fragments.[2] A scene from it is perhaps depicted in mosaics from Antioch on the Orontes[3]


  1. "Like a Bird in a Cage": The Invasion of Sennacherib, Lester L. Grabbe (2003), p. 121-122
  2. Daphnis and Chloe. Love Romances and Poetical Fragments. Fragments of the Ninus Romance, Loeb Classical Library ISBN 0-674-99076-5
  3. Doro Levi, "The Novel of Ninus and Semiramis" Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 87:5, Papers on Archaeology, Ecology, Ethnology, History, Paleontology, Physics, and Physiology (May 5, 1944), pp. 420-428

Quintus Fabius Pictor (flourished c. 200 BC, some sources give his birth as possibly in 254 BC[1]) was one of the earliest Roman historians and considered the first of the annalists. A member of the gens Fabia, he was the grandson of Gaius Fabius Pictor, a painter (pictor in Latin). He was a senator who fought against the Gauls in 225 BC, and against Carthage in the Second Punic War. He was appointed to travel to the oracle at Delphi in 216 BC, for advice after the Roman defeat at the Battle of Cannae.

He wrote in Greek and is often referred to, somewhat dismissively, as an annalist. In fact, amongst the fragments of Pictor that we have there is no evidence that he wrote annalistic history. He used the chronicles of his own and other important Roman families as sources, and began with the arrival of Aeneas in Latium. His work ended with his own recollections of the Second Punic War, which he blamed entirely on Carthage, especially the Barca family of Hamilcar and Hannibal.

Fabius' work utilized the writings of the Greek historian Diocles of Peparethus, who allegedly wrote an early history of Rome. Fabius was used as a source by Plutarch,[2] Polybius, Livy, and Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and his work had been translated into Latin by the time of Cicero.

Although Polybius uses his writings he does also accuse him of being biased towards the Romans and inconsistent.[3]

He dated the founding of Rome to be in the "first year of the eighth Olympiad" or 747 BC, according to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, (Book I. ch. 74).


  1. World Book Encyclopedia Vol. 7 (F), 1967 Edition, p. 2
  2. Life of Romulus
  3. Polybius, 1.14–15

Further reading

  • Du Rieu, Willem Nikolaas (1856) Disputatio de Gente Fabia; Accedunt Fabiorum Pictorum et Serviliani Fragmenta. Lugduni Batavorum: Van der Hoek, 1856.

External links

Annius of Viterbo (Joannes Annius Viterb(i)ensis; c. 1432 – 13 November 1502) was an Italian Dominican friar, scholar, and historian, born Giovanni Nanni (Nenni) in Viterbo. He is now remembered for his fabrications.

He entered the Dominican Order early in life. He obtained the degree of Master of Theology from the studium generale at Santa Maria sopra Minerva, the forerunner of the College of Saint Thomas and the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum. He served as lector at the studium sometime before 1466.[1]

He was highly esteemed by Sixtus IV and Alexander VI; the latter made him Master of the Sacred Palace in 1499.

As a linguist he spuriously claimed to be skilled in the Oriental languages. Walter Stephens, however,[2] says, "His expertise in Semitic philology, once celebrated even by otherwise sober ecclesiastical historians, was entirely fictive." Annius also claimed to be able to read Etruscan.

In perhaps his most elaborate pseudo-archeological charade, in the autumn of 1493 he undertook a well-publicized dig at Viterbo, during which marble statues of some of the most dramatic of the mythical figures associated with the city's legendarium appeared to be unearthed; they had all been "salted" in the site beforehand.[3]


He is best known for his "Antiquitatum Variarum",[4] often known as The Antiquities of Annius. In this work he published alleged writings and fragments of several pre-Christian Greek and Latin profane authors, destined to throw an entirely new light on ancient history. He claimed to have discovered them at Mantua.

Among his numerous other writings were "De futuris Christianorum triumphis in Turcos et Saracenos",[5] a commentary on the Apocalypse, dedicated to Sixtus IV, to Christian kings, princes, and governments,[6] and "Tractatus de imperio Turcorum".[7] The author claims that Mohammad is the Antichrist, and that the end of the world will take place when the Christians will have overcome the Jews and the Muslims, which event did not appear to him to be far distant.

One influential suggestion he made was that the genealogy of Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew applied to Joseph, while that in the Gospel of Luke was Mary's.

The more important of his unpublished works are: "Volumen libris septuaginta distinctum de antiquitatibus et gestis Etruscorum"; "De correctione typographica chronicorum"; "De dignitate officii Magistri Sacri Palatiiö, and lastly, his "Chronologia Nova", in which he undertakes to correct the anachronisms in the writings of Eusebius of Caesarea.

He was notorious for his text depicting the history and topography of ancient Rome, from the "most ancient" authors. His Auctores vetustissimi printed at Rome, 1498, was an anthology of seventeen purportedly classical texts, all of which he had written himself, with which he embarks in the gigantic attempt to write a universal history of the post-diluvian West civilization, where the Etruscan people and the town of Viterbo/Etruria, custodian of the original knowledge of divine nature, takes on the leading role in the march of the Man towards the future. Annio's map of Rome as founded by Romulus is a loose interpretation of one of his own forgeries. It prominently features "Vicus Tuscus," the home of the Etruscans whom Annio and his fellow Viterbans claimed as their ancestors. Part of the forgeries were motivated by a desire to prove that Viterbo was the site of the Etruscan Fanum Voltumnae.

In a defense of the papal lending institution, the Monte di Pietà, published c. 1495 under the title Pro Monte Pietatis, Annio contributed the essay Questiones due disputate super mutuo iudaico & ciuili & diuino, arguing against the usury of the Jews.[8]

Detection of his forgeries

The Antiquities met at once both with believers, and with severe critics who accused him of willful interpolation, or even fabrication. The content was falsely attributed to Berosus, Fabius Pictor, Cato, Manetho and others. The spurious character of these "historians" of Annio, which he published both with and without commentaries, has long been admitted.[9] The demolition of the forgeries owed much to Joseph Justus Scaliger.

Annio's forgeries began to unravel by the mid-16th century. In 1565–66 the humanist Girolamo Mei was engaged in a historiographical argument with Vincenzo Borghini, who presented a claim, for the occasion of the marriage of Francesco I de' Medici and Giovanna of Austria, that Florence was founded by Augustus. He based his claim on inscriptions reported by Annio da Viterbo. Mei, no friend to the Medici, challenged this opinion and questioned the authenticity of Annio's materials, in a brief Latin treatise De origine urbis Florentiae.

Viterbiae historiae epitoma

The volume Annio da Viterbo, Documenti e ricerche (Rome: Multigrafica Editrice for CNR, 1981) presents an unpublished work written by Annio: the Viterbiae historiae epitoma in the critical text edited by Giovanni Baffioni. The text is based on the manuscript Codex Vaticanus Latinus 6263 and represents the seventh and only extant book of the former work of Annius "Viterbia Historia", composed of seven books in which the viterbian theologian writes the history of his municipal town ranging from its mythological origins (newly reinvented by Annius himself) until the times of pope Innocent VIII. The second part of the book, edited by Paola Mattiangeli, deals with his influence on High Renaissance myth and allegory. In particular, it refers to Annio's esoteric interests and his influence over a number of painted frescoes in the city of Viterbo characterized by Egyptian imagery.


  1. http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/giovanni-nanni_(Dizionario_Biografico)/
  2. in Giants in Those Days (1989), p. 131.
  3. Roberto Weiss, The Renaissance Discovery of Classical Antiquity (1969:114).
  4. First published under the title Commentaria super opera diversorum auctorum de antiquitatibus loquentium, Rome: Eucharius Silber, 1498. The pages of this edition can be accessed in the Biblioteca Virtual de Andalucía.
  5. Future Triumphs of the Christians over the Turks and the Saracens
  6. Genoa, 1480
  7. The Empire of the Turks)(Genoa, 1480)
  8. dated from Viterbo, 8 May 1492 (Rhodes)
  9. Colbert left to the Bibliothèque Nationale at Paris a manuscript of the thirteenth century, supposed to contain fragments of the writings of two of these writers, i.e. Berosus and Megasthenes.


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External links

Postel is a surname, and may refer to:

Postel as depicted in Les vrais pourtraits et vies des hommes illustres grecz, latins et payens (1584) by André Thevet

Guillaume Postel (March 25, 1510 – September 6, 1581) was a French linguist, astronomer, Cabbalist, diplomat, professor, and religious universalist.

Born in the village of Barenton in Basse-Normandie, Postel made his way to Paris to further his education. While studying at the Collège Sainte-Barbe, he became acquainted with Ignatius of Loyola and many of the men who would become the founders of the Company of Jesus, retaining a lifelong affiliation with them.

Diplomacy and scholarship

Postel was adept at Arabic, Hebrew, and Syriac and other Semitic languages, as well as the Classical languages of Ancient Greek and Latin, and soon came to the attention of the French court.

The word NIN or Ninus편집

[Page 21] This word (= NIN or Ninus) [preserved in the Chaldee, to whatever language it may have originally belonged] signifies Filius, the SON.

Nino, in the Spanish language, is a male child, and Nina a daughter,

and [greek] Inis6) (which seems to be the root of Ninus) is a rare Greek word for a son. Hesychius also quotes [greek] Innos, a son, [greek] Inne, a daughter;

and the Latin derivative in inus, as Quirinus, Sabinus, contains the same root.

6) AEsch, Suppl. v. 265. Lycoph. v. 570.

The word Ion편집

Ion, as well as Ninus, was, as we have seen, a Nimrodian title, and it has likewise the force of son when added to a proper name, as Cron-ion, Atre-ion, Pele-ion, son of Cronus, Atreus, or Peleus.

The word rod편집

The residue of the name Nimrod, that is, rod is said to have been a term of reproach (비난), and to mean7) a rebel; it certainly seems to agree with some words expressive of a lawless character, such as raid (습격, 급습) and marauder (약탈자, 습격자).

Nimrod, saith8) Hyde,

a profanis scriptoribus vocatur Ninus. Nomen rebellem et contumacem notat.
[구글 번역] by heathen writers called Ninus. Name a rebellious and stubborn marks.

7) Faber O. P. I. iii. p. 378.

8) Hyde de Pers. Rel. p.27.

Some writers describe Nimrod as a king of later date than him편집

It is true that some writers, while they ascribe unto Ninus those circumstances, which we know from holy writ appertain to Nim-rod alone, describe him as a king of later date than him: and in this great historical error there is a basis of verbal (언어[말]의) accuracy;

for as the Hunns were each in succession Tanjou,

and the theo-sacerdotal kings of Thibet, all Lamas,

so the Nimrodian kings of Niniveh were all Nini, but with this distinction, that their founder alone was, and alone was called, the Rebel or Apostate, and the first, therefore, who was called simply, and without more, Ninus, was the successor of Nim-rod in his kingdom of Ashur.

Parodies of Nimrod's city편집

The species of Parody (패러디(다른 것을 풍자적으로 모방한 글・음악・연극 등)) which was practised upon his Name, was also practised upon that of his City, which having been named BEL [Page 22] [which is a sacred term, and signifies either the Deity himself, or the Heaven or Olympus wherein he dwells] was changed into BA-BEL, said to denote confusion.

Nor was this proper to the Asiatic tongues, but obtained in Greece also, where [greek] Belos9) signified Heaven or Mount Olympus, and was used adjectively for aught (어떤 것) that was Good, as in [greek] Belteros, Beltios, etc.; but Be-Belos did, contrariwise (반대로), signify any thing profane and abominated, a Place unholy, or a Person unworthy to enter a holy place;

[greek] Bebelos10) o me ieros topos apo belos.

9) V. Etym. M. in Voce. [greek] B>jXof, oupavof...K?ca

10) Etym. M. in Voce.

Belus or Belos may be:

  • The classical Latin or Greek rendition of Bel (god) the Semitic honorific
    • Ba`al as a Semitic deity
    • Belus (Babylonian), the Greek Zeus Belos and Latin Jupiter Belus as translations of the Babylonian god Bel Marduk
    • Belus (Assyrian): a purported king of Assyria in Greek historiography
    • Belus (Egyptian) (sometimes called Belus I), a king of Egypt in Greek mythology
    • Belus II, father of Dido in Greek mythology
    • Belus (Lydian). See Omphale. He was a grandson of Heracles and ancestor of the Heraclid dynasty in Lydia according to Herodotus.
  • Beloš Vukanović or Beluš, Regent of Hungary 1141-1146, Ban of Croatia 1142-1158, Grand Prince of Serbia 1162

Bel (/ˈbl/; from Akkadian bēlu), signifying "lord" or "master", is a title rather than a genuine name, applied to various gods in Babylonian religion. The feminine form is Belit 'Lady, Mistress'. Bel is represented in Greek as Belos and in Latin as Belus. Linguistically Bel is an East Semitic form cognate with Northwest Semitic Ba‘al with the same meaning.

Early translators of Akkadian believed that the ideogram for the god called in Sumerian Enlil was to be read as Bel in Akkadian. This is now known to be incorrect; but one finds Bel used in referring to Enlil in older translations and discussions.[1]

Bel became especially used of the Babylonian god Marduk and when found in Assyrian and neo-Babylonian personal names or mentioned in inscriptions in a Mesopotamian context it can usually be taken as referring to Marduk and no other god. Similarly Belit without some disambiguation mostly refers to Bel Marduk's spouse Sarpanit. However Marduk's mother, the Sumerian goddess called Ninhursag, Damkina, Ninmah and other names in Sumerian, was often known as Belit-ili 'Lady of the Gods' in Akkadian.

Of course other gods called "Lord" could be and sometimes were identified totally or in part with Bel Marduk. The god Malak-bel of Palmyra is an example, though in the later period from which most of our information comes he seems to have become very much a sun god which Marduk was not.

Similarly Zeus Belus mentioned by Sanchuniathon as born to Cronus/El in Peraea is certainly most unlikely to be Marduk.

W. H. D. Rouse in 1940 wrote an ironic end note to Book 40 of his edition of Nonnus' Dionysiaca about a very syncretistic hymn sung by Dionysus to Tyrian Heracles, that is, to Ba‘al Melqart whom Dionysus identifies with Belus on the Euphrates (who should be Marduk!) and as a sun god:

... the Greeks were as firmly convinced as many modern Bible-readers that the Semites, or the Orientals generally, worshipped a god called Baal or Bel, the truth of course being that ba'al is a Semitic word for lord or master, and so applies to a multitude of gods. This "Bel," then, being an important deity, must be the sun, the more so as some of the gods bearing that title may have been really solar.

Bel is named in the Bible at Isaiah 46:1 and Jeremiah 50:2 and 51:44.

See also


  1. James Orr (1915). 《The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia》. Howard-Severance Company. 349–쪽. 2013년 4월 4일에 확인함. 

External links

Ba'al with raised arm, 14th-12th century BC, found at Ras Shamra (ancient Ugarit), Louvre

Baal, also rendered Baʿal (Biblical Hebrew בַּעַל, 틀:IPA-he), is a Northwest Semitic title and honorific meaning "master" or "lord"[1] that is used for various gods who were patrons of cities in the Levant and Asia Minor, cognate to Akkadian Bēlu. A Baalist or Baalite means a worshipper of Baal.

"Baʿal" can refer to any god and even to human officials. In some texts it is used for Hadad, a god of the rain, thunder, fertility and agriculture, and the lord of Heaven. Since only priests were allowed to utter his divine name, Hadad, Ba‛al was commonly used. Nevertheless, few if any Biblical uses of "Baʿal" refer to Hadad, the lord over the assembly of gods on the holy mount of Heaven, but rather refer to any number of local spirit-deities worshipped as cult images, each called baʿal and regarded in the Hebrew Bible in that context as a "false god".


Baʿal (bet-ayin-lamedh) is a Semitic word signifying "The Lord, master, owner (male), keeper, husband". Cognates include Standard Hebrew (Bet-Ayin-Lamed); בַּעַל / בָּעַל, Báʿal, Akkadian Bēl and Arabic بعل. In Hebrew, the word ba'al means "husband" or "owner", and is related to a verb meaning to take possession of, for a man, to consummate a marriage. The word "ba'al" is also used in many Hebrew phrases, denoting both concrete ownership as well as possession of different qualities in one's personality. The feminine form is Baʿalah (Hebrew בַּעֲלָה Baʕalah, Arabic بعلـة baʿalah) signifying "lady, mistress, owner (female), wife".[2]

The words themselves had no exclusively religious connotation, they are honorific titles for heads of households or master craftsmen, but not for royalty. The meaning of "lord" as a member of royalty or nobility is more accurately translated as Adon in Semitic.

In Hebrew the basic term for a homeowner is "ba'al ha-bayith", with the connotation of a middle-class, bourgeois townsperson in traditional Jewish texts and in the Yiddish language (pronounced "baalabus" in Yiddish, pl. "baalei-batim"). A feminine version of the term in Hebrew, "ba'alat ha-bayith", means "the woman of the house", and traditionally had the connotation of a strong, even dominant, woman, who maintains the household in an effective and result-oriented manner, the Yiddish version of the term being "baalabusta".

In modern Levantine Arabic, the word báʿal serves as an adjective describing farming that relies only on rainwater as a source of irrigation. Probably it is the last remnant of the sense of Baal the god in the minds of the people of the region. In the Amharic language, the Semitic word for "owner" or "husband, spouse" survives with the spelling bal.

Deities called Baʿal and Baʿalath

Because more than one god bore the title "Baʿal" and more than one goddess bore the title "Baʿalat" or "Baʿalah," only the context of a text can indicate which Baʿal (Lord)' or Baʿalath (Lady) a particular inscription or text is speaking of.

Hadad in Ugarit

The stele of Baal with Thunderbolt found in Ugarit

In the Bronze Age, Hadad (or Haddad or Adad) was especially likely to be called Baʿal; however, Hadad was far from the only god to have that title.[dubious ]

In the Canaanite pantheon as attested in Ugaritic sources, Hadad was the son of El, who had once been the primary god of the Canaanite pantheon. El and Baʿal are often associated with the bull in Ugaritic texts, as a symbol both of strength and fertility.[3]

Prior to the discovery of the Ugaritic texts it was supposed that 'the Baals' referred to distinct and local Canaanite deities. However, according to John Day, in Yahweh and the Gods and Goddesses of Canaan, these texts have revealed that these are simply local manifestations of one great, cosmic deity named Hadad.[4]

In the Ugaritic poem Legend of Keret (also known as 'krt poem') several references are made to Ba'al:

To the earth Baal rained,
To the field rained ʿAliy.
Sweet to the earth was Baal's rain
To the field the rain of ʿAliy.

The worship of Ba'al in Syria-Palestine was bound to the economy of the land which depends on the regularity and adequacy of the rains, unlike Egypt and Mesopotamia, which depend on irrigation. Anxiety about the rainfall was a continuing concern of the inhabitants which gave rise to rites to ensure the coming of the rains. Thus the basis of the Ba'al cult was the utter dependence of life on the rains which were regarded as Baal's bounty.[5] In that respect, Ba'al can be considered as a rain god.

Baʿal of Tyre

Melqart is the son of El in the Phoenician triad of worship.[출처 필요] He was the god of Tyre and was often called the Baʿal of Tyre.[출처 필요] 1 Kings 16:31 relates that Ahab, king of Israel, married Jezebel, daughter of Ethba’al, king of the Sidonians, and then served habba’al ('the Baʿal'.) The cult of this god was prominent in Israel until the reign of Jehu, who put an end to it.[출처 필요] "And they brought out the pillars (massebahs) of the house of the Baʿal and burned them. And they pulled down the pillar (massebah) of the Baʿal and pulled down the house of the Baʿal and turned it into a latrine until this day." (2 Kings 10:26-27)

Some scholars[누가?] claim it is uncertain whether "Baʿal" the Lord in Kings 10:26 refers to Melqart. They point out that Hadad was also worshiped in Tyre. This point of view ignores the possibility that Hadad and Melqart are the same god with different names because of different languages and cultures, Hadad being Canaanite and Melqart being Phoenician. In favor of the latter interpretation, both Hadad and Melqart are described as the son of El, both carrying the same secondary position in the pantheons of each culture.

Josephus (Antiquities 8.13.1) states clearly that Jezebel "built a temple to the god of the Tyrians, which they call Belus" which certainly refers to the Baal of Tyre, or Melqart.

Ahab son of Omri did more evil in the eyes of the Lord than any of those before him. He not only considered it trivial to commit the sins of Jeroboam son of Nebat, but he also married Jezebel daughter of Ethbaal king of the Sidonians, and began to serve Baal and worship him. He set up an altar for Baal in the temple of Baal that he built in Samaria. Ahab also made an Asherah (pole) and did more to provoke the Lord, the God of Israel, to anger than did all the kings of Israel before him.[6]

In any case, King Ahab, despite supporting the cult of this Baʿal, had a semblance of worship to Yahweh (1 Kings 16-22). Ahab still consulted Yahweh's prophets and cherished Yahweh's protection when he named his sons Ahaziah ("Yahweh holds") and Jehoram ("Yahweh is high.")

Baʿal of Carthage

The worship of Baʿal Hammon flourished in the Phoenician colony of Carthage. Baʿal Hammon was the supreme god of the Carthaginians, and is believed that this supremacy dates back to the 5th century BC, apparently after a breaking off of relationships between Carthage and Tyre at the time of the Punic defeat in Himera.[7] He is generally identified by modern scholars either with the Northwest Semitic god El or with Dagon,[8] and generally identified by the Greeks, by interpretatio Graeca with Greek Cronus and similarly by the Romans with Saturn.

The meaning of Hammon or Hamon is unclear. In the 19th century when Ernest Renan excavated the ruins of Hammon (Ḥammon), the modern Umm al-‘Awamid between Tyre and Acre, he found two Phoenician inscriptions dedicated to El-Hammon. Since El was normally identified with Cronus and Ba‘al Hammon was also identified with Cronus, it seemed possible they could be equated. More often a connection with Hebrew/Phoenician ḥammān 'brazier' has been proposed, in the sense of "Baal (lord) of the brazier". He has been therefore identified with a solar deity.[9] Frank Moore Cross argued for a connection to Khamōn, the Ugaritic and Akkadian name for Mount Amanus, the great mountain separating Syria from Cilicia based on the occurrence of an Ugaritic description of El as the one of the Mountain Haman.

Classical sources relate how the Carthaginians burned their children as offerings to Baʿal Hammon. From the attributes of his Roman form, African Saturn, it is possible to conclude that Hammon was a fertility god.[10] (See Moloch for a discussion of these traditions and conflicting thoughts on the matter.)

Scholars[누가?] tend to see Baʿal Hammon as more or less identical with the god El, who was also generally identified with Cronus and Saturn. However, Yigael Yadin thought him to be a moon god. Edward Lipinski identifies him with the god Dagon in his Dictionnaire de la civilisation phenicienne et punique (1992: ISBN 2-503-50033-1). Inscriptions about Punic deities tend to be rather uninformative.

In Carthage and North Africa Baʿal Hammon was especially associated with the ram and was worshiped also as Baʿal Qarnaim ("Lord of Two Horns") in an open-air sanctuary at Jebel Bu Kornein ("the two-horned hill") across the bay from Carthage.

Baʿal Hammon's female cult partner was Tanit.[11] He was probably not ever identified with Baʿal Melqart, although one finds this equation in older scholarship.

Ba`alat Gebal ("Lady of Byblos") appears to have been generally identified with ‘Ashtart, although Sanchuniathon distinguishes the two.

Priests of Baʿal

The Priests of Baʿal are mentioned in the Hebrew Bible numerous times, including a confrontation with the Prophet Elijah (1 Kings 18:21-40), the burning of incense symbolic of prayer (2 Kings 23:5), and rituals followed by priests adorned in special vestments (2 Kings 10:22) offering sacrifices similar to those given to honor the Hebrew God. The confrontation with the Prophet Elijah is also mentioned in the Qur'an (37:123-125)

Baʿal as a divine title in Israel and Judah

"At first the name Baʿal was used by the Jews for their God without discrimination, but as the struggle between the two religions developed, the name Baʿal was given up in Judaism as a thing of shame, and even names like Jerubbaʿal were changed to Jerubbosheth: Hebrew bosheth means "shame".[12]

The sense of competition between the priestly forces of Yahweh and of Baʿal in the ninth century is nowhere more directly attested than in 1 Kings 18. Elijah the prophet challenged Baal's prophets to settle the question whether it was Ba'al or Yahweh who really supplied the rain. Elijah offering a sacrifice to Yahweh, Baʿal's followers did the same. According to the Hebrew text, Baʿal did not light his followers' sacrifice, but Yahweh sent heavenly fire to burn Elijah's sacrifice to ashes, even after it had been soaked with water. Directly after that event, rain started to fall. The contest demonstrated the rain came only from Yahweh and not from Ba'al.

Since Baʿal simply means 'master', there is no obvious reason for which it could not be applied to Yahweh as well as other gods. In fact, Hebrews generally referred to Yahweh as Adonai ('my lord') in prayer. The judge Gideon was also called Jerubaʿal, a name which seems to mean 'Baʿal strives', though the Yahwists' explanation in Judges 6:32 is that the theophoric name was given to mock the god Baʿal, whose shrine Gideon had destroyed, the intention being to imply: "Let Baʿal strive as much as he can ... it will come to nothing."

After Gideon's death, according to Judges 8:33, the Israelites started to worship the Baʿalîm (the Baʿals) especially Baʿal Berith ("Lord of the Covenant.") A few verses later (Judges 9:4) the story turns to the citizens of Shechem, who support Abimelech's attempt to become king by giving him 70 shekels from the House of Ba‘al Berith. It is hard to dissociate this Lord of the Covenant who is worshipped in Shechem from the covenant at Shechem described earlier in Joshua 24:25, in which the people agree to worship Yahweh. It is especially hard to do so when Judges 9:46 relates that all "the holders of the tower of Shechem" (kol-ba‘alê midgal-šəkem) enter bêt ’ēl bərît 'the House of El Berith', that is, 'the House of God of the Covenant'. Either "Baʿal" was here a title for El, or the covenant of Shechem perhaps originally did not involve El at all, but some other god who bore the title Baʿal. Whether there were different viewpoints about Yahweh, some seeing him as an aspect of Hadad, some as an aspect of El, some with other perceptions cannot be unambiguously answered.[출처 필요]

Baʿal appears in theophoric names. One also finds Eshbaʿal (one of Saul's sons) and Beʿeliada (a son of David). The last name also appears as Eliada. This might show that at some period Baʿal and El were used interchangeably; even in the same name applied to the same person. More likely a later hand has cleaned up the text. Editors did play around with some names, sometimes substituting the form bosheth 'abomination' for ba‘al in names, whence the forms Ishbosheth instead of Eshbaʿal and Mephibosheth which is rendered Meribaʿal in 1 Chronicles 9:40. 1 Chronicles 12:5 mentions the name Beʿaliah (more accurately be‘alyâ) meaning "Yahweh is Baʿal."

It is difficult to determine to what extent the 'false worship' which the prophets stigmatize is the worship of Yahweh under a conception and with rites, which treated him as a local nature god, or whether particular features of gods more often given the title Ba‘al were consciously recognized to be distinct from Yahwism from the first. Certainly some of the Ugaritic texts and Sanchuniathon report hostility between El and Hadad, perhaps representing a cultic and religious differences reflected in Hebrew tradition also, in which Yahweh in the Tanach is firmly identified with El and might be expected to be somewhat hostile to Baʿal/Hadad and the deities of his circle. But for Jeremiah and the Deuteronomist it also appears to be monotheism against polytheism (Jeremiah 11:12):

Then shall the cities of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem go and cry to the gods to whom they offer incense: but they shall not save them at all in the time of their trouble. For according to the number of your cities are your gods, O Judah; and according to the number of the streets of Jerusalem you have set up altars to the abominination, altars to burn incense to the Ba‘al.

Multiple Baʿals and ʿAshtarts

One finds in the Tanakh the plural forms bə'ālîm 'Baʿals' or 'Lords' and aštārôt Ashtarts, though such plurals don't appear in Phoenician or Canaanite or independent Aramaic sources.

One theory is that the people of each territory or in each wandering clan worshipped their own Baʿal, as the chief deity of each, the source of all the gifts of nature, the mysterious god of their fathers. As the god of fertility all the produce of the soil would be his, and his adherents would bring to him their tribute of first-fruits. He would be the patron of all growth and fertility, and, by the use of analogy characteristic of early thought, this Baʿal would be the god of the productive element in its widest sense. Originating perhaps in the observation of the fertilizing effect of rains and streams upon the receptive and reproductive soil, Baʿal worship became identical with nature-worship. Joined with the Baʿals there would naturally be corresponding female figures which might be called ʿAshtarts, embodiments of 'Ashtart. Baʿal Hadad is associated with the goddess "Virgin" Anat, his sister and lover.

Through analogy and through the belief that one can control or aid the powers of nature by the practice of magic, particularly sympathetic magic, sexuality might characterize part of the cult of the Baʿals and ʿAshtarts. Post-Exilic allusions to the cult of Baʿal Pe'or suggest that orgies prevailed. On the summits of hills and mountains flourished the cult of the givers of increase, and "under every green tree" was practised the licentiousness which was held to secure abundance of crops. Human sacrifice, the burning of incense, violent and ecstatic exercises, ceremonial acts of bowing and kissing, the preparing of sacred cakes (see also Asherah), appear among the offences denounced by the post-Exilic prophets; and show that the cult of Baʿal (and ʿAshtart) included characteristic features of worship which recur in various parts of the Semitic (and non-Semitic) world, although attached to other names. But it is also possible that such rites were performed to a local Baʿal Lord and a local ʿAshtart without much concern as to whether they were the same as that of a nearby community or how they fitted into the national theology of Yahweh who had become a ruling high god of the heavens, increasingly disassociated from such things, at least in the minds of some worshippers.

Another theory is that the references to Baʿals and ʿAshtarts (and Asherahs) are to images or other standard symbols of these deities, statues, and icons of Baʿal Hadad, ʿAshtart, and Asherah set-up in various high places as well as those of other gods, the author listing the most prominent as types for all.

A reminiscence of Baʿal as a title of a local fertility god (or referring to a particular god of subterraneous water) may occur in the Talmudic Hebrew phrases field of the Baʿal and place of the Baʿal and Arabic ba'l used of land fertilised by subterraneous waters rather than by rain.

The identification of Baʿal as a sun-god in historical scholarship came to be abandoned by the end of the 19th century as it became clear that Baʿal was the title of numerous local gods and not necessarily a single deity in origin. It also became clear that the "astralizing" (association or identification with heavenly bodies) of Ancient Near Eastern deities was a late (Iron Age) development in no way connected with the origin of religion as theorized by some 19th-century schools of thought.[13]

Baʿal Zebûb

Beelzebub as depicted in Collin de Plancy's Dictionnaire Infernal (Paris, 1825).

Baal Zebub (Hebrew בעל זבוב) occurs in 2 Kings 1:2–6 as the name of the Philistine god of Ekron.

But the angel of the LORD said to Elijah the Tishbite, Arise, go up to meet the messengers of the king of Samaria, and say unto them, Is it not because there is not a God in Israel, that ye go to enquire of Baalzebub the god of Ekron? KJV, 1611

Ba‘al Zəbûb is variously understood to mean "lord of flies",[14][15][16][17] or "lord of the (heavenly) dwelling".[18][19][20] Originally the name of a Philistine god,[21] Ba'al, meaning "Lord" in Ugaritic, was used in conjunction with a descriptive name of a specific God. Jewish scholars have interpreted the title of "Lord of Flies" as the Hebrew way of calling Ba'al a pile of dung, and comparing Ba'al followers to flies.[22][23] The Septuagint renders the name as Baalzebub (βααλζεβούβ) and as Baal muian (βααλ μυιαν, "Baal of flies"), but Symmachus the Ebionite may have reflected a tradition of its offensive ancient name when he rendered it as Beelzeboul.[24]

New Testament

Beelzebub, also Beelzebul, is also identified in the New Testament as Satan, the "prince of the demons".[25][26] In Arabic [어디?] the name is retained as Ba‘al dhubaab / zubaab (بعل الذباب), literally "Lord of the Flies".[출처 필요] Biblical scholar Thomas Kelly Cheyne suggested that it might be a derogatory corruption of Ba‘al Zəbûl, "Lord of the High Place" (i.e., Heaven) or "High Lord".[27] The word Beelzebub in rabbinical texts is a mockery of the Ba'al religion, which ancient Hebrews considered to be idol (or, false God) worship.[28]

In Islam

The word Baal appears in the Quran. The Quran (37:125) mentions that Elias (Elijah) a prophet of God was sent to his people to tell them not to worship Baal and worship one true God.

"And Elias was most surely of the messengers, he asked his people: 'do you not fear (Allah)?, will ye call upon Baal and forsake the best of creators, Allah is your Lord and the Lord of your fathers, the ancients.but they rejected him, and they will certainly be called up (for punishment),except the sincere and devoted servants of Allah (among them),and we left (this blessing) for him among generations (to come) in later times, peace be upon Elias."

— Qur'an, Sura 37, Ayat 123-130

Milton and Christian demonology

John Milton in his epic poem Paradise Lost of 1667 describes Satan's "Legions, Angel Forms" immediately after the fall from heaven collecting themselves and gathering around their "Great Sultan" (Satan). Milton names and describes the most prominent of these whose names in heaven had been "blotted out and ras'd", but who would acquire new names "wandring ore the Earth", being worshipped by man ("Devils to adore for Deities"). In the following section, Milton refers to the plural forms of Baʿal and Astarte [Book 1, lines 419-423]:

With these came they, who from the bordring flood
Of old Euphrates to the Brook that parts
Egypt from Syrian ground, had general Names
Of Baalim and Ashtaroth, those male,
These Feminine.

The 17th Century grimoire the Goetia also contains a demon called Baal.

See also



  1. Serge Lancel, Carthage, a History, p. 194.
  2. Strong, James. 《Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible》. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers. Heb dict 22쪽. ISBN 1-56563-777-1. 
  3. Miller, Patrick (2000).Israelite religion and Biblical theology: collected essays. Continuum International Publishing Group, p. 32. ISBN 1-84127-142-X
  4. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ygfwlltlRwC&pg=PA68&dq=Baal&hl=en&sa=X&ei=3SEIUb6jPKWe0QW3uYGICA&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAjgU#v=onepage&q=Baal&f=false
  5. jewish virtual library: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0003_0_01786.html
  6. 1 Kings 16:30-33
  7. Moscati, Sabatino (2001). The Phoenicians. Tauris, p. 132. ISBN 1-85043-533-2
  8. “Carthaginian Religion by Roy Decker”. About.com. 2010년 7월 7일에 확인함. 
  9. Walbank, Frank William (1979). A Historical Commentary on Polybius, Volume 2, Clarendon Press, p. 47
  10. Serge Lancel, Carthage, a History, p. 197.
  11. Serge Lancel, Carthage, a History, p. 195.
  12. Zondervan's Pictorial Bible Dictionary (1976) ISBN 0-310-23560-X.
  13. In 1899, the Encyclopædia Biblica article Baal by W. Robertson Smith and George F. Moore states:

    That Baal was primarily a sun-god was for a long time almost a dogma among scholars, and is still often repeated. This doctrine is connected with theories of the origin of religion which are now almost universally abandoned. The worship of the heavenly bodies is not the beginning of religion. Moreover, there was not, as this theory assumes, one god Baal, worshipped under different forms and names by the Semitic peoples, but a multitude of local Baals, each the inhabitant of his own place, the protector and benefactor of those who worshipped him there. Even in the astro-theology of the Babylonians the star of Bēl was not the sun: it was the planet Jupiter. There is no intimation in the OT that any of the Canaanite Baals were sun-gods, or that the worship of the sun (Shemesh), of which we have ample evidence, both early and late, was connected with that of the Baals ; in 2 Kings 23:5-11 the cults are treated as distinct.

  14. "Βεελζεβούλ, ὁ indecl. (v.l. Βεελζεβούβ and Βεεζεβούλ W-S. §5, 31, cp. 27 n. 56) Beelzebul, orig. a Philistine deity; the name בַּעַל זְבוּב means Baal (lord) of flies (4 Km 1:2, 6; Sym. transcribes βεελζεβούβ; Vulgate Beelzebub; TestSol freq. Βεελζεβούλ,-βουέλ).", Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (2000). A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (3rd ed.) (173). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  15. "1. According to 2 Kgs 1:2–6 the name of the Philistine god of Ekron was Lord of the Flies (Heb. ba‘al zeaûḇ), from whom Israel’s King Ahaziah requested an oracle.", Balz, H. R., & Schneider, G. (1990-). Vol. 1: Exegetical dictionary of the New Testament (211). Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans.
  16. "The etymology of Beelzebul has proceeded in several directions. The variant reading Beelzebub (Syriac translators and Jerome) reflects a long-standing tradition of equating Beelzebul with the Philistine deity of the city of Ekron mentioned in 2 Kgs 1:2, 3, 6, 16. Baalzebub (Heb ba˓al zĕbûb) seems to mean “lord of flies” (HALAT, 250, but cf. LXXB baal muian theon akkarōn, “Baal-Fly, god of Akkaron”; Ant 9:2, 1 theon muian).", Lewis, "Beelzebul", in Freedman, D. N. (1996). Vol. 1: The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (639). New York: Doubleday.
  17. "On the basis zebub, ‘flies’, the name of the god was interpreted as ‘Lord of the flies’; it was assumed that he was a god who could cause or cure diseases.", Herrmann, "Baal Zebub", in Toorn, K. v. d., Becking, B., & Horst, P. W. v. d. (1999). Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible DDD (2nd extensively rev. ed.) (154). Leiden; Boston; Grand Rapids, Mich.: Brill; Eerdmans.
  18. "It is more probable that b‘l zbl, which can mean “lord of the (heavenly) dwelling” in Ugaritic, was changed to b‘l zbb to make the divine name an opprobrius epithet. The reading Beelzebul in Mt. 10:25 would then reflect the right form of the name, a wordplay on “master of the house” (Gk oikodespótēs).", McIntosh, "Baal-Zebub", in Bromiley, G. W. (1988; 2002). Vol. 1: The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised (381). Wm. B. Eerdmans.
  19. "An alternative suggested by many is to connect zĕbûl with a noun meaning “ (exalted) abode.”", Lewis, "Beelzebul", in Freedman, D. N. (1996). Vol. 1: The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (639). New York: Doubleday.
  20. "In contemporary Semitic speech it may have been understood as ‘the master of the house’; if so, this phrase could be used in a double sense in Mt. 10:25b.", Bruce, "Baal-Zebub, Beelzebul", in Wood, D. R. W., & Marshall, I. H. (1996). New Bible dictionary (3rd ed.) (108). Leicester, England; Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press.
  21. "For etymological reasons, Baal Zebub must be considered a Semitic god; he is taken over by the Philistine Ekronites and incorporated into their local cult.", Herrmann, "Baal Zebub", in Toorn, K. v. d., Becking, B., & Horst, P. W. v. d. (1999). Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible DDD (2nd extensively rev. ed.) (154). Leiden; Boston; Grand Rapids, Mich.: Brill; Eerdmans.
  22. Easton's Bible Dictionary
  23. Jewishencyclopedia.com
  24. Catholic Encyclopedia
  25. "In NT Gk. beelzeboul, beezeboul (Beelzebub in TR and AV) is the prince of the demons (Mt. 12:24, 27; Mk. 3:22; Lk. 11:15, 18f.), identified with Satan (Mt. 12:26; Mk. 3:23, 26; Lk. 11:18).", Bruce, "Baal-Zebub, Beelzebul", Wood, D. R. W., & Marshall, I. H. (1996). New Bible dictionary (3rd ed.) (108). Leicester, England; Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press.
  26. "Besides, Matt 12:24; Mark 3:22; Luke 11:15 use the apposition ἄρχων τῶν δαιμονίων ‘head of the →Demons’.", Herrmann, "Baal Zebub", in Toorn, K. v. d., Becking, B., & Horst, P. W. v. d. (1999). Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible DDD (2nd extensively rev. ed.) (154). Leiden; Boston; Grand Rapids, Mich.: Brill; Eerdmans.
  27. Michael Wex, Born to Kvetch, St. Martin's Press, New York, 2005, ISBN 0-312-30741-1
  28. Manfred Lurker, Books.google.com, The Routledge Dictionary of Gods and Goddesses, Devils and Demons

External links

Belus from Guillaume Rouillé's Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum

Belus or Belos (Βῆλος) in classical Greek or classical Latin texts (and later material based on them) in a Babylonian context refers to the Babylonian god Bel Marduk. Though often identified with Greek Zeus and Latin Jupiter as Zeus Belos or Jupiter Belus, in other cases Belus is euhemerized as an ancient king who founded Babylon and built the ziggurat. He is recognized and worshipped as the God of war.

Eusebius of Caesarea (Praeparatio Evangelica 9.18) cites Artabanus as stating in his Jewish History that Artabanus found in anonymous works that giants who had been dwelling in Babylonia were destroyed by the gods for impiety, but one of them named Belus escaped and settled in Babylon and lived in the tower which he built and named the Tower of Belus. A little later Eusebius (9.41) cites Abydenus' Concerning the Assyrians for the information that the site of Babylon:

... was originally water, and called a sea. But Belus put an end to this, and assigned a district to each, and surrounded Babylon with a wall; and at the appointed time he disappeared.

This seems to be a rationalized version of Marduk's defeat of Tiamet in the Enuma Elish[출처 필요] followed here by Belus becoming a god. A little earlier in the same section, in a supposed prophecy by King Nebuchadnezzar, King Nebuchadnezzar claims to be descended from Belus.

Diodorus Siculus (6.1.10) cites Euhemerus as relating that Zeus (a euhemerized Zeus) went to Babylon and was entertained by Belus. Diodorus also relates (17.112.3) how the Chaldean of Babylon requested Alexander the Great to restore the "Tomb of Belus" which had been demolished by the Persians. Strabo (16.1.5) likewise refers to the ziggurat as the "Tomb of Belus" which had been demolished by Xerxes.

See Belus (Egyptian) for statements that Belus in reference to the Babylonian Zeus Belus actually refers to the Belus of Greek mythology, son of Poseidon by Libya.

It is likely the Babylonian Belus was not clearly distinguished from vague, ancient Assyrian figures named Belus though some chronographers make the distinction (see Belus (Assyrian)).

See also

Belus or Belos in classical Greek or classical Latin texts (and later material based on them) in an Assyrian context refers to one or another purportedly ancient and historically mythical Assyrian king, such king in part at least a euhemerization of the Babylonian god Bel Marduk.

Belus most commonly appears as the father of Ninus, who otherwise mostly appears as the first known Assyrian king. Ctesias provides no information about Ninus' parentage. But already in Herodotus there is a Ninus son of Belus among the ancestors of the Heraclid dynasty of Lydia, though here Belus is strangely and uniquely made a grandson of Heracles. See Omphale for discussion.

A fragment by Castor of Rhodes, preserved only in the Armenian translation of Eusebius of Caesarea, makes Belus king of Assyria at the time when Zeus and the other gods fought first the Titans and then the giants. Castor says Belus was considered a god after his death, but that he does not know how many years Belus reigned.

Belus elsewhere is a vague, ancestral figure. It was suggested in The Two Babylons by Alexander Hislop that he was originally a conqueror who fathered king Ninus the first, and that after Ninus' death his wife Semiramis began to claim Ninus as a Sun god, Cush (Belus) as the Lord God, herself as the mother goddess and her son Tammuz as the god of love, in an effort to control her subjects better after the death of her husband, and to allow her to rule as her newborn son's regent.

Some versions of the tale of Adonis make Adonis the son of Theias or Thias the King of Assyria, who is the son of Belus.

Ovid's Metamorphoses (4.212f) speaks of King Orchamus who ruled the Achaemenid cities of Persia as the 7th in line from ancient Belus the founder. But no other extant sources mention either Orchamus or his daughters Leucothoe and Clytie.

Nonnus in his Dionysiaca (18.5f) brings in King Staphylus of Assyria and his son Botrys who entertain Dionysus, characters unknown elsewhere. Staphylus claims to be grandson of Belus.

Diodorus Siculus (6.5.1) introduces the Roman god Picus (normally son of Saturn) as a king of Italy and calls him brother of Ninus (and therefore perhaps son of Belus).

The odd connection between Picus and Ninus reappears in John of Nikiû's Chronicle (6.2f) which relates that Cronus was the first king of Assyria and Persia, that he married an Assyrian woman named Rhea and that she bore him Picus (who was also called Zeus) and Ninus who founded the city of Ninus (Nineveh). Cronus removed to Italy but was then slain by his son Zeus Picus because he devoured his children. Then Zeus became the father of Belus by his own sister. After the disappearance of Zeus Picus (who apparently reigned over both Italy and Assyria), Belus son of Zeus Picus succeeded to the throne in Assyria (later Faunus who is elsewhere always the son of Picus reigns in Italy before moving to Egypt and turning into Hermes Trismegistus father of Hephaestus). Upon the death of Belus, his uncle Ninus became king and then married his own mother who was previously called Rhea but is now reintroduced under the name of Semiramis. It is explained that from that time on this custom was maintained so that Persians allegedly thought nothing of taking a mother or sister or daughter as a wife.

Later historians and chronographers make no mention of such stories. They either do not mention Belus at all or accept him as father of Ninus. They also dispute as to whether the Biblical Nimrod was the same as Belus, the father of Belus or a more distant ancestor of Belus.

It is likely that this Assyrian Belus should mostly not be distinguished from the euhemerized Bablyonian Belus. But some chronographers make a distinction between them.

See also

Belus ( Βῆλος) was in Greek mythology a king of Egypt and father of Aegyptus and Danaus and (usually) brother to Agenor.[1] The wife of Belus has been named as Achiroe, or Side (eponym of the Phoenician city of Sidon)[출처 필요].

Diodorus Siculus[2] claims that Belus founded a colony on the river Euphrates, and appointed the priests-astrologers whom the Babylonians call Chaldeans who like the priests of Egypt are exempt from taxation and other service to the state.


Belus was the son of Poseidon and Libya. Maybe he is also Busiris, son of Libya, ruler of Egypt, killed by Heracles[출처 필요], although Heracles was born many generations after Belus since he was a grandchild of Perseus; see Argive genealogy below According to Pausanias, Belus founded a temple of Heracles in Babylon[3]).

The Bibliotheca also claims that Agenor was Belus' twin brother.[1] Belus ruled in Egypt, and Agenor ruled over Sidon and Tyre in Phoenicia.

The wife of Belus has been named as Achiroe, allegedly daughter of the river-god Nilus.[4] Her sons Aegyptus and Danaus were twins. Later Aegyptus ruled over Egypt and Arabia, and Danaus ruled over Libya. Pseudo-Apollodorus says that it was Euripides who added Cepheus and Phineus as additional sons of Belus.

According to Pherecydes,[5] Belus also had a daughter named Damno who married Agenor (Belus' brother, her uncle) and bore to him Phoenix and two daughters named Isaie, and Melia, these becoming wives respectively to sons of Belus (their cousins) Aegyptus and Danaus. Yet another source says that the daughter of Belus who married Agenor was named Antiope.[6]

In the Hesiodic Catalogue of Women, Belus was also the father of a daughter named Thronia on whom Hermaon, that is Hermes, fathered Arabus, presumably the eponym of Arabia.[7]

Some sources make Belus the father of Lamia.[8]

Nonnus[9] makes Belus the father of five sons, namely Phineus, Phoenix, Agenor (identified as the father of Cadmus), Aegyptus, and Danaus, though Nonnus elsewhere[10] makes Phineus to be Cadmus' brother. Nonnus has Cadmus identify Belus as "the Libyan Zeus" and refer to the "new voice of Zeus Asbystes", meaning the oracle of Zeus Ammon at Asbystes.

Belus and Bel Marduk

Pausanias wrote:

"<Ruler> Manticlus founded the temple of Heracles for the Messenians; the temple of the god is outside the walls and he is called Heracles Manticlus, just as Ammon in Libya and Belus in Babylon are named, the latter from an Egyptian, Belus the son of Libya, Ammon from the shepherd-founder. Thus the exiled Messenians reached the end of their wanderings."[3]

This supposed connection between Belus of Egypt and Zeus Belus (the god Marduk) is likely to be more learned speculation than genuine tradition. Pausanias seems to know nothing of supposed connection between Belus son of Libya and Zeus Ammon that Nonnus will later put forth as presented just above.

Belus and Ba‘al

Modern writers suppose a possible connection between Belus and one or another god who bore the common northwest Semitic title Ba‘al.[출처 필요]


  1. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca
  2. Diodorus Siculus, 1.27.28.
  3. PausaniasDescription of Greece, 4.23.10.
  4. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2.1.4.
  5. Pherycides, 3F21
  6. Scholia on Euripides, Phoenician Women, 5
  7. Catalogue of Women fr. 137 = Strabo 1.2.34.
  8. Diodorus Siculus. Историческая библиотека XX 41, 3-6, схолии к Аристофану. Осы 1035, Мир 758 // Комм. 37 к Гераклиту-аллегористу
  9. Nonnus. Dionysiaca, 3.287f.
  10. Nonnus. Dionysiaca, 2.686.
For the city in Sicily, formerly called Omphale, see Daedalium.
Omphale wearing Hercules' garb, 18th-century sculpture from the Schönbrunn Garden by Joseph Anton Weinmüller

In Greek mythology, Omphale (Ὀμφάλη) was a daughter of Iardanus, either a king of Lydia, or a river-god. Omphale was queen of the kingdom of Lydia in Asia Minor; according to Bibliotheke[1] she was the wife of Tmolus, the oak-clad mountain king of Lydia; after he was gored to death by a bull, she continued to reign on her own.

Diodorus Siculus provides the first appearance of the Omphale theme in literature, though Aeschylus was aware of the episode.[2] The Greeks did not recognize her as a goddess: the undisputed etymological connection with omphalos, the world-navel, has never been made clear.[3] In her best-known myth, she is the mistress of the hero Heracles during a year of required servitude, a scenario that offered writers and artists opportunities to explore gender roles and erotic themes.

Heracles and Omphale

In one of many Greek variations on the theme of penalty for "inadvertent" murder, for his murder of Iphitus, the great hero Heracles, whom the Romans identified as Hercules, was, by the command of the Delphic Oracle Xenoclea, remanded as a slave to Omphale for the period of a year,[4] the compensation to be paid to Eurytus, who refused it.[5] The theme, inherently a comic inversion of gender roles,[출처 필요] is not fully illustrated in any surviving text from Classical Greece. Plutarch, in his vita of Pericles, 24, mentions lost comedies of Kratinos and Eupolis, which alluded to the contemporary capacity of Aspasia in the household of Pericles,[6] and to Sophocles in The Trachiniae it was shameful for Heracles to serve an Oriental woman in this fashion,[7] but there are many late Hellenistic and Roman references in texts and art to Heracles being forced to do women's work and even wear women's clothing and hold a basket of wool while Omphale and her maidens did their spinning, as Ovid tells:[8] Omphale even wore the skin of the Nemean Lion and carried Heracles' olive-wood club. Unfortunately no full early account survives, to supplement the later vase-paintings.

Hercules and Omphale, detail of a Roman mosaic from Llíria (Spain), 3rd century.

But it was also during his stay in Lydia that Heracles captured the city of the Itones and enslaved them, killed Syleus who forced passersby to hoe his vineyard, and captured the Cercopes. He buried the body of Icarus and took part in the Calydonian Boar Hunt and the Argonautica.

After some time, Omphale freed Heracles and took him as her husband.

Omphale's name, connected with omphalos, a Greek word meaning navel (or axis), may represent a significant Lydian earth goddess.

Sons of Heracles in Lydia

Diodorus Siculus (4.31.8) and Ovid in his Heroides (9.54) mention a son named Lamos. But Bibliotheca (2.7.8) gives the name of the son of Heracles and Omphale as Agelaus.

Pausanias (2.21.3) gives yet another name, mentioning Tyrsenus, son of Heracles by "the Lydian woman", by whom Pausanias presumably means Omphale. This Tyrsenus supposedly first invented the trumpet, and Tyrsenus' son Hegeleus taught the Dorians with Temenus how to play the trumpet and first gave to Athena the surname Trumpet.

Omphale, by Constantin Dausch

The name Tyrsenus appears elsewhere as a variant of Tyrrhenus, whom many accounts bring from Lydia to settle the Tyrsenoi/Tyrrhenians/Etruscans in Italy. Dionysius of Halicarnassus (1.28.1) cites a tradition that the supposed founder of the Etruscan settlements was Tyrrhenus, the son of Heracles by Omphale the Lydian, who drove the Pelasgians out of Italy from the cities north of the Tiber river. Dionysius gives this as an alternate to other versions of Tyrrhenus' ancestry.

Herodotus (1.7) refers to a Heraclid dynasty of kings who ruled Lydia, yet were perhaps not descended from Omphale, writing, "The Heraclides, descended from Heracles and the slave-girl of Iardanus...." Omphale as slave-girl seems odd. However, Diodorus Siculus relates that when Heracles was still Omphale's slave, before Omphale (daughter of Iardanus) set Heracles free and married him, Heracles fathered a son, Cleodaeus, on a slave-woman. This fits, though in Herodotus the son of Heracles and the slave-girl of Iardanus is named Alcaeus.

But according to the historian Xanthus of Lydia (5th century BCE) as cited by Nicolaus of Damascus, the Heraclid dynasty of Lydia traced their descent to a son of Heracles and Omphale named Tylon, and were called Tylonidai. We know from coins that this Tylon was a native Anatolian god equated with the Greek Heracles.

Herodotus asserts that the first of the Heraclids to reign in Sardis was Agron, the son of Ninus, son of Belus, son of Agelaus, son of Heracles. But later writers know a Ninus who is the primordial king of Assyria, and they often call this Ninus son of Belus. Their Ninus is the legendary founder and eponym of the city of Ninus, referring to Ninevah, while Belus, though sometimes treated as a human, is identified with the god Bel.

An earlier genealogy may have made Agron, as a legendary first king of an ancient dynasty, to be a son of the mythical Ninus, son of Belus, and stopped at that point. In the genealogy given by Herodotus, someone may have grafted the tradition of a Lydian son of Heracles at the top end of it, so that Ninus and Belus in the list now become descendants of Heracles, who just happen to bear the same names as the more famous Ninus and Belus.

That, at least, is the interpretation of later chronographers who also ignored Herodotus' statement that Agron was the first to be a king, and included Alcaeus, Belus, and Ninus in their List of Kings of Lydia.

As to how Agron gained the kingdom from the older dynasty descended from Lydus son of Atys, Herodotus only says that the Heraclides, "having been entrusted by these princes with the management of affairs, obtained the kingdom by an oracle."

Strabo (5.2.2) makes Atys father of Lydus, and Tyrrhenus to be one of the descendants of Heracles and Omphale. But all other accounts place Atys, Lydus, and Tyrrhenus brother of Lydus among the pre-Heraclid kings of Lydia.

In the arts

Hercules and Omphale's maids, by Lucas Cranach the Elder
  • One of the most famous symphonic poems in a mythological series composed by the French composer Camille Saint-Saëns in the 1870s is titled Le Rouet d'Omphale, or The Spinning Wheel Of Omphale, the rouet being a spinning wheel that the queen and her maidens used—in this version of the myth, it was Delphic Apollo who condemned the hero to serve the Lydian queen disguised as a woman. In the 20th century, during the "Golden Age Of Radio," this symphonic poem gained wider public exposure when it was used as the theme music for The Shadow.
  • Hercules und Omphale is a painting by the 16th century German painter Lucas Cranach the Elder. It features Hercules being dressed up as a woman by Omphale and two maids. Hercules is also spinning wool.
  • In August Strindberg's The Father (1887), the protagonist, Captain Adolf, likens his wife's mistreatment of him to Omphale's behavior toward Heracles. "Omphale!" He screams. "It's Queen Omphale herself! Now you play with Hercules' club while he spins your wool!"


  1. Bibliotheke surviving in a first or second-century CE edition, is traditionally ascribed to Apollodorus of Athens.
  2. Aeschylus, Agamemnon 1024-25.
  3. "No connection between the two has been established, difficult as it is to believe there was no connection between them in early religion." (Elmer G. Suhr, "Herakles and Omphale" American Journal of Archaeology 57.4 (October 1953, pp. 251-263) p. 259f.
  4. Sophocles, The Trachiniae 69ff.
  5. According to Diodorus, his sons accepted it.
  6. (Suhr 1953:251 note). There was also an Omphale Satyroi (a satyr-play) by the tragedian Ion (Snell, Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta Vol. 1, pp. 101ff.).
  7. Lucian (Dialogues of the Gods) and Tertullian (De pallio 4) both allude to the disgrace.
  8. Fasti 2.305.
  9. For the text, see Les onze mille verges


Wives of Heracles 이후

Nim-Rod and Antichrisos편집

As Nim-Rod was the King and Conqueror, whose beginnings were in Babel, I am led to speak of that person who shall arise in the last days of the Second Babel, styled [greek] Antichrisos11), and denying both the Father and the Son, concerning which denial, the very next verse implies, that the denial of the Father consists (by the natural force of correlatives) in denying the Son.

11) John, ii. v. 22. 23.

What manner of person, then, is this [greek] Anti-Chrisos who denies that the Son is the son, and who [for that reason] hath not the Father?

[greek] Anti commonly means likeness, or substitution,

[greek] Antitheos, Antianeira, Antandros12);

12) Lucian. Cataplus. c. 10.

or if in the two former words opposition be at all signified, it is such opposition as arises from usurping the character of those whom you oppose; like that of Salmoneus. It is morally impossible that the Power occupying the seven hills of Rome should give the management of its last crusade to a person denying, absolutely, both the Father and the Son, that is, to a profest atheist; but it must be to a person denying them secundum quid (= relatively). Therefore it must be a false Christ, a man "shewing himself, that he is God," and denying the filiality (자식됨) of Jesus only in order to assert his own.

As in the last days [meaning the last period of the times of the Gentiles] [Page 23] there should come the Anti-Christ; "so even now are there many Anti-Christs,"' saith St. John, "whereby we know it is the last time," meaning the last days of Jerusalem13).

13) John, ib. v. 18. Gonos is Greek for the Son, Ochus or Og is one of his Pagan titles. Anti-Gonus and Anti-Ochus are names nearly equivalent to Anti-Christus.

And at that time, in fact, there were several false Messiahs; but if mere opponents of Christianity may be understood, blasphemers, or persecutors, ALL TIMES might be so proved to be the LAST, those of Diocletian, or those of Mahomet. Which is absurd. And the result is that, the signification of the name Nimrod, the Pseudo-filial Rebel, was the abomination of the ancient Babylon, as it will be hereafter of the apocalyptic Babylon, or, in the phraseology of profest divines, that Nimrod is the type of Antichrist.

Greek underworld
Famous inmates
v  d  e  h

In Greek mythology, Salmoneus (Σαλμωνεύς) was a son of Aeolus and Enarete, and brother of Athamas, Sisyphus,[1] Cretheus, Perieres, Deioneus, Canace, Alcyone, and Perimede. Salmoneus was the father of Tyro by his first wife Alcidice, the second one being Sidero.[2] Salmoneus became the king of Elis and founded the city of Salmone in Pisatis.[3]

Salmoneus and his brother Sisyphus hated each other. Sisyphus found out from an oracle that if he married Tyro, she would bear him children who would kill Salmoneus. At first, Tyro submitted to Sisyphus, married him, and bore him a son. But when she found out what the child would do to Salmoneus, she killed the boy. It was soon after this that Tyro lay with Poseidon and bore him Pelias and Neleus.

Salmoneus' subjects were ordered to worship him under the name of Zeus. He built a bridge of brass, over which he drove at full speed in his chariot to imitate thunder, the effect being heightened by dried skins and cauldrons trailing behind while torches were thrown into the air to represent lightning. For this sin of hubris, Zeus eventually struck him down with his thunderbolt and destroyed the town.[4][5][6][7][8][9] Virgil's Aeneid has Salmoneus placed in Tartarus where he is subjected to eternal torment.[10]

According to Frazer, the early Greek kings, who were expected to produce rain for the benefit of the crops, were in the habit of imitating thunder and lightning in the character of Zeus.[11][12] At Crannon in Thessaly there was a bronze chariot, which in time of drought was shaken and prayers offered for rain.[13] S. Reinach[14] suggests that the story that Salmoneus was struck by lightning was due to the misinterpretation of a picture, in which a Thessalian magician appeared bringing down lightning and rain from heaven; hence arose the idea that he was the victim of the anger or jealousy of Zeus, and that the picture represented his punishment.[9]


  1. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 7. 3
  2. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 9. 8
  3. Strabo, Geography, 8. 3. 32
  4. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 9. 7
  5. Hyginus, Fabulae 60, 61
  6. Strabo viii. p. 356
  7. Manilius, Astronom. 5, 91
  8. Virgil, Aeneid vi. 585, with Heyne's excursus
  9.  Chisholm, Hugh, 편집. (1911). 〈Salmoneus〉. 《Encyclopædia Britannica》 11판. Cambridge University Press. 
  10. Virgil Aeneid 6.585-594
  11. Frazer Early History of the Kingship, 1905
  12. see also Golden Bough, i., 1900, p. 82
  13. Antigonus of Carystus, Historiae mirabiles, 15
  14. S. Reinach Revue archéologique, 1903, i. 154

External links

SECTION II (Page 23)편집

[Page 23]

Migration from Armenia편집

[Page 23] II. The Migration from Armenia is fixed by Mr. Faber14) as not happening earlier than 502 P.D. that being the date of Shem's death, and (in the silence of Scripture) [illegible] often (=? shorten) for an average date of the deaths of his elder and of his younger brother;

14) Vol. iii. p. 416.

it being assumed, as the ground of argument, that an enterprise so averse (싫어하는), in the mode of conducting it, to God's counsels, would not have been attempted, were any one of those pious men alive.

But this argument rests upon the monstrous paradox, which he has been pleased to uphold, of Ham's being a righteous and unoffending person, in which he revolts against the general belief of the Hebrew and Christian churches, and against that truth, of which his extensive knowledge of heathen mythology ought to have informed him.

However there are some reasons for believing that Ham was dead before the Exodus from Armenia. But not a word is said by Mr. F. touching the life of Cush, who might have survived his father for ages, and whom yet he seems to lay out of the question (그것을 의문외로 하다).

[Page 24] But the oddest part of the whole is, that no distinction is made, in this calculation, between the departure from Armenia, and the arrival in the isle of Shinar or Meso-Potamia.

Shinar (/ˈʃ.nɑːr/;[1] Hebrew שִׁנְעָר Šinʻar, Septuagint Σεννααρ Sennaar) is a biblical geographical locale of uncertain boundaries in Mesopotamia. The name may be a corruption of Hebrew Shene neharot ("two rivers"), Hebrew Shene arim ("two cities"),[2] or Akkadian Sumeru.

Hebrew Bible

The name Shinar occurs eight times in the Hebrew Bible, in which it refers to Babylonia.[3] This location of Shinar is evident from its description as encompassing both Babylon (Babel) (in northern Babylonia) and Erech (Uruk) (in southern Babylonia).[3] In the Book of Genesis 10:10, the beginning of Nimrod's kingdom is said to have been "Babel [Babylon], and Erech [Uruk], and Akkad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar." Verse 11:2 states that Shinar enclosed the plain that became the site of the Tower of Babel after the Great Flood. After the Flood, the sons of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, had stayed first in the highlands of Armenia, and then repaired to Shinar.[4]

In Genesis 14:1,9, King Amraphel rules Shinar. Shinar is further mentioned in Joshua 7:21; Isaiah 11:11; Daniel 1:2; and Zechariah 5:11, as a general synonym for Babylonia.


Jubilees 9:3 allots Shinar (or, in the Ethiopic text, Sadna Sena`or) to Ashur, son of Shem. Jubilees 10:20 states that the Tower of Babel was built with bitumen from the sea of Shinar. David Rohl theorized that the Tower was actually located in Eridu, which was once located on the Persian Gulf, where there are ruins of a massive, ancient ziggurat worked from bitumen.[5]

Other possible attestations

Sayce identified Shinar as cognate with the following names: Sangara/Sangar mentioned in the context of the Asiatic conquests of Thutmose III (15th century BCE); Sanhar/Sankhar of the Amarna letters (14th century BCE); the Greeks's Singara; and modern Sinjar, in Upper Mesopotamia, near the Khabur River.[3][6] Accordingly, he proposed that Shinar was in Upper Mesopotamia, but acknowledged that the Bible gives important evidence that it was in the south.[6]


  1. LDS.org: "Book of Mormon Pronunciation Guide" (retrieved 2012-02-25), IPA-ified from «shī´när»
  2. The New York Review, St Joseph's Seminary, 1907, p. 205.
  3. Jewish Encyclopedia (1906): Shinar
  4. Vuibert, Ancient History, 25.
  5. Rohl, David, Legends: The Genesis of Civilization (1998) and The Lost Testament (2002)
  6. Sayce, Archibald Henry (1895). Patriarchal Palestine, pp. 67-68.

The Armenoid or Assyroid race in physical anthropology, is a subtype of the Caucasian race.[1]

Origin, distribution and physiognomy

Illustration of an Armenoid Syrian Armenian from The Races of Europe: A Sociological Study by William Zebina Ripley (1911)

Carleton S. Coon wrote that the Armenoid racial type is very similar to the Dinaric race. The only difference is that Armenoids have a slightly darker pigmentation, most probably due to racial mixture with the Mediterraneans (who often have olive skin) and the Alpines (who often have brown skin). He described the Armenoid as a sub-race of the Caucasoid race.

Illustration of an Armenoid Lebanese from Ripley (1911)

Armenoids were said to be found throughout Eurasia. However, the largest concentrations occurred within Anatolia, Transcaucasia and Mesopotamia. Known as the "true" Caucasians, Armenoids were relatively tall, usually with medium to dark brown or black hair, light to medium skin colour, large round eyes that were usually brown; a round, brachycephalic head shape with a straight backing (planocciput) (see Cephalic index), high cheekbones and non-prominent chins. Lips were full, and noses were sometimes aquiline. Large minority of Armenoids have blond hair and blue, green, or hazel eyes. This racial type was believed to be prevalent among the Armenians, Assyrians, and Iraqis.[3][4] It was also an element in Southern Europe. Armenoid was also identified as the dominant type of the indigenous Semitic groups of Syria and Mesopotamia: the ancient Amorites,[5] the modern Assyrians, Syriacs, and Chaldeans, the northern and central Iraqis,[3][4] the religious minorities of Lebanon and Syria, and the Lebanese and Syrians of mountainous regions were all identified as being of the Armenoid type.[6][7]

Renato Biasutti described the Armenoid race as having: "Opaque-white skin, brunet hair and eyes, abundant pilosity; medium stature (166), sturdy body build; wide head with rounded occiput (87); very long face, straight and narrow nose (57) with high bridge; thin lips, narrow eye opening."[8]

It has long been believed by physical anthropologists that the quintessence of Near Eastern brachycephaly is to be found in the Armenians; the racial term Armenoid being named for them. The Armenians have long been established in the territory which is now only partly theirs; they had, before the arrival of the Turks, a powerful kingdom, which covered most of the territory between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Caucasus.[9]

See also


  1. Ripley, William Z. (1899). 《The Races of Europe: A Sociological Study》. D. Appleton & Company. 444쪽. 
  2. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology (1964). “Russian Translation Series”. Vol. 2: 42. 
  3. Fisher, William B. (2003). 《The Middle East and North Africa, Volume 50》. Routledge. 444쪽. ISBN 978-1-85743-184-1. The northern and eastern hill districts [of Iraq] contain many racial elements—Turkish, Persian, and proto-Nordic, with Armenoid strains predominating. [..] the population of the riverine districts of Iraq displays a mixture of Armenoid and Mediterranean elements. North of the Baghdad district the Armenoid strain is dominant. 
  4. Fisher, William B. (1966). 《The Middle East: A Physical, Social and Regional Geography》. Methuen. 96쪽. ISBN 978-0-416-71510-1. Armenoid affinities are easily discerned in the peoples of northern and central Iraq.  , extract of page 444
  5. Hitti, Philip K. (2002). 《History of Syria: including Lebanon and Palestine, Volume 1》. Gorgias Press. 76쪽. ISBN 1-931956-60-X. 
  6. Review: An Introduction to the Anthropology of the Near East by C. U. Ariëns Kappers, American Anthropologist, 37(35) - Pages 148-49 by W.M. Krogman
  7. Hourani, Albert H. (1946). 《Syria and Lebanon: A Political Essay》. Oxford University Press. 96쪽. 
  8. http://dienekes.110mb.com/texts/biasutticaucasoid/
  9. The Races of Europe by Carleton Stevens Coon - (Chapter XII, section 18)

Mankind in the period between Jacob and Moses편집

Mankind were then far more long-lived than in the period between Jacob and Moses, disease and degeneracy (퇴화, 퇴보; 타락) [the consequence of altered seasons and the new ecliptic (식, 황도)] were young upon the earth,

-------------------et NOVA febrium
Terris incubuit cohors,
[구글 번역]
and a new fever
Earth is fell gang

and the increase of their numbers could not but have been much more rapid; and be it remembered that births increase in a Geometrical rate, where the field is open to them.

Yet, the children of Jacob settling in a country already populous, and tarrying 230 years, came forth to the number of six hundred thousand fighting men, that is, two million and four hundred thousand souls, exclusive of the whole tribe of Levi. The reader will therefore comprehend how large a body the Armenians must have been within a single century after the flood;

Migration from Armenia편집

Map of Indo European migrations from ca. 4000 to 1000 BC according to the Kurgan model. The Anatolian migration (indicated with a dotted arrow) could have taken place either across the Caucasus or across the Balkans. The magenta area corresponds to the assumed Urheimat (Samara culture, Sredny Stog culture). The red area corresponds to the area that may have been settled by Indo-European-speaking peoples up to ca. 2500 BC, and the orange area by 1000 BC.

he (= The reader) will also remember, that, according to the language of Scripture and the general tradition, a multiplicity of tribes, and no small proportion of the entire human race, set forth upon this astonishing migration; that their journey was long and hard, through vast tracts of mountain and across mighty rivers; and that their course was through an empty land, peopled only by wild beasts, and not through nations from whom they might buy or seize provisions (식량). They went through a rank (무성한, 울창한) and luxuriant (무성한, 풍성한) wilderness, and without the gift of Manna.

What then must have been their way of proceeding? They must have advanced very slowly, halting and settling in every convenient region, and relieving (줄이다) their numbers by leaving stations (주둔지) behind them as they advanced; and so the Empire of Iran must have been in good measure peopled, before they arrived at the destined seat of its capital. These were the necessary, and indeed the only possible means of bringing [Page 25] about such a transmigration of the people; and, moreover, these means were in exact harmony with the ends, which we know the nations and their leaders to have had in view.

It is said of the pretended circumnavigators (주항자, 세계 일주 여행자) of Africa, that every autumn they stopped on the coast to sow corn, and waited till it was ripe before they renewed their course. No less tedious (지루한) must have been the progress of the Three Tribes of Noah. And can it be supposed that this was done in one year, or in ten? Little less than a century may have elapsed before they set foot in Shinar, or baked a single brick of Babel; not to speak of the erection of works which have always been the wonder of mankind; but Mr. Faber, in his Chronological view, allows thirty-one years for the journey of a mighty nation, for the building of Erech, Acead, Calneh, and Babel, and of the vast Pyramid of Babel, for the schism, wars, and confusion of mankind. Thirty-one years, from the first migration to the final dispersion! This is worse than the adage (속담), Rome in a day.

Calneh /ˈkælnə/ was said to be one of the four cities founded by Nimrod, according to the Book of Genesis in the Bible. (Genesis 10:10) Its identity is uncertain, and remains a mystery.[1] The verse in question reads, ...the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar, and W.F. Albright proposed[2] that this is not actually a proper name, but merely the Hebrew word meaning "all of them".

Calneh ("Chalanne") was identified with Ctesiphon in Jerome's Hebrew questions on Genesis, ca. 390 CE.[3] Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary silently follows Sir Henry Rawlinson in interpreting the Talmudic passage Joma 10a[4] identifying Calneh with the modern Nippur, a lofty mound of earth and rubbish situated in the marshes on the east bank of the Euphrates, but 30 miles distant from its present course, and about 60 miles south-south-east from Babylon.

Calneh is also mentioned in the Book of Amos, and some have also associated this place with Calno which is mentioned in similar terms in the Book of Isaiah. (Amos 6:2, Isaiah 10:9) This is identified by some archaeological scholars as Kulnia, Kullani or Kullanhu, modern Kullan-Köy, between Carchemish on the Euphrates River and Arpad near Aleppo in Northern Syria, about ten kilometers southeast from Arpad.[5] Canneh, mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel 27:23 as one of the towns with which Tyre carried on trade was associated with Calneh by A.T. Olmstead, History of Assyria. Xenophon mentioned a Kainai on the west bank of the Tigris below the Upper Zab.[6]

Calneh figures among the conquests of Shalmaneser III (858 BCE) and Tiglath-Pileser III.


  1. Jewish Encyclopedia, s.v. "Calneh"; A. S. Yahuda, "Calneh in Shinar" Journal of Biblical Literature 65.3 (September 1946:325-327).
  2. Albright, "The End of 'Calneh in Shinar'", Journal of Near Eastern Studies 3 (1944:254f, note 17; Yahuda 1946 registered objections to Albright's emended reading of the Masoretic text.
  3. Jerome followed Eusebius of Caesarea in this identification (Jewish Encyclopedia).
  4. Rawlinson is credited in the Jewish Encyclopedia; A "guess", according to E.G. Kraeling and J.A. Montgomery "Brief Communications: Calneh Gen. 10:10", Journal of Biblical Literature 1935:233.
  5. Albright 1944:255; Yahuda 1946:327.
  6. Xenophon, Anabasis ii.4, noted in this connection by I J. Gelb, "Calneh" The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 51.3 (April 1935:189-191) p. 189 note 2.

Exodus was made under Cush or Cuth편집

I have arrived at the belief, of which many illustrations will hereafter occur, that Cush or Cuth was a man of vast longevity, and blessed with a family exceedingly numerous, of a mild, if not feeble, character, and governed by his family; and that by and under him the Exodus was made.

And it probably is true, that the long journey of the people under his command, in search of a place where he might fix his empire, is the subject of the legend of Cuthbert15), Cush the Bright or Illustrious. In that legend he is represented as a dead man, but yet to all intents (사실상, 실제로는; 모든 점에서) alive, and ordering every thing with respect to the journey. The monkish romances fell into a slight confusion; the mortal remains, which the people carried with them in an ark or coffin, were those of Ham.

15) V. Fab. O. P. I. iii. p.337.

The first tyranny of the postdiluvian world was Nimrod편집

However, he (= Cush) was merely a [greek] Basileus or Patriarchal Judge, and the first Tyr-Annis the postdiluvian world saw, was that of his Son (= Nimrod);

a change somewhat analogous to that is [Page 26] which occurred in the matter of Saul the Benjamite. In the last mentioned case the Theocracy, Oracle, and Urim of God were not abolished, so neither in the other were the Daemonocracy, the Oracle, and the Magian Fire of Ham. These were indeed essential instruments of government; and wherever such means exist, mere civil polity (정치적 조직체) must always be an inferior consideration. From them, and the rivalry (경쟁) for possessing and using them, arose the great wars in Asia after the flood.

The works of Nimrod편집

In his old Age, but yet I believe in his (= Cush) Life, it seems that the Youngest of his Sons [either with or without the old Patriarch's connivance (방조, 묵인)] set up a New Power, uniting to the priestcraft of the Patriarchs the military policy of modern Kings. I must here observe, that it was at an early period, that the supreme power virtually departed from lawful hands, and lodged in those of an apostate race.

By the Song of Noah it would seem that the PRESENCE, which had stood at the Entrance of the Garden to keep the way of the Tree of Life16), was after the flood, or at least after the death of Noah (= died in 1918 BCE), transferred to the Tabernacle of Shem, and with it of course the Patriarchal Supremacy; the younger being thus preferred before Japhet the elder, as in the cases of Jacob and Esau, Judah17) and Joseph, Ephraim and Manasses. But, how long the rights of the Shemites were respected by a perverse generation, is quite another matter. Ham lost very little time in (때를 놓치지 않고 …하다) avowing (맹세[공언]하다) his attachment to the Pagan Avatarism and Ithyphallic (주신 Bacchus 축제의, 축제에 쓰는 남근상(phallus)의) mysteries, and it may be inferred that the whole of his offspring were educated in these abominations. And when we consider the proneness of humanity to corruption and superstition, and the activity and daring ambition of the apostates in both worlds18),

16) Gen. iii. v. 24.

17) Ps. 78. vss. 67,68.

18) The ante and post-diluvian. " And spared not the Old World," etc. 2 Pet 1. v. 5.

it is highly probable that, by [Page 27] the time of Cush coming into power, the pestilence (악성 전염병, 역병) might have pretty completely invaded the two other tribes, and led them to depart from the tents of Shem to adore the spurious Shechinah and Salmonean thunders of the rebel.

The names of the Patriarchs of the line of Shem had a significancy prophetic of events which should occur in their lives: at what time of their lives, I know not; perhaps it was sufficient if they occurred at some time in their lives, or it may relate to the time of their [greek] dchime or complete adolescence.

Japheth, as depicted in Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum (c. 1553)
Born1557 AM
(date disputed)[1]

Japheth /ˈfɛθ/ (יָפֶֿתֿ,‎ יֶפֶֿתֿ Yapheth , Modern Hebrew: Yefet ; Ἰάφεθ Iapheth ; Iafeth or Iapetus ; يافث) is one of the sons of Noah in the Abrahamic tradition. In Arabic citations, his name is normally given as Yafeth bin Nuh (Japheth son of Noah).

Order of birth

Japheth is often regarded as the youngest son, though some traditions regard him as the eldest. They are listed in the order "Shem, Ham, and Japheth" in Genesis 5:32 and 9:18, but treated in the reverse order in chapter 10.

Genesis 10:21 refers to relative ages of Japheth and his brother Shem, but with sufficient ambiguity to have given rise to different translations. The verse is translated in the KJV as follows, "Unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder, even to him were children born". However, the Revised Standard Version reads, "To Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the elder brother of Japheth, children were born." The differing interpretations depend on whether the Hebrew word ha-gadol ("the elder") is taken as grammatically referring to Japheth, or Shem.

Genesis 5:32 states that Noah had three sons when he was five hundred years old. Genesis 11:10 records that Shem was one hundred years old when his son Arphaxad was born, two years after the Flood. If Noah was six hundred years old (Genesis 7:13), then Shem was ninety-eight years old at the Flood. Ham is further implied to be the middle son in Gen. 9:24 (which says Noah realized what his "younger son" had done to him.)

The Book of Jubilees indicates in 4:33 that Shem was born in the year of the world (after creation) 1205, Ham in 1209, and Japheth in 1211.

Place in Noah's family

The world as known to the Hebrews (based on 1854 map.)

For those who take the genealogies of Genesis to be historically accurate, Japheth is commonly believed to be the father of the Europeans. The link between Japheth and the Europeans stems from Genesis 10:5, which states, "By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands." According to that book, Japheth and his two brothers formed the three major races:

William Shakespeare's play Henry IV, Part II contains a wry comment about people who claim to be related to royal families. Prince Hal notes of such people,

...they will be kin to us, or they will fetch it from Japhet. (II.ii 117-18)

Genesis 10:5 was often interpreted to mean that the peoples of Europe were descended from Japheth. Clearly, then, any two Englishmen must have at least this one ancestor in common, and thus any individual could claim kinship with the king.


Geographic identifications of Flavius Josephus, c. 100 AD; Japheth's sons shown in red

In the Bible, Japheth is ascribed seven sons: Gomer, Magog, Tiras, Javan, Meshech, Tubal, and Madai. According to Josephus (Antiquities of the Jews I.6):

"Japhet, the son of Noah, had seven sons: they inhabited so, that, beginning at the mountains Taurus and Amanus, they proceeded along Asia, as far as the river Tanais (Don), and along Europe to Cadiz; and settling themselves on the lands which they light upon, which none had inhabited before, they called the nations by their own names."

Josephus subsequently detailed the nations supposed to have descended from the seven sons of Japheth.

The "Book of Jasher", published in the 17th century, provides some new names for Japheth's grandchildren not seen in the Bible or any other source, and provided a much more detailed genealogy (see Japhetic).

In Islam

Japheth is not mentioned by name in the Qur'an but is referred to indirectly in the narrative of Noah (VII: 64, X: 73, XI: 40, XXIII: 27, XXVI: 119). Muslim exegesis, however, names all of Noah's sons, and these include Japheth.[2] In identifying Japheth's descendants, Muslim exegesis more-or-less agrees with the Biblical traditions.[3] He is usually regarded as the ancestor of the Gog and Magog tribes, and, at times, of the Turks and Khazars. Some traditions narrated that 36 languages of the world could be traced back to Japheth.[4]

Ethnic legends

In the seventh century, Isidore of Seville published his noted history, in which he traces the origins of most of the nations of Europe back to Japheth.[5] Scholars in almost every European nation continued to repeat and improve upon Saint Isidore's assertion of descent from Noah through Japheth into the nineteenth century.[6]

Georgian nationalist histories associate Japheth's sons with certain ancient tribes, called Tubals (Tabals, Tibarenoi in Greek) and Meshechs (Meshekhs/Mosokhs, Moschoi in Greek), who they claim represent non-Indo-European and non-Semitic, possibly "Proto-Iberian" tribes of Asia Minor of the 3rd-1st millennia BC.

In the Polish tradition of Sarmatism, the Sarmatians were said to be descended from Japheth, son of Noah, enabling the Polish nobility to imagine themselves able to trace their ancestry directly to Noah.[6]

In Scotland, histories tracing the Scottish people to Japheth were published as late as George Chalmers' well-received Caledonia, published in 3 volumes from 1807 to 1824.[7]

Proposed correlations with deities

In the 19th century, Biblical syncretists associated the sons of Noah with ancient pagan gods.[출처 필요]

Japheth has been identified by some scholars with figures from other religious systems and mythologies, including Iapetus (Japetus), the Greek Titan;[8][9][10] the Indian figures Dyaus Pitar[출처 필요] and Pra-Japati [출처 필요], and the Roman Iu-Pater or "Father Jove", which became Jupiter.[출처 필요]


The term "Japhetic" was also applied by William Jones and other early linguists to what became known as the Indo-European language group. In a different sense, it was also used by the Soviet linguist Nikolai Marr in his Japhetic theory.


Japheth is a major character in the Madeleine L'Engle novel Many Waters (1986, ISBN 0 374 34796 4). He is characterized as thoughtful and intelligent, a kind-hearted young man who is on good terms with feuding family members Noah and Lamech, with the seraphim, and with visiting time travelers Sandy and Dennys Murry. Depicted in the book as Noah's younger son, Japheth is barely into adulthood, but at Noah's instigation is already married. His equally kind wife is an unusually fair-skinned woman with black hair, who may have been sired by one of the nephilim.

See also


  1. The 1557 Anno Mundi birthdate for Japheth is based on the standard Massoretic text as represented in the Authorized Version. Septuagint and Samaritan texts have different values. See Chronology of the Bible.
  2. Tabari, Volume I: Prophets and Patriarchs, 222
  3. Tabari, Volume I: Prophets and Patriarchs, 217
  4. Encyclopedia of Islam, Yafith, 236
  5. Susan Reynolds, "Medieval origines gentium and the community of the realm," History, 68, 1983, pp. 375-90
  6. Colin Kidd, British Identities before Nationalism; Ethnicity and Nationhood in the Atlantic World, 1600-1800, Cambridge University Press, 1999, p. 29
  7. Colin Kidd, British Identities before Nationalism; Ethnicity and Nationhood in the Atlantic World, 1600-1800, Cambridge University Press, 1999, p. 52
  8. Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, vol. 1, 146
  9. John Pairman Brown, Israel and Hellas (1995), 82
  10. Matthew Poole, Commentary on the Holy Bible (1685), vol.1, 26

External links

Model of the tabernacle in Timna Park, Israel

The Tabernacle (משכן, mishkan, "residence" or "dwelling place"), according to the Hebrew Bible, was the portable dwelling place for the divine presence from the time of the Exodus from Egypt through the conquering of the land of Canaan. Built to specifications revealed by God (Yahweh) to Moses at Mount Sinai, it accompanied the Israelites on their wanderings in the wilderness and their conquest of the Promised Land. The First Temple in Jerusalem superseded it as the dwelling-place of God. There is no mention of the Tabernacle in the Tanakh after the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple by the Babylonians in 587 BCE.

The fullest description of the Tabernacle describes an inner shrine (named Holy of Holies) housing the Ark of the Covenant and an outer chamber (Holy Place) with a golden lampstand, table for showbread, and altar of incense.[1] This description is generally identified as part of the Priestly source (P),[1] written in the 6th or 5th century BCE. Many scholars contend that it is of a far later date than Moses, and that the description reflects the structure of the Temple of Solomon, while some hold that the description derives from memories of a real pre-monarchic shrine, perhaps the sanctuary at Shiloh.[1] Traditional scholars contend that it describes an actual tabernacle used in the time of Moses and thereafter.[2] According to historical criticism an earlier, pre-exilic source (E) describes the Tabernacle as a simple tent-sanctuary.[1]


The English word "tabernacle" is derived from the Latin tabernāculum meaning "tent" or "hut", which in ancient Roman religion was a ritual structure.[3]

The word sanctuary is also used for the Biblical tabernacle, as well as the phrase the "tent of meeting". The Hebrew word mishkan implies "dwell", "rest", or "to live in", referring to the "[In-dwelling] Presence of God", the shekhinah, based on the same Hebrew root word as mishkan), that dwelt within this divinely ordained structure.[4][5]

Dugong hypothesis

The 19th-century naturalist Eduard Rüppell equated the Arabic word "tucash" (dugong) with "tahash" (tabernacle). From this he deduced that the Tabernacle was covered with hides from the dugong or sea cow, and designated the animal "Halicore tabernaculi".[6] Modern academic opinion considers this reading of "tahash" uncertain.[7]


Model of the tabernacle compound in tent form

The commandments for construction of the Tabernacle are taken from the words in the Book of Exodus when God says to Moses: "And let them make Me a sanctuary, that I may dwell among them. According to all that I show thee, the pattern of the tabernacle, and the pattern of all the furniture thereof, even so shall ye make it."[8]

Historical criticism has identified two accounts of the tabernacle in Exodus, a briefer account and a longer one. Traditional scholars believe the briefer account describes a different structure, perhaps Moses's personal tent.[4] The Hebrew nouns in the two accounts are different, one being most commonly translated as "tent of meeting," while the other is usually translated as "tabernacle".

Elohist account

Exodus 33:7-10 refers to a "tent of meeting", which was set up outside of camp with the pillar of cloud visible at its door. The people directed their worship toward this center.[1] Historical criticism attributes this description to the Elohist source (E),[1] which is believed to have been written about 850 BCE or later.[9]

Priestly account

The more detailed description of a tabernacle is in Exodus 25-27 and 35-40, which describes an inner shrine (Holy of Holies) housing the Ark and an outer chamber (Holy Place), with a seven-branched lampstand, table for showbread, and altar of incense.[1] An enclosure containing the sacrificial altar surrounded these chambers.[1] This description is identified by historical criticism as part of the Priestly source (P),[1] written in the 6th or 5th century BCE.

Some scholars believe the description is of a far later date than Moses, and that it reflects the structure of the Temple of Solomon; others hold that the passage describes a real pre-monarchic shrine, perhaps the sanctuary at Shiloh,[1] while traditional scholars contend that it describes an actual tabernacle used in the time of Moses and thereafter.[4] This view is based on Exodus 36, 37, 38 and 39 that describe in full detail how the actual construction of the Tabernacle took place during the time of Moses.[10]

The detailed outlines for the tabernacle and its priests are enumerated in the Book of Exodus:

  • Exodus 25: Materials needed, the Ark, the table for 12 showbread, the Menorah.
  • Exodus 26: The tabernacle, the beams, partitions.
  • Exodus 27: The copper altar, the enclosure, oil.
  • Exodus 28: Vestments for the priests, ephod garment, ring settings, the breastplate, robe, head-plate, tunic, turban, sashes, pants.
  • Exodus 29: Consecration of priests and altar.
  • Exodus 30: Incense altar, washstand, anointing oil, incense.


The erection of the Tabernacle and the Sacred vessels, as in Exodus 40:17-19; from the 1728 Figures de la Bible

In chapter 31 [11] the main builder and architects are specified:

"God spoke to Moses, saying: I have selected Bezalel son of Uri son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah, by name. I have filled him with a divine spirit, with wisdom, understanding and knowledge, and with all types of craftsmanship. He will be able to devise plans as well as work in gold, silver and copper, cut stones to be set, carve wood, and do other work. I have also given him Oholiab son of Achisamakh of the tribe of Dan. I have placed wisdom in the heart of every naturally talented person. They will thus make all that I have ordered, the Communion Tent, the Ark of the Covenant, the ark cover to go on it, all the utensils for the tent, the table and its utensils, the pure menorah and all its utensils, the incense altar, the sacrificial altar and all its utensils, the washstand and its base, the packing cloths, the sacred vestments for Aaron the priest, the vestments that his sons wear to serve, the anointing oil, and the incense for the sanctuary. They will thus do all that I command." (Exodus 31:1-11)


There was a set of strict rules to be followed for the Tabernacle set on the Old Testament. For example: "For the LORD had said to Moses, 'Exempt the tribe of Levi from the census; do not include them when you count the rest of the Israelites. You must put the Levites in charge of the Tabernacle of the Covenant, along with its furnishings and equipment. They must carry the Tabernacle and its equipment as you travel, and they must care for it and camp around it. Whenever the Tabernacle is moved, the Levites will take it down and set it up again. Anyone else who goes too near the Tabernacle will be executed.'" (Numbers 1:48-51 NLT),


The Tabernacle during the Exodus, the wandering in the desert and the conquest of Canaan was a portable tent draped with colorful curtains called a "tent of meeting".[12] It had a rectangular, perimeter fence of fabric, poles and staked cords. This rectangle was always erected when the Israelite tribes would camp, oriented to the east. In the center of this enclosure was a rectangular sanctuary draped with goat-hair curtains, with the roof made from rams' skins.[13] Over the rams' skins was placed a covering of "tachash skins", a term of uncertain meaning which has been variously translated as blue processed skins,[14][15] badger skins,[16] dolphin skin,[17] beaded skins, etc.[18][19] According to Encyclopaedia Judaica, "The AV and JPS translation badger has no basis in fact."[20]

"and great was the surprise of those who viewed these curtains at a distance, for they seemed not at all to differ from the color of the sky" —Josephus (c. 94 CE)[21]

Inside, the enclosure was divided into two areas, the Holy Place and the Most Holy Place.[22] These two areas were separated by a curtain or veil. Inside the first area were three pieces of furniture: a seven-branched oil lampstand on the left (south), a table for twelve loaves of show bread on the right (north) and the Altar of Incense (west), straight ahead before the dividing curtain.

Beyond this curtain was the cube-shaped inner room known as the "Holy of Holies") or (Kodesh Hakodashim). This area housed the Ark of the Covenant (aron habrit),[23] inside which were the two stone tablets brought down from Mount Sinai by Moses on which were written the Ten Commandments, a golden urn holding the manna, and Aaron's rod that budded and bore ripe almonds. (Hebrews 9:2-5, Exodus 16:33-34, Numbers 17:1-11, Deuteronomy 10:1-5.)


Twice a day, a priest would stand in front of the golden prayer altar and burn fragrant incense (Exodus 30:7-10). Other procedures were also carried out in the Tabernacle:

Subsequent history

During the conquest of Canaan, the main Israelite camp was at Gilgal, (Joshua 4:19; 5:8-10) and the Tabernacle was probably erected within the camp: Joshua 6:14 "...and returned into the camp." (see Numbers 1:52-2:34 "...they shall camp facing the tent of meeting on every side.")

After the conquest and division of the land among the tribes, the Tabernacle was moved to Shiloh in Ephraimite territory (Joshua's tribe) to avoid disputes among the other tribes (Joshua 18:1; 19:51; 22:9; Psalm 78:60). It remained there during the 300-year period of the Biblical judges (the rules of the individual judges total about 350 years [1 Kings 6:1; Acts 13:20], but most ruled regionally and some terms overlapped).[24][25]

The subsequent history of the structure is separate from that of the Ark of the Covenant. After the Ark was captured by the Philistines, King Saul moved the Tabernacle to Nob, near his home town of Gibeah, but after he massacred the priests there (1 Samuel 21-22), it was moved to Gibeon. (1 Chronicles 16:39; 21:29; 2 Chronicles 1:2-6, 13)

The Ark was eventually brought to Jerusalem, where it was placed "inside the tent David had pitched for it" (2 Samuel 6:17; 1 Chronicles 15:1), not in the Tabernacle, which remained at Gibeon. The altar of the Tabernacle at Gibeon was used for sacrificial worship (1 Chronicles 16:39; 21:29; 1 Kings 3:2-4), until Solomon finally brought the structure and its furnishings to Jerusalem to furnish and dedicate the Temple. (1 Kings 8:4)

There is no mention of the Tabernacle in the Tanakh after the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple by the Babylonians in c. 587 BCE.

Relationship to the Golden calf

Some rabbis have commented on the proximity of the narrative of the Tabernacle with that of the episode known as the sin of the Golden calf recounted in Exodus 32:1-6. Maimonides asserts that the Tabernacle and its accoutrements, such as the golden Ark of the Covenant and the golden Menorah were meant as "alternates" to the human weakness and needs for physical idols as seen in the Golden calf episode.[26] Other scholars, such as Nachmanides disagree and maintain that the Tabernacle's meaning is not tied in with the Golden Calf but instead symbolizes higher mystical lessons that symbolize God's constant closeness to the Children of Israel.[27]

Blueprint for synagogues

The Mishkan Shilo synagogue is a replica of the Jewish Temple

Synagogue construction over the last two thousand years has followed the outlines of the original Tabernacle.[28][29] Every synagogue has at its front an ark, aron kodesh, containing the Torah scrolls, comparable to the Ark of the Covenant which contained the tablets with Ten Commandments. This is the holiest spot in a synagogue, equivalent to the Holy of Holies.

There is also usually a constantly lighted lamp, Ner tamid, or a candelabrum, lighted during services, near a spot similar to the position of the original Menorah. At the center of the synagogue is a large elevated area, known as the bimah, where the Torah is read. This is equivalent to the Tabernacle's altars upon which incense and animal sacrifices were offered. On the main holidays the priests, kohanim, gather at the front of the synagogue to bless the congregation as did their priestly ancestors in the Tabernacle from Aaron onwards (Numbers 6:22-27).[30]

New Testament references

The Tabernacle is mentioned several times in the Epistle to the Hebrews in the New Testament. For example, according to Hebrews 8:2-5 and 9:2-26 Jesus serves as the true climactic high priest in heaven, the true tabernacle, to which its counterpart on earth was just a symbol and foreshadow of what was to come (Hebrews 8:5).

See also


  1. "Tabernacle." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  2. Catholic Encyclopedia, Tabernacle
  3. William Warde Fowler, The Religious Experience of the Roman People (London, 1922), p. 209; John Scheid, An Introduction to Roman Religion (Indiana University Press, 2003), pp. 113–114; Jerzy Linderski, "The Augural Law", Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.16 (1986), pp. 2164–2288. Tabernāculum is a diminutive of taberna, meaning "hut, booth, tavern."
  4. Catholic Encyclopedia: Tabernacle
  5. "mishkan" Strong's Concordance
  6. Rothauscher's Dugong page "Mermaid"
  7. Encyclopaedia Judaica, 2nd ed. "TAHASH" 2000
  8. Exodus 25:8-9
  9. Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. p. 48
  10. Miller, A Nation is Born P. 231
  11. Exodus Chapter 31, The Living Torah/Navigating the Bible II (NTB), Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan (1981) Moznaim Publishing Company, New York/Jerusalem, (1997-2000) World ORT
  12. [first] diagram according to Talmud
  13. [second] diagram according to Talmud
  14. Exodus Chapter 25:5 footnote blue processed skins, Aryeh Kaplan, The Living Torah/NTB
  15. "blue skins" Numbers Chapter 4:4-28Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton (1807-1862), translator. 《English translation of the Septuagint》. originally published by Samuel Bagster & Sons, Ltd., London 1851.  From the Septuagint (LXX) Greek translation of the whole Tanakh/Bible by Rabbinic scholars c. 246-132 BCE.
  16. Rashi commentary Ezekiel 16:10 [click "Show"]; compare Rashi commentary Exodus 25:5 [click "Show"]
  17. Raymond E. Brown, 편집. (1990, 1968). 《The New Jerome Biblical Commentary》. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-614934-0. 
  18. Slifkin, Natan (2007). 《Sacred Monsters: Mysterious and Mythical Creatures of Scripture, Talmud and Midrash, Chapter One: Unicorns of Different Colors, pp. 55-79 "The Tachash"》. Zoo Torah http://www.zootorah.com. Distributed by Yashar Books/Lambda Publishers, 3709 13th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11218, Tel: (718) 972-5449 http://www.yasharbooks.com. Distributed in Israel by Judaica Book Centre, 5 Even Israel Street, Jerusalem 94228, Tel: (02) 622-3215 http://www.jbcbooks.com. ISBN 9789652295811.  View text at Google Books enter title of book in search window. (retrieved 26 August 2012)
  19. Hewlett, John Grigg, D.D. (1860). 《Bible difficulties explained》. London: Beare and Jealous. 159–163쪽.  View text at Google Books enter title of book in search window (title page will come up black, not an error, scroll down). He states that badger skins would have violated the holiness code of Leviticus (11:27), and that the term tachash was more probably the color of the skins, which ancient writers interpreted as blue.
  20. Encyclopædia Judaica, Second Edition (2007) Volume 19 SON-TN, page 435a "TAḤASH", Jehuda Feliks, Bibliography: I. Aharoni in: Tarbiz, 8 (1936/37), 319-339; J. Furman, ibid., 12 (1940/41), 218-29; J. Feliks, Animal World of the Bible (1962), 50.
  21. Ant.3:6:4(132). —Josephus, Titus Flavius (c.94). 《The Works of Josephus: Complete and Unabridged in One Volume: New Updated Edition, Translated by William Whiston, A.M.》. Hendrickson Publishers, Inc. Copyright © 1987 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc. 87b쪽. ISBN 0913573868.  The Antiquities of the Jews: Book 3. From the Exodus out of Egypt to the Rejection of that Generation: Chapter 6. Concerning the Tabernacle which Moses Built in the Wilderness for the Honor of God, and Which Seemed to be a Temple: §4 (132). View text @ Google Books, scroll down to Contents, page 83.
  22. [third] diagram according to Talmud
  23. [fourth] diagram according to Talmud
  24. Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Washington, D.C., translators, ed. (© 1970, 1980, 1987). 《The New American Bible, Old Testament》. Catholic Book Publishing Co., New York, N.Y. 236쪽.  , The Book of Judges, prefatory notes: "...The twelve judges of the present book, however, very probably exercised their authority, sometimes simultaneously, over one or another tribe of Israel, never over the entire nation."
  25. Chad Brand, Charles Draper, Archie England, 편집. (2003). 《Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary》. Holman Bible Publishers, Nashville, Tennessee. 961–965 "Judges, Book of"쪽. : "Because of the theological nature of the narrative and the author's selective use of data, it is difficult to reconstruct the history of Israel during the period of the judges from the accounts in the heart of the book (3:7-16:31)."
  26. Maimonides (Rambam) Rabbi Mosheh ben Maimon (c. 1190) Delalatul Ha'yreen (Arabic), Moreh Nevukhim (Hebrew), Guide for the Perplexed, Part 3:32, Part 11:39, Part 111:46.
  27. Naḥmanides (Ramban) Rabbi Moses ben Naḥman Girondi Bonastruc ça (de) Porta (c. 1242) "Bi'ur", or Perush 'al ha-Torah, Commentary on the Torah, Exodus 25:1 and Exodus Rabbah 35a.
  28. Catholic Encyclopedia: Synagogue
  29. Judaism 101: Synagogues, Shuls and Temples
  30. Catholic Encyclopedia: The High Priest

External links

사용자:배우는사람/틀:Tabernacle and Jerusalem Temples 사용자:배우는사람/틀:Jews and Judaism

Christian artistic depiction: "The Shekinah Glory Enters the Tabernacle"; illustration from The Bible and Its Story Taught by One Thousand Picture Lessons; Charles F. Horne and Julius A. Bewer (Ed.), 1908

Shekinah, Shechinah, Shechina, or Schechinah (שכינה), is the English spelling of a grammatically feminine Hebrew ancient blessing of God. The original word means the dwelling or settling, and denotes the dwelling or settling of the divine presence of God, especially in the Temple in Jerusalem.


Shekinah is derived from the Hebrew verb שכן. In Biblical Hebrew that Semitic root means literally to settle, inhabit, or dwell, and is used frequently in the Hebrew Bible. In Mishnaic Hebrew the noun is often used to refer to birds' nesting and nests. ("Every bird nests [shekinot] with its kind, and man with its like, Talmud Baba Kammah 92b.) and can also mean "neighbor" ("If a neighbor and a scholar, the scholar is preferred" Talmud Ketubot 85b).

The word for Tabernacle, mishkan, is a derivative of the same root and is used in the sense of dwelling-place in the Bible, e.g. Psalm 132:5 ("Before I find a place for God, mishkanot (dwelling-places) for the Strong One of Israel.") Accordingly, in classic Jewish thought, the Shekinah refers to a dwelling or settling in a special sense, a dwelling or settling of divine presence, to the effect that, while in proximity to the Shekinah, the connection to God is more readily perceivable.

Some Christian theologians have connected the concept of Shekinah to the Greek term "Parousia", "presence" "arrival," which is used in the New Testament in a similar way for "Divine Presence".[1]

Meaning in Judaism

The Shekinah is held by some to represent the feminine attributes of the presence of God (Shekinah being a feminine word in Hebrew), based especially on readings of the Talmud.[2]


The Shekinah is referred to as manifest in the Tabernacle and the Temple in Jerusalem throughout Rabbinic literature. It is also reported as being present in the acts of public prayer, ("Whenever ten are gathered for prayer, there the Shekinah rests" Talmud Sanhedrin 39a); righteous judgment ("when three sit as judges, the Shekinah is with them." Talmud Berachot 6a), and personal need ("The Shekinah dwells over the headside of the sick man's bed" Talmud Shabbat 12b; "Wheresoever they were exiled, the Shekinah went with them." Megillah 29a).

Absence of the Temple

The Talmud expounds a Beraita (oral tradition) which illuminates the manner in which the Kohen Gadol (High Priest) is to sprinkle the blood of the bull-offering towards the Parochet (Curtain) separating the Hekhal (sanctuary) from the Kodesh Hakodashim (Holy of Holies):

[And so shall he do in the midst of the Tent of Meeting] that dwells (shokhen) among them in the midst of their impurities (Leviticus 16:16). Even at a time when the Jews are impure, the Shekinah (Divine Presence) is with them.

A certain Sadducee said to Rabbi Chanina: Now [that you have been exiled], you are certainly impure, as it is written: "Her impurity is [visible] on her hems." (Lamentations 1:9). He [Rabbi Chanina] said to him: Come see what is written regarding them: [The Tent of Meeting] that dwells among them in the midst of their impurities. Even in a time that they are impure, the Divine Presence is among them.
— Talmud Tractate Yoma 56b

Jewish sources

The Talmud also says that the Shekhinah rests on man neither through gloom, nor through sloth, nor through frivolity, nor through levity, nor through talk, nor through idle chatter, but only through a matter of joy in connection with a precept, as it is said, But now bring me a minstrel. And it came to pass, when the minstrel played, that the hand of the Lord came upon him. [2Kings 3:15] [Shabbat 30b]

The Shekinah is associated with the transformational spirit of God regarded as the source of prophecy:

After that thou shalt come to the hill of God, where is the garrison of the Philistines; and it shall come to pass, when thou art come thither to the city, that thou shalt meet a band of prophets coming down from the high place with a psaltery, and a timbrel, and a pipe, and a harp, before them; and they will be prophesying. And the spirit of the LORD will come mightily upon thee, and thou shalt prophesy with them, and shalt be turned into another man.

The prophets made numerous references to metaphorical visions of the presence of God, particularly in the context of the Tabernacle or Temple, with figures such as thrones or robes filling the Sanctuary, which have traditionally been attributed to the presence of the Shekinah. Isaiah wrote "I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne high and lifted up, and his train filled the Temple." (Isaiah 6:1). Jeremiah implored "Do not dishonor the throne of your glory" (Jeremiah 14:21) and referred to "Thy throne of glory, on high from the beginning, Thy place of our sanctuary" (Jeremiah 17:12). The Book of Ezekiel speaks of "the glory of the God of Israel was there [in the Sanctuary], according to the vision that I saw in the plain."[출처 필요]

Meaning in Hassidic Judaism

Hassidic Judaism regards the Kabbalah, in which the Shekinah has special significance, as having scriptural authority.[출처 필요] The word Matronit is also employed to represent this usage.[출처 필요]

Sabbath Bride

This recurrent theme is best known from the writings and songs of the legendary mystic of the 16th century, Rabbi Isaac Luria. Here is a quotation from the beginning of his famous shabbat hymn:

"I sing in hymns
to enter the gates
of the Field
of holy apples.
"A new table
we prepare for Her,
a lovely candelabrum
sheds its light upon us.
"Between right and left
the Bride approaches,
in holy jewels
and festive garments..."

A paragraph in the Zohar starts: "One must prepare a comfortable seat with several cushions and embroidered covers, from all that is found in the house, like one who prepares a canopy for a bride. For the Shabbat is a queen and a bride. This is why the masters of the Mishna used to go out on the eve of Shabbat to receive her on the road, and used to say: 'Come, O bride, come, O bride!' And one must sing and rejoice at the table in her honor ... one must receive the Lady with many lighted candles, many enjoyments, beautiful clothes, and a house embellished with many fine appointments ..."

The tradition of the Shekinah as the Shabbat Bride, the Shabbat Kallah, continues to this day.

Jewish prayers

The 17th blessing of the daily Amidah prayer said in Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform services is "Blessed are You, God, who returns His Presence (shekinato) to Zion."

The Liberal Jewish prayer-book for Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur (Machzor Ruach Chadashah) contains a creative prayer based on Avinu Malkeinu, in which the feminine noun Shekinah is used in the interests of gender neutrality.[3]

Yiddish song

The concept of Shekinah is also associated with Holy Spirit in Jewish tradition, such as in Yiddish song: Vel ich, sh'chine tsu dir kummen "Will I, Shekinah, to you come".[4]


In addition to the various accounts indicating the presence or glory of God recorded in the Hebrew Bible, many Christians also consider the Shekinah to be manifest in numerous instances in the New Testament.

The public domain Easton's Bible Dictionary, published in 1897, says,

Shekinah – a Chaldee word meaning resting-place, not found in Scripture, but used by the later Jews to designate the visible symbol of God's presence in the Tabernacle, and afterwards in Solomon's temple. When the Lord led Israel out of Egypt, he went before them "in a pillar of a cloud." This was the symbol of his presence with his people. God also spoke to Moses through the 'Shekinah' out of a burning bush. For references made to it during the wilderness wanderings, see Exodus 14:20; 40:34-38; Leviticus 9:23, 24; Numbers 14:10; 16:19, 42. It is probable that after the entrance into Canaan this glory-cloud settled in the tabernacle upon the ark of the covenant in the most holy place. We have, however, no special reference to it till the consecration of the temple by Solomon, when it filled the whole house with its glory, so that the priests could not stand to minister (1 Kings 8:10–13; 2 Chr. 5:13, 14; 7:1–3). Probably it remained in the first temple in the holy of holies as the symbol of Jehovah’s presence so long as that temple stood. It afterwards disappeared.

— [3]

References to the Shekinah in Christianity often see the presence and the glory of the Lord as being synonymous,[5] as illustrated in the following verse from Exodus;

And Moses went up into the mount, and the cloud covered the mount. And the glory of Jehovah abode upon mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days: and the seventh day he called unto Moses out of the midst of the cloud. And the appearance of the glory of Jehovah was like devouring fire on the top of the mount in the eyes of the children of Israel.

— Exodus 24:15–17 ASV



The Shekinah in the New Testament is commonly equated to the presence or indwelling of the Spirit of the Lord (generally referred to as the Holy Spirit, or Spirit of Christ) in the believer, drawing parallels to the presence of God in Solomon's Temple. In contradistinction with the Old Testament where the Holy of Holies signified the presence of God, from the New Testament onwards, it is the Holy Spirit that reminds us of God's abiding presence. Furthermore, in the same manner that the Shekhinah is linked to prophecy in Judaism, so it is in Christianity:

For no prophecy ever came by the will of man: but men spake from God, being moved by the Holy Spirit.

— 2 Peter 1:21 ASV


Where references are made to the Shekinah as manifestations of the glory of the Lord associated with his presence, Christians find numerous occurrences in the New Testament in both literal (as in Luke 2:9 which refers to the "glory of the Lord" shining on the shepherds at Jesus' birth)[6] as well as spiritual forms (as in John 17:22, where Jesus speaks to God of giving the "glory" that God gave to him to the people).[7] A contrast can be found in Ichabod, so named as a result of the Ark of the Covenant being captured by the Philistines: "The glory is departed from Israel" (1 Samuel 4:22 KJV).

Divine Presence

By day the LORD went ahead of them in a pillar of cloud to guide them on their way and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, so that they could travel by day or night.

— Exodus 13:21


سكينة sakīnah is mentioned six times in the Quran, in chapters 2, 9 and 48.[8]

Their prophet said to them: "The sign of his kingship is that the Ark will come to you in which there is tranquility from your Lord and a relic from the family of Moses and the family of Aaron, borne by the angels.

Al-Qurtubi mentions in his famous exegesis, in explanation of the above-mentioned verse, that according to Wahb ibn Munnabih, Sakinah is a spirit from God that speaks, and, in the case of the Israelites, where people disagreed on some issue, this spirit came to clarify the situation, and used to be a cause of victory for them in wars. According to Ali, "Sakinah is a sweet breeze/wind, whose face is like the face of a human". Mujahid mentions that "when Sakinah glanced at an enemy, they were defeated", and ibn Atiyyah mentions about the Ark of the Covenant (at-Tabut), to which the Sakina was associated, that souls found therein peace, warmth, companionship and strength.

Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Nishapuri says in his Sahih al-Bukhari, that a certain man (during the time of Muhammad), was reciting the sura al-Kahf from the Quran by his tethered horse, and as he was reciting, a cloud engulfed him, which was encircling and descending, whose sight caused his horse to jump and move, and so when morning came he went to Muhammad and informed him of what occurred, to which Muhammad replied that it was the Sakinah that descended for the Quran.

According to Sunni traditions, when Muhammad was persecuted in Mecca and the time came for him to emigrate to Madinah (Medina), he took temporary refuge with his companion Abu Bakr in the cave of Thawr. Seeking to be hidden from the Makkans who were looking for him, it was at Thawr where God brought down His sakina over them, protecting them from their enemies. According to Sufism, it was at Thawr that Abu Bakr was blessed with divine secrets whose transmission from him to the latter generations formed the Naqshbandi path of Sufism. It was this experience that led the second Caliph Umar to say that all the good Umar did cannot stand as an equivalent to Abu Bakr's sole virtue of companionship with Muhammad at the Thawr cave.

Muhammed's grandson Hussein ibn Ali named one of his daughters Sakina. She tragically perished in a Syrian prison during the imprisonment of Hussein's family members, mostly women and children, who survived the Battle of Karbala. She was the first person in the history of Islam to have been given the name Sakinah. It is currently a popular female name in most Islamic cultures.

Contemporary scholarship

Raphael Patai

In the work by anthropologist Raphael Patai entitled The Hebrew Goddess, the author argues that the term Shekhinah refers to a goddess by comparing and contrasting scriptural and medieval Jewish Kabbalistic source materials. Patai draws a historic distinction between the Shekhinah and the Matronit.

In the bestselling thriller The Torah Codes by Ezra Barany, the storyline refers to the Shekhinah as a goddess and one of the characters is even named Patai. In the appendix are essays by Rabbi Shefa Gold, Zvi Bellin, and Tania Schweig about the Shekhinah.[9]

Comparative religion

  • The Qur'an mentions the Sakina, or Tranquility, referring to God's blessing of solace and succour upon both the Children of Israel and Muhammad. Interestingly, Sakina, or Sakina bint Husayn, was also the name of the youngest female child of Husayn ibn Ali, ostensibly the first girl in recorded history to be given the name.
  • "Shekhinah", often in plural, is also present in some gnostic writings written in Aramaic, such as the writings of the Manichaeans and the Mandaeans, as well as others. In these writings, shekhinas are described as hidden aspects of God, somewhat resembling the Amahrāspandan of the Zoroastrians.[10]

Gustav Davidson

American poet Gustav Davidson listed Shekhinah as an entry in his reference work A Dictionary of Angel, stating that she is the female incarnation of Metatron.

Branch Davidians

Lois Roden, whom the original Branch Davidian Seventh-Day Adventist Church acknowledged as their teacher/prophet from 1978 to 1986, laid heavy emphasis on women's spirituality and the feminine aspect of God. She published a magazine, Shekinah, often rendered SHEkinah, in which she explored the concept that the Shekinah is the Holy Spirit. Articles from Shekinah are reprinted online at the Branch Davidian website.[11]

See also


  1. Neal DeRoo, John Panteleimon Manoussakis, Phenomenology and Eschatology: Not Yet in the Now By, Ashgate, 2009, p.27.
  2. Eisenberg, Ronald L. The JPS Guide to Jewish Traditions. The Jewish Publication Society, 2004. ISBN 0-8276-0760-1
  3. Rabbis Drs. Andrew Goldstein & Charles H Middleburgh, 편집. (2003). 《Machzor Ruach Chadashah》 (English and Hebrew). Liberal Judaism. 137쪽. 
  4. Ruth Rubin Voices of a people: the story of Yiddish folksong p234
  5. Zechariah and Jewish Renewal Fred P. Miller
  6. Acclamations of the Birth of Christ, by J. Hampton Keathley, III, Th.M. at bible.org (retrieved 13 August 2006
  7. The King of Glory, by Richard L. Strauss at bible.org (retrieved 13 August 2006)
  8. 2/248 9/26, 9/40, 48/4, 48/18, 48/26.
  9. Barany, Ezra. The Torah Codes. Dafkah Books, 2011 pp. 349–366.
  10. Jonas, Hans, The Gnostic Religion, 1958, p. 98.
  11. General Association of Branch Davidian Seventh-Day Adventists, page found 2010-09-14.

External links

Greek underworld
Famous inmates
v  d  e  h

In Greek mythology, Salmoneus (Σαλμωνεύς) was a son of Aeolus and Enarete, and brother of Athamas, Sisyphus,[1] Cretheus, Perieres, Deioneus, Canace, Alcyone, and Perimede. Salmoneus was the father of Tyro by his first wife Alcidice, the second one being Sidero.[2] Salmoneus became the king of Elis and founded the city of Salmone in Pisatis.[3]

Salmoneus and his brother Sisyphus hated each other. Sisyphus found out from an oracle that if he married Tyro, she would bear him children who would kill Salmoneus. At first, Tyro submitted to Sisyphus, married him, and bore him a son. But when she found out what the child would do to Salmoneus, she killed the boy. It was soon after this that Tyro lay with Poseidon and bore him Pelias and Neleus.

Salmoneus' subjects were ordered to worship him under the name of Zeus. He built a bridge of brass, over which he drove at full speed in his chariot to imitate thunder, the effect being heightened by dried skins and cauldrons trailing behind while torches were thrown into the air to represent lightning. For this sin of hubris, Zeus eventually struck him down with his thunderbolt and destroyed the town.[4][5][6][7][8][9] Virgil's Aeneid has Salmoneus placed in Tartarus where he is subjected to eternal torment.[10]

According to Frazer, the early Greek kings, who were expected to produce rain for the benefit of the crops, were in the habit of imitating thunder and lightning in the character of Zeus.[11][12] At Crannon in Thessaly there was a bronze chariot, which in time of drought was shaken and prayers offered for rain.[13] S. Reinach[14] suggests that the story that Salmoneus was struck by lightning was due to the misinterpretation of a picture, in which a Thessalian magician appeared bringing down lightning and rain from heaven; hence arose the idea that he was the victim of the anger or jealousy of Zeus, and that the picture represented his punishment.[9]


  1. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 7. 3
  2. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 9. 8
  3. Strabo, Geography, 8. 3. 32
  4. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 9. 7
  5. Hyginus, Fabulae 60, 61
  6. Strabo viii. p. 356
  7. Manilius, Astronom. 5, 91
  8. Virgil, Aeneid vi. 585, with Heyne's excursus
  9.  Chisholm, Hugh, 편집. (1911). 〈Salmoneus〉. 《Encyclopædia Britannica》 11판. Cambridge University Press. 
  10. Virgil Aeneid 6.585-594
  11. Frazer Early History of the Kingship, 1905
  12. see also Golden Bough, i., 1900, p. 82
  13. Antigonus of Carystus, Historiae mirabiles, 15
  14. S. Reinach Revue archéologique, 1903, i. 154

External links

The process in which Nimrod gained power편집

I have not sifted out (~을 체로 걸러 내다, ~을 엄밀히 조사하다) the question, but it is not the inclination of my belief, that, in the ages of great longevity, the father retained the burthen of his kingly and judicial functions, or that the heir was kept in expectation of a share in them, until his death. But that, on the contrary, at a suitable time, the son was admitted into a partnership in the Basilea, and to the whole enjoyment and burthen of real power, leaving to his aged parent the sweets of a venerable repose, and the duty of presiding over the religion of the state.

Of such a practice we find very early traces;

not only did the Roman emperors use to strengthen the authority of their declining age, by admitting their successors into power,

but we read of Nebuchadnezzar the first, or Nebupolassar, admitting to an equality of empire, but to the sole management of affairs, his illustrious son (= Nebuchadnezzar),

and, ascending vastly higher in the scale of time, we meet with Laertes the patriarch of Ithaca, living in complete retirement, while his son was king, and his grandson was contending against the suitors (구혼자). How primitive an antiquity that was, in which the son of Laertes lived, we shall presently (곧, 이내) explain.

In Greek mythology, Laërtes (Λαέρτης, Laértēs) was the son of Arcesius and Chalcomedusa. He was the father of Odysseus (who was thus called Laertiádēs, Λαερτιάδης, "son of Laertes") and Ctimene by his wife Anticlea, daughter of the thief Autolycus. Laërtes was an Argonaut and participated in the hunt for the Calydonian Boar. Laërtes's title was King of the Cephallenians, which he presumably inherited from his father Arcesius and grandfather Cephalus. His realm included Ithaca and surrounding islands, and perhaps even the neighboring part of the mainland of other Greek city-states.

Another account says that Laërtes was not Odysseus's true father; rather, it was Sisyphus, who had seduced Anticlea.[1]

Laertes stays away from Odysseus' home while Odysseus is gone. He keeps to himself on his farm, overcome with grief over Odysseus' absence and alone after his wife, Anticleia, died from grief herself. Odysseus finally comes to see Laertes after he has killed all the suitors competing for Penelope. He finds his father spading a plant, looking old and tired and filled with sadness. Odysseus keeps his identity to himself at first, but when he sees how disappointed Laertes is to learn that this "stranger" has no news of his son, Odysseus reveals himself, and proves his identity by reciting all the trees he received from Laertes when he was a boy. This emphasis on the land of Ithaca itself perhaps signifies that Odysseus has finally reconnected with his homeland, and his journey is over.[2]

Laertes had trained Odysseus in husbandry. After their reunion, the two of them head off to Odysseus' home to fend off the families of the dead suitors. Athena infuses vigour into Laërtes, so he can help Odysseus. He kills Eupeithes, father of Antinous.[3]See also


  1. E.g. Servius on Aeneid 6.529.
  2. Homer. Odyssey. Trans. Stanley Lombardo. Canada: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 2000. Print.
  3. Homer, Odyssey XXIV; Ovid, Metamorphoses VIII, 315.

The location of Homer's Ithaca, i.e. Ithaca as featured in Homer's Odyssey, is a matter for debate. There have been various theories about its location, although Modern Ithaca is generally accepted to be Homer's island by most scholars.

The central characters of the epic such as Odysseus, Achilles, Agamemnon and Hector are generally believed to be fictional characters. Yet there are many claims that some Homeric hero long ago had inhabited a particular contemporary region or village. This, and the extremely detailed geographic descriptions in the epic itself, have invited investigation of the possibility that Homer's heroes might have existed and that the location of the sites described therein might be found.

Heinrich Schliemann believed he tracked down several of the more famous traditions surrounding these heroes. Many locations around the Mediterranean were claimed to have been the heroes' "homes", such as the ruins at Mycenae and the little hill near the western Turkish town of Hissarlik. Schliemann's work and excavations proposed, to a very sceptical world, that Homer's Agamemnon had lived at Mycenae, and that "Troy" itself indeed had existed at Hissarlik. Much work has been done to identify other Homeric sites such as the palace of Nestor at Pylos. These attempts have been the subject of much scholarly research, archaeological work, and controversy.

Theories on the location of "Homer's 'Ithaca'" were formulated as early as the 2nd century BC to as recently as AD 2003. Each approach to identifying a location has been different, varying in degrees of scientific procedure, empirical investigation, informed hypothesis, wishful thinking, fervent belief, and sheer fantasy. Each investigator and each investigation merits interest, as an indicator both of the temper of the times in which a particular theory was developed, and of the perennial interest in Odysseus and the possible facts of his life. Some of the latest "Homer's 'Ithaca'" approaches resemble some of the earliest.

From Salah to Serug편집

To whatever precise period the significancy of the patriarchal names may have related, I conceive that,

Salah flourishing, the people were Sent Forth, that is, the Expedition of Cush commenced;

Heber19) flourishing, they Crossed or Trans-

19) The Golden Age commenced under Ogyges two hundred and fifty years before Ninus. Fab. Pict. de Aur. Saec p. 412. If this be so, Nimrod was born a few years before Heber, according to the Samaritan Chronology; but the author labours under the mistake of supposing that Nimrod founded Babel; in which case he would be nearly right. But Nimrod was born long afterwards (probably somewhat later than Peleg) in the city of Bel or Babel. The general opinion is true, no doubt, that Heberi tempore consilium inierunt homines turris exstruendae (= [구글 번역] Hebert tower erected at the time of they agreed to men). Chron. Anon. ap. J. Malal. Oxon. 1691. Albert. Stat. p. 3. b.

[Page 28] gressed the Mighty River, in order to enter Mesopotamia, either Euphratesor Tigris, according as you suppose them to have come round (돌아서 오다) by West or East;

Peleg flourishing, mankind were Split by the great Schism;

Rehu flourishing, the Patriarchal Unity was Broken Asunder, and the kingdom of19) Iona, or Babel of Semiramis, erected in opposition to that of Ninus;


Et quot Iona tulit vetus, et quot Achaia formas,
Et Thebae, et Priami diruta regna senis.
[구글 번역]
And how many old Jonah took, and how many forms of Achaia,
And Thebes, and destroyed kingdom of old Priam.

Prop. L. 2. eleg. 28. v. 53,

and lastly Serug20) flourishing, the confusion of tongues and colonization of Europe and Africa took place; and the Ninevite supremacy was once more rendered universal, so far as Asia was concerned.

20) Ramification? Serug, branche, provins. Traduct. des noms ad fin. Calmet.

[구글 번역] Serug Branch provinces. Transduction. des noms to end. Calmet.

The following is a list of biblical patriarchs from Shem to Abraham, given with their Masoretic date.

Masoretic date Event Bible verse
1658 AM Arphaxad born, son of Shem Genesis 11:10
1693 AM Shelah born, son of Arphaxad Genesis 11:12
1723 AM Eber born, son of Shelah Genesis 11:14
1757 AM Peleg born, son of Eber Genesis 11:16
1787 AM Reu born, son of Peleg Genesis 11:18
1819 AM Serug born, son of Reu Genesis 11:20
1849 AM Nahor born, son of Serug Genesis 11:22
1878 AM Terah born, son of Nahor Genesis 11:24
1948 AM Abram born, son of Terah † Genesis 11:26
† This and subsequent dates rest on the assumption that Abram is the firstborn of Terah, which is not necessarily accepted within Christian tradition, because Act ch.7 v.4 is generally translated to mean that Abram left Haran after the death of his father. [1]


While Salah and Heber flourished편집

But it will be said, while Salah (= Shelah) and Heber (= Eber) flourished, Noah was yet living; and Shem, to a yet later period. Why not?

It is not to be supposed that when Cush left Armenia, he left it desolate, and that a rich and long settled country was abandoned altogether; for it would be an absurd way of founding an UNIVERSAL empire, to desolate one country in order to people another. There remained in Armenia a sufficiency of folk, and the righteous patriarchs [and whatever congregation might still adhere to them] would of course remain where they were. And their residence in that country, with a conflicting and a better title to supremacy, would, in itself, be one reason for the Haeresiarch to remove his Church and Government elsewhere.

It will again be said, if the Emission of the people took place in the youth of Salah (= Shelah), Ham must have died long before [Page 29] his brother Shem; and that he did so, and moreover by some means whereof his disciples laid the blame upon his two brethren, I believe.

Abraham to United Monarchy

This table gives the Masoretic dates (Seder Olam Rabbah) in the Anno Mundi era and converted to the Dionysian era (1 AM = 3925 BCE).[출처 필요]

The 40-year reigns of David and Solomon of the United Monarchy are probably schematic rather than historical, even though those two kings may be historical.[1]

The BCE dates, prior to the kings period, are estimated dates and based on a continuous judges rule which was not the case. Intermediary periods with no judges existed, and judges may have overlapped.[2]

Masoretic date
Masoretic date
Event Bible verse
1948 AM 1976 BCE Abram born, son of Terah Genesis 11:26.
1958 AM 1966 BCE Sarai born, wife of Abram Genesis 17:17
1996 AM 1928 BCE Peleg died Genesis 11:19
1997 AM 1927 BCE Nahor died Genesis 11:25
2006 AM 1918 BCE Noah died Genesis 9:28
2026 AM 1898 BCE Reu died Genesis 11:21
2034 AM 1890 BCE Ishmael born, son of Abram with Sarai's handmaiden Hagar Genesis 16:16
2047 AM 1877 BCE Abram and Sarai renamed Abraham and Sarah by the LORD.
Abraham was circumcised.
Sodom and Gomorrah were destroyed
Genesis 17:10
2048 AM 1876 BCE Isaac born, son of Abraham with Sarah Genesis 21:5
2049 AM 1875 BCE Serug died Genesis 11:23
2083 AM 1841 BCE Terah died Genesis 11:32
2085 AM 1839 BCE Sarah died Genesis 23:1
2096 AM 1828 BCE Arpachshad died Genesis 11:13
2108 AM 1816 BCE Jacob and Esau born, sons of Isaac with Rebekah Genesis 25:26
2123 AM 1801 BCE Abraham died Genesis 25:7
2126 AM 1798 BCE Shelah died Genesis 11:15
2157 AM 1767 BCE Shem died Genesis 11:11
2171 AM 1753 BCE Ishmael died Genesis 25:17
2187 AM 1737 BCE Eber died Genesis 11:17
2199 AM 1725 BCE Joseph born, son of Jacob with Rachel Genesis 41:46
2216 AM 1708 BCE Joseph was sold by his brothers Genesis 37:2
2227 AM 1697 BCE Joseph interpreted the dreams of the butler and the baker while in prison Genesis 41:1
2228 AM 1696 BCE Isaac died Genesis 35:28
2229 AM 1695 BCE Joseph was elevated to Pharaoh's second Genesis 41:46
2238 AM 1686 BCE Jacob moved to Egypt at the age of 130
After 7 years of plenty and 2 years of famine
When Joseph was 39
Genesis 47:9, 45:11, 41:46
2255 AM 1669 BCE Jacob died Genesis 47:28
2309 AM 1615 BCE Joseph died Genesis 50:26
2365 AM 1560 BCE Aaron born, son of Amram with Jochebed Exodus 7:7
2368 AM 1557 BCE Moses born, son of Amram with Jochebed Exodus 7:7
2448 AM 1476 BCE The Israelites left in a mass exodus from Egypt. Genesis 15:13,
see also 1 Kings 6:1
2487 AM 1437 BCE Aaron and Moses died Deuteronomy 34:7
2488 AM 1436 BCE The Israelites entered Canaan Joshua 4:19
2448–2884 AM 1476–1040 BCE Period of Joshua, Judges and Saul, first King of Israel 1 Kings 6:1
2 Samuel 5:4
2853 AM 1071 BCE Jesse begat David 2 Samuel 5:4
2883–2923 AM 1041–1001 BCE David reigned as king of Israel 1 Kings 2:11 - reigns for 40 years
2890 AM 1034 BCE David moved his capitol from Hebron to Jerusalem 1 Kings 2:11
2923–2963 AM 1001–961 BCE Solomon son of David reigned as king of Israel 1 Kings 11:42
2927 AM 997 BCE Foundation of Temple laid in the 4th year of Solomon's reign
480th year after the Exodus
1 Kings 6:1


  1. History and ideology in the Old Testament, by James Barr, fn.6, p.63
  2. Judges 3:8

FIRST schism, the schism between Christians and Magians편집

The FIRST schism, namely, that between the Christians and Magians, coupled probably with such marks of Divine Wrath as deterred (단념시키다, 그만두게 하다) them from avenging the death of the Arch-Apostate, was probably that which resolved them to depart;

and they went away, bearing before them the Body of their God and Martyr, the Enwhalian Jove21). This is the fable ascribed to the Phrygian Poet Thymoetes, son of Laomedon, that Ammon was expelled by Cronus (크로노스: 티타네스, 농경의 남신, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 제우스의 부친), and took refuge in the Idaean Island, which he named Creta22).

21) V. Histiaeum apud Joseph. 1. 1.

22) Diod. Sic. 3. c. 70.

FIRST schism, the key to a Greek mythological tale편집

And it (= FIRST schism, the schism between Christians and Magians) is likewise the key to an other obscure tale, that Jove, having discovered from Thetis (테티스, 네레이드, 아킬레우스의 어머니) that the other Olympians were conspiring against him, sent out Neptune and Apollo upon an expedition23) to build that fatal city of the Gods, Ilion. Jupiter Taurus, the Deus Lunus, a fire-breathing, that is, a Magian or Pyrolatrous Bull, was in Crete,

23) Tz. in Lycophr. 34.

Taurus24) medio nam sidere Lunse
Progenitus Dictaea Jovis possederat arva;
[구글 번역]
Taurus for the star Lunse
Descended Jupiter of Dicte owned lands;

24) Nemesian. Laud. Herc. 120.

and one of the twelve labours of Hercules was the removing of this bull out of Crete into Apia or the Isle of Pelops25), where he afterwards instituted the Olympic games in honour of Jupiter Patrius, and built an altar to Pelops and to the twelve Gods.

25) Dio. Sic. iv. c. 13.

Ophion and Ophionian Theology편집

Pherecydes, said by some to be a Syrian, by others an Assyrian, or a Babylonian, wrote certain books upon the theology of Ophioneus; concerning the birth of Ophioneus, the War of the Gods, the Winged Tree, and the Veil; by which two latter we must understand one or other of the Trees of Paradise, [Page 30] and the figleaf (무화과 나뭇잎(전통적으로 회화나 조각에서 나신의 국부를 가리는 데 쓰임)) apron (앞치마) of primaeval modesty; and this his Ophionian Theology was derived, if we may credit Isidorus26), son of Basilides the Gnostic,

26) Cit. Clem. Alex. Strom. L. 1. p. 632. ed. Paris. 1629.

[greek] ato tes tou Cham propeteias.

The song of Orpheus to those who sailed in the Argo began as follows:

"how heaven and earth, and the sea, were separated out of chaos, and the Sun and Moon and Stars created, and all living things. Next, he sung, how Ophion27) and Eurynome (에우리노메: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 제우스의 세 번째 아내, 강의 여신) the daughter of Oceanus usurped the rule of Olympus, and how they were driven out from thence by Saturn and Rhea (레아: 티타니데스, 우라노스와 가이아의 딸, 'the mother of gods')."

27) Apoll. Rhod. L. 1. v. 496. ets.

Ophion, therefore, was the serpent in Paradise.

Ophion, Cadmus, Cecrops and Cham편집

But Orpheus hath hymns to the three Corybantes, by whom the three sons of Noah are generally understood, thus divided, one hymn to the two Corybantes, and another a person called Coiybas, by excellence. This person is described as king of the earth, god of war, and of night, a wanderer through solitudes, and assuming (by the advice of the Earth his Mother) the form of a bestial (짐승 같은) snake,

[greek] Thexxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx,

in which we find a most exact agreement with the behaviour of Cadmus (카드모스: 페니키아의 왕자, 그리스의 테베를 건설한 자), who himself prayed that he might be turned into a Serpent,

28)Ipse precor, serpens in longam porrigar alvum.
[구글 번역] I pray that myself, into the long lengthened the serpent belly.

28) Ov. Met. iv. 574. By [greek] Thebotupon understand, not reptile, but bestial, and provided with legs and wings, as he is represented in so many traditions. For such was his condition, before he became [greek] Surnasros and incurred the curse of going upon his belly. See Dosiad. Ara. 2. v. 13. Inscript. Diis Paternis, Surgastro Magno (= [구글 번역] The gods of their fathers, the Great Surgastro), in Salmasii Duarum Inscriptionum (= [구글 번역] Of Salmasius two Inscriptionum), etc. p. 155. Lutet. 1619.

He was also the God [greek] Dipues, a name peculiar to Cecrops, the semi-serpent, the AEgyptian king of Athens, and daemon of the29) Necromancers. But in a future part of this work I shall


Tradunt Graeci aliquot auctores Cecropis animam, quam in leonis speciem conversam fuisse autumabant, ex AEgyptiorum, Chaldaeorumque necromantia, immolatis gallis, quibusdam signis figurisque impressis, quas Graeci Charachteras appellant, esse evocatam; seque illis praebuisse conspicuam.
[구글 번역] Some authors report that the Greeks return to the soul, as in the form of a lion converted imagined from the Egyptians, Chaldaeorumque necromancy, sacrificed roosters, certain signs printed figures, which the Greeks call Charachteras, be called out, followed them are supplied with conspicuous.
Hesselius in Eniiii Fragm. p. 309.

[Page 31] shew that both Cadmus and Cecrops are names of Cham, and that their coming into Greece is the fulfilment of that curse of Cham, which was delivered in the form of a prophecy concerning the then unborn Canaan.

But the same Orphic hymn describes this man as being slain by his two brothers,

[구글 번역] xxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxx

It cannot be doubted under these circumstances, that he is the person who, in the years succeeding the flood, was that which Cain had been in the beginning of the world, the high-priest of the Serpent, and that his spirit was that unto which Hector was peculiarly devoted,

[구글 번역] ivaxn TUJV Qgovow 'O^ovo^30).

30) Lycophr. v. 1192.

Seven books of Ophion편집

Nonnus mentions the seven books of Ophion containing, as he saith, all the oracles of the destiny of the world; and the tradition is general that Cham left behind him memorials of the seven sciences; the books of Ophion are therefore the [greek] te Chau propheteia, of the gnostics.

Cham was notoriously at variance with and slain by his brethren편집

Now, as Cham was notoriously at variance with his brethren, and held in a pious abhorrence by them, it is not surprising that we should find his death ascribed to them.

But if this had been done in a view of preserving similitude in the cycles of the world, they would have preserved the unity of their system by making one of three brothers fall by the hand of one other, (like Osiris by the hand of his brother Typhon) and have furthermore made him (= Cham) the Slayer rather than the Slain, had not the reality of the Fact been otherwise. For, of course, the systematic similitudes of fable are more perfect than the similitudes which occur in real life. It is therefore not wholly improbable that the third son of Noah may have [Page 32] fallen by means of his Elder-Brothers.

Not, however, by a murder like that by Cain,

because, 1st, Their characters and the righteousness of their cause forbid the idea.

2dly, Because such an event can only be ascribed with probability to the time when he sacrilegiously (신성 모독적으로) invited them to their Father's tent;

but Cham had then but one, or else no children, and he lived to be the father of several.

But if, in the subsequent struggles between the Church of God and that of the Serpent, that apostate perished, it would in the language of the mystical religion, as employed by his execrable (형편없는) disciples, be a slaying of him by his brethren;

and equally so, if he died (as Antiochus Epiphanes and Herod are supposed to have done) by an interposition (중재, 조정, 끼어들다) and manifest visitation of Him, of whom it is said, "Blessed is Jehovah, the God of Shem"

It indeed appears, that the tribes of the human race descended from Japhet and Shem are intended, rather than the two men themselves, from what Eusebius31) relates upon the subject, that

31) Praep. Evang. p. 10. b. interp. Geo. Trapez. Colon. 1539.

"the two Corybants having slain the third, folded up his head in a cloth dyed with Tyrian purple, and crowned it with a brazen shield, and carried it with them to the foot of Mount Olympus, and there buried it."

For this is, again, the removal of the reliques (유물) of Ham by the people, at the time of the grand emigration, and the burial of them in the base of that stupendous edifice (건물), which (as we shall see) was an Olympus.

Nimrod is ultimately regarded as the cause of the Confusion of the United Nations편집

The descent of Ham from Noah, and of Nimrod from Ham Ophion, (his dragon father, as it was pretended) is certainly the solution of that verse, which was sung in the mysteries32),

[greek] Tauf 0? AgaxovTQ$ xai Apaxutv Tav^u itoutqp.

32) Euseb. Praep. Evang. p. 41. ed. Paris. 1544.

Nimrod being ultimately regarded as the cause of the Confusion of the United Nations, and the Alastor or Spirit of Cursing, whose wrath engendered that calamity (재앙), was looked upon [Page 33] by those upon whom it fell, as a revival of that Typhonian power which produced the flood.

Alastor (Ἀλάστωρ, English translation: "avenger") refers to a number of people and concepts in Greek mythology:[1]

See also


  1. Schmitz, Leonhard (1867), 〈Alastor〉, Smith, William, 《Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology1, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 89쪽 
  2. Rose, Herbert Jennings (1996), 〈Alastor〉, Hornblower, Simon, 《Oxford Classical Dictionary》, Oxford: Oxford University Press 
  3. Pausanias, Description of Greece viii. 24. § 4
  4. Plutarch, De Defectu Oraculorum 13, &c.
  5. Aeschylus, Agamemnon 1479, 1508, The Persians 343
  6. Sophocles, The Trachiniae 1092
  7. Euripides, Phoenician Women 1550, &c.
  8. Euripides, Elecktra 979
  9. Cole, Susan Guettel (1994), 〈Civic Cult and Civic Identity〉, Herman Hansen, Mogens, 《Sources for the Ancient Greek City-State: Symposium August, 24-27 1994》, Copenhagen: Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, 310쪽, ISBN 978-87-7304-267-0 
  10. Bibliotheca i. 9. § 9
  11. Scholiast on Apollonius of Rhodes, i. 156
  12. Parthenius of Nicaea, c. 13
  13. Homer, Iliad v. 677
  14. Ovid, Metamorphoses xiii. 257
  15. Homer, Iliad xx. 463
  16. Homer, Iliad viii. 333, xiii. 422
  17. Sorenson, Eric (2002), 《Possession and Exorcism in the New Testament and Early Christianity》, Mohr Siebeck, 78쪽, ISBN 3-16-147851-7 

Noah or Saturn vs. Ham or Ophioneus편집

But Noah or Saturn, was, in the superstition of the gentiles, a wrathful deity destroying his own children. The heathens, who regarded the early patriarchs, as the incarnations of good and evil deities, so esteemed;

and, borrowing from them, the Mahometan Tartars ascribe the deluge (under God) to Noah.

Nui33) cried to heaven to exterminate (몰살[전멸]시키다) the generation of men, and the angel Sabrail informed him that his prayer was granted, and ordered him to build the ark.

33) Abul Gazi Khan Hist. Tatar. p. 16. Leyd. 1726

Saturnus, though usually said, in the style of allegory, to have swallowed up his own children,

[greek] TUJU,/3O; yeyw$ Ksvravfo; wpofypajy nropa$,

was differently spoken of by Pherecydes.

That34) authour described two hostile armies, the one commanded by Saturn, and the other by Ophioneus, their mutual defiances (반항[저항]), and combats, and an agreement made between them, that whichever party should fall into Oceanus (오케아노스, 티타네스, 거대한 강의 남신, 세계해의 남신, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 3000 오케아니스의 아버지), should be accounted beaten, and that those who had thus expelled them should remain possessours of heaven.

34) Cit. Origen. contr. Cels. L. vi. c 42. p. 664. ed. La Rue.

The result is not stated by Origen, from whom I copy this, but of course the ordeal (시련) of water was fatal to the Ophionidae or Cainites.

Greek deities
Primordial deities
Titans and Olympians
Chthonic deities
Personified concepts
Other deities
Aquatic deities

In some versions of Greek mythology, Ophion (Ὀφίων "serpent"; gen.: Ὀφίωνος), also called Ophioneus (Ὀφιονεύς) ruled the world with Eurynome before the two of them were cast down by Cronus and Rhea.


Pherecydes of Syros's Heptamychia is the first attested mention of Ophion.

The story was apparently popular in Orphic poetry, of which only fragments survive.

Apollonius of Rhodes in his Argonautica (1.495f) summarizes a song of Orpheus:

He sang how the earth, the heaven and the sea, once mingled together in one form, after deadly strife were separated each from other; and how the stars and the moon and the paths of the sun ever keep their fixed place in the sky; and how the mountains rose, and how the resounding rivers with their nymphs came into being and all creeping things. And he sang how first of all Ophion and Eurynome, daughter of Oceanus, held the sway of snowy Olympus, and how through strength of arm one yielded his prerogative to Cronos and the other to Rhea, and how they fell into the waves of Oceanus; but the other two meanwhile ruled over the blessed Titan-gods, while Zeus, still a child and with the thoughts of a child, dwelt in the Dictaean cave; and the earthborn Cyclopes had not yet armed him with the bolt, with thunder and lightning; for these things give renown to Zeus.

Lycophron (1191) relates that Zeus' mother, that is Rhea, is skilled in wrestling, having cast the former queen Eurynome into Tartarus.

Nonnus in his Dionysiaca has Hera say (8.158f):

I will go to the uttermost bounds of Oceanus and share the hearth of primeval Tethys; thence I will pass to the house of Harmonia and abide with Ophion.

Harmonia here is probably an error in the text for Eurynome. Ophion is mentioned again by Nonnus (12.43):

Beside the oracular wall she saw the first tablet, old as the infinite past, containing all the things in one: upon it was all that Ophion lord paramount had done, all that ancient Cronus accomplished.

We also have fragments of the writings of the early philosopher Pherecydes of Syros (6th century BCE) who devised a myth or legend in which powers known as Zas and Chronos 'Time' and Chthonie 'Of the Earth' existed from the beginning and in which Chronos creates the universe. Some fragments of this work mention a birth of Ophioneus and a battle of the gods between Cronus (not Chronos) on one side and Ophioneus and his children on the other in which an agreement is made that whoever pushes the other side into Ogenos will lose and the winner will hold heaven.

Eusebius of Caesarea in his Praeparatio Evangelica (1.10) cites Philo of Byblos as declaring that Pherecydes took Ophion and the Ophionidae from the Phoenicians.


Robert Graves in his book The Greek Myths imaginatively reconstructs a Pelasgian creation myth involving Ophion as a serpent created by a supreme goddess called Eurynome dancing on the waves. She is fertilized by the serpent and in the form of a dove lays an egg on the waters about which Ophion entwines until it hatches and the world issues forth. Then Ophion and Eurynome dwell on Mt. Olympus until Ophion's boasting leads Eurynome to banish him to the darkness below the earth.

The Greek Myths (1955) is a mythography, a compendium of Greek mythology, by the poet and writer Robert Graves, normally published in two volumes.

Each myth is presented in the voice of a narrator writing under the Antonines, such as Plutarch or Pausanias, with citations of the classical sources. The literary quality of these retellings is generally praised.

Each myth is followed by Graves' interpretation of its origin and significance, following his theories on a prehistoric Matriarchal religion as presented in his White Goddess and elsewhere. These theories and his etymologies are rejected by classical scholarship. Graves dismissed such criticism, arguing that by definition classical scholars lacked "the poetic capacity to forensically examine mythology".[1]


Graves interpreted Bronze Age Greece as changing from a matriarchal society under the Pelasgians to a patriarchal one under continual pressure from victorious Greek-speaking tribes. In the second stage, local kings came to each settlement as foreign princes, reigned by marrying the hereditary queen, who represented the Triple Goddess, and were ritually slain by the next king after a limited period, originally six months. Kings managed to evade the sacrifice for longer and longer periods, often by sacrificing substitutes, and eventually converted the Queen, priestess of the Goddess, into a subservient and chaste wife, and in the final stage had legitimate sons to reign after them.

The Greek Myths presents the myths as stories from the ritual of all three stages, and often as historic records of the otherwise unattested struggles between the Greek Kings and the Moon-priestesses. In some cases, Graves conjectures a process of "iconotropy" or image-turning, by which a hypothetical cult image of the matriarchal or matrilineal period has been misread by later Greeks in their own terms. Thus, for example, he conjectures an image of divine twins struggling in the womb of the Horse-Goddess, which later gave rise to the Trojan Horse myth.

Pelasgian creation myth

Graves' imaginatively reconstructed "Pelasgian creation myth" features a supreme creatrix, Eurynome, "The Goddess of All Things",[2] who arose naked from Chaos to part sea from sky so that she could dance upon the waves. Catching the north wind at her back and, rubbing it between her hands, she warms the pneuma and spontaneously generates the serpent Ophion, who mates with her. In the form of a dove upon the waves, she lays the Cosmic Egg and bids Ophion to incubate it by coiling seven times around until it splits in two and hatches "all things that exist... sun, moon, planets, stars, the earth with its mountains and rivers, its trees, herbs, and living creatures".[3]

In the soil of Arcadia, the Pelasgians would spring up from Ophion's teeth, scattered under the heel of Eurynome who kicked the serpent from their home on Mount Olympus for his boasts of creating all things. Thereafter, Eurynome, whose name was "wide wandering" set male and female Titans for each wandering planet: Theia and Hyperion for the Sun; Phoebe and Atlas for the Moon; Metis and Coeus for Mercury; Tethys and Oceanus for Venus; Dione and Crius for Mars; Themis and Eurymedon for Jupiter; and Rhea and Cronus for Saturn.[2]


Graves' retellings have been widely praised as imaginative and poetic, but the scholarship behind his hypotheses and conclusions is rejected as idiosyncratic and untenable.[4]

Ted Hughes and other poets have found the system of The White Goddess congenial; The Greek Myths contains about a quarter of that system, and does not include the method of composing poetry.[5]

But The Greek Myths has been heavily criticised both during and after the lifetime of the author. Critics have deprecated Graves' personal interpretations, which are, in the words of one of them, "either the greatest single contribution that has ever been made to the interpretation of Greek myth or else a farrago of cranky nonsense; I fear that it would be impossible to find any classical scholar who would agree with the former diagnosis." His etymologies have been questioned, and his largely intuitive division between "true myth" and other sorts of story has been viewed as arbitrary, taking myths out of the context in which we now find them. The basic assumption that explaining mythology requires any "general hypothesis", whether Graves's or some other, has also been disputed.[6] The work was called a compendium of misinterpretations.[7] Robin Hard called it "comprehensive and attractively written" but added that "the interpretive notes are of value only as a guide to the author's personal mythology".[8] Michael W. Pharand, quoting some of the earlier criticisms, rebutted, "Graves's theories and conclusions, outlandish as they seemed to his contemporaries (or may appear to us), were the result of careful observation."[9]

H. J. Rose, agreeing with several of the above critics, questions the scholarship of the retellings. Graves presents The Greek Myths as an updating of William Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (originally published 1844) and calls it still "the standard work in English", never brought up to date: Rose is dismayed to find no sign that Graves had heard of the Oxford Classical Dictionary or any of the "various compendia of mythology, written in, or translated into our tongue since 1844." He finds many omissions and some clear errors, most seriously ascribing to Sophocles the argument of his Ajax (Graves §168.4); this evaluation has been repeated by other critics since.[10]


  • Robert Graves, The Greek Myths. (Penguin books; 1026, 1027) 2 vols. (370, 410 p; maps; index in vol. 2) Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1955 ISBN 0-14-001026-2


  1. The White Goddess, Farrar Strauss Giroux, p. 224. ISBN 0-374-50493-8
  2. Graves, Robert (1990) [1955]. 《The Greek Myths》 1. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-001026-8. 
  3. “Books: The Goddess & the Poet”. TIME. 1955년 7월 18일. 2010년 12월 5일에 확인함. 
  4. "The stories themselves have been presented in a lively and attractive manner, with an effect of candour and intimacy very like that of Samuel Butler's translations of Homer." Review by Jay Macpherson, Phoenix, Vol. 12, No. 1. (Spring, 1958), pp. 15-25. JSTOR link. "the paraphrases themselves are wittily written, and take a twinkly delight in promoting extra-canonical alternative versions of familiar stories." Nick Lowe, "Killing the Graves Myth", Times Online, December 20, 2005. Times Online
  5. Graves and the Goddess, ed. Firla and Lindop, Susquehanna Univ. Press, 2003.
  6. Robin Hard, bibliographical notes to his edition of H.J. Rose, The Routledge Handbook of Greek Mythology, p. 690, ISBN 0-415-18636-6, quoted.

    G.S. Kirk, Myth: its meaning and functions in ancient and other cultures, Cambridge University Press, 1970, p. 5. ISBN 0-520-02389-7

    Richard G. A. Buxton, Imaginary Greece: The Contexts of Mythology, Cambridge University Press, 1994, p. 5. ISBN 0-521-33865-4

    Mary Lefkowitz, Greek Gods, Human Lives

    Kevin Herbert: review of TGM; The Classical Journal, Vol. 51, No. 4. (Jan., 1956), pp. 191-192. JSTOR link.

  7. As quoted in: Pharand, Michael W. "Greek Myths, White Goddess: Robert Graves Cleans up a 'Dreadful Mess'", in Ian Ferla and Grevel Lindop (ed.) (2003). Graves and the Goddess: Essays on Robert Graves's The White Goddess. Associated University Presses. p.183.
  8. Hard, Robin. The Library of Greek Mythology. Oxford University Press, 1997. p.xxxii.
  9. Pharand, Michael W. "Greek Myths, White Goddess: Robert Graves Cleans up a 'Dreadful Mess'", in Ian Ferla and Grevel Lindop (ed), Graves and the Goddess: Essays on Robert Graves's The White Goddess. Associated University Presses, 2003. p.188.
  10. H. J. Rose, Review of "'The Greek Myths"; The Classical Review, New Ser., Vol. 5, No. 2. (Jun., 1955), pp. 208-209. JSTOR link. For other criticisms of the accuracy of Graves' retellings, see for example, Nick Lowe, "Killing the Graves Myth", Times Online, December 20, 2005. Times Online Lowe called the work "pseudo-scholarly".
Pherecydes of Syros
Pherecydes, ancient Greek philosopher.
Bornc. 580 BC
Diedc. 520 BC
EraPre-Socratic philosophy
RegionPherecydes of Syros
Notable ideasMetempsychosis

Pherecydes of Syros (/fəˈrɛs[unsupported input]ˌdz/; Φερεκύδης; fl. 6th century BC) was a Greek thinker from the island of Syros. Pherecydes authored the Pentemychos or Heptamychos, one of the first attested prose works in Greek literature, which formed a bridge between mythic and pre-Socratic thought. In this work, he outlined a cosmogony derived from three divine principles, Zas (Zeus), Cthonie (the Chthonic) and Chronos (Time).


According to tradition Pherecydes was a native of the island of Syros and flourished 544-541 BC.[1][2] It was said that he was a son of Babys. Anecdotes of "unknown reliability"[3] place Pherecydes on the island of Samos, and in the city of Ephesus, where he is supposed to have been buried, although another tradition claims he was buried on Delos.[4]

Aristotle wrote in his Metaphysics[5] of Pherecydes being in part a mythological writer and Plutarch, in his Parallel Lives,[6] instead wrote of him being a Theologus (theologian). He was considered to have had the greater significance in teaching on the subject of metempsychosis.[7] His writings were extant in Hellenistic period, although only fragments have survived to the present day. His works were written in prose language, and he has been said to have been the first to have communicated or conveyed philosophical musings in prose.[8]

Pentemychos or Heptamychos

Pherecydes' book is in some sources said to have been titled "Pentemychos" translated as five (πέντε) "recesses" or alternatively, "the five sanctuaries",[9] in some sources said to have been titled "Heptamycho" translated as "seven (ἑπτά) recesses". There seems to be no complete agreement among scholars on which sources to trust regarding the title of Pherecydes' book, the standard survey reference on the Presocratic philosophers by Kirk, Raven and Schofield, opts for "Heptamychos".[10] The author of the only modern scholarly book devoted entirely to Pherecydes, Hermann S. Schibli, argues that "Pentemychos" was the true title.[11] In this work, Pherecydes taught his philosophy through the medium of mythic representations. Although it is lost, the fragments that survive are enough to reconstruct a basic outline.

Creation of the world

In the older cosmogony of Hesiod (8th-7th century BC) the initial state of the universe is Chaos, a dark void considered as a divine primordial condition and the creation is ex nihilo (out of nothing). Pherecydes probably interpreted chaos as water and he does not place it at the very beginning. In his cosmogony there are three divine principles, Zas (Zeus), Cthonie (the Chthonic) and Chronos (Time) who always existed. The semen (seeds) of Chronos which can probably be considered as a watery chaos was placed in the recesses and composed numerous other offsprings of gods.[12] This is described in a fragment preserved in Damascius' On First Principles.

A close relationship is thought to exist between these recesses and Chthonie, which is another of the three first-existing things. Chthonie has to do with the origin of the word "chthonic"; her name means "underlying the earth". Hesiod described Tartaros as being "in a recess (mychos) of broad-wayed earth".[13] Hermann S. Schibli thinks the five mychos were actually harboured within Chthonie, or at least were so initially when Chronos disposed his seed in the five "nooks".[14]

Alongside Chthonie and Chronos, Pherecydes held a power called Zas. Zas is thought to be a strange etymological form of Zeus, and to be identical with the Orphic Eros in function, and as such a personification of masculine, or simply sexual, creativity. Proclus said that "Pherecydes used to say that Zeus changed into Eros when about to create, for the reason that, having created the world from opposites, he led it into agreement and peace and sowed sameness in all things, and unity that interpenetrates the universe".[15]

The act of creation itself (perhaps it is more accurate to say that Chronos creates and that Zas orders and distributes) is described mytho-poetically as Zas making a cloth on which he decorates earth and sea, and which he then presents as a wedding gift to Chthonie, and wraps around her. Yet, in another fragment it is not Chthonie, but "a winged oak" that he wraps the cloth around.[16] The "winged oak" in this cosmology has no precedent in Greek tradition.[17] The stories are different but not mutually exclusive, because much is lacking in the fragments, but it seems clear that creation is hindered by chaotic forces.

Before the world is ordered a cosmic battle takes place, with Kronos (ordered time) as the head of one side and Ophioneus as the leader of the other.[18] The same story is elsewhere enacted with Zeus and Typhon/Typhoeus as leading characters, and it also has close parallels in many myths from cultures other than the Greek (Marduk vs. Tiamat, etc.). Ophioneus and its brood are often depicted as ruling the birthing cosmos for some time, before falling from power. The chaotic forces are eternal and cannot be destroyed; instead they are thrown out from the ordered world and locked away in Tartaros in a kind of "appointment of the spheres", in which the victor (Zeus-Kronos) takes possession of the sky and of space and time.[19] The locks to Tartaros are fashioned in iron by Zeus, and might hence have been associated with his element of aither, and in bronze by Poseidon, which might indicate a link to water (which was often conceived of as the "first matter"). Judging from some ancient fragments Ophioneus is thrown into Okeanos, not into Tartaros.

Exactly what entities or forces that were locked away in Pherecydes’ story cannot be known for sure. There may have been five principal figures. Ophioneus and Typhon are one and the same, and Eurynome fought on the side of Ophioneus against Kronos.[20] Chthonie is a principal "thing" of the underworld, but whether she is to be counted as one of the five or the five "sum-total" is an open question. Apart from these it is known that Ophioneus-Typhon mated with Echidna, and that Echidna herself was somehow mysteriously "produced" by Callirhoe. If Pherecydes counted five principal entities in association the pentemychos doctrine, then Ophioneus, Eurynome, Echidna, Calirrhoe and Chthonie are the main contenders.

Pherecydes, depicted as a medieval scholar in the Nuremberg Chronicle

Kronos (or Zeus in the more popularly known version) orders the offspring out from the cosmos to Tartaros. There they are kept behind locked gates, fashioned in iron (associated with Zeus and his element of sky/space) and bronze (by Poseidon—the water force). We are told about chaotic beings put into the pentemychos, and we are told that the Darkness has an offspring that is cast into the recesses of Tartaros. No surviving fragment makes the connection, but it is possible that the prison-house in Tartaros and the pentemychos are ways of referring to the essentially same thing. According to Celsus, Pherecydes said that: "Below that portion is the portion of Tartaros; the daughters of Boreas [the north wind], the Harpies and Thuella [Storm], guard it; there Zeus banished any of the gods whenever one behaves with insolence."[21] Thus the identity between Zeus' prison-house and the pentemychos seems likely.


Pherecydes' "Pentemychos" was thought to have contained a mystical esoteric teaching, treated allegorically. One ancient commentator said that:

Also, Pherecydes, the man of Syros, talks of recesses and pits and caves and doors and gates, and through these speaks in riddles of becomings and deceases of souls.[22]

A comparatively large number of sources say Pherecydes was the first to teach the eternality and transmigration (metampsychosis) of human souls.[23] Both Cicero and Augustine thought of him having given the first teaching of the "immortality of the soul".[24] It is not surprising that some considered Pherecydes to have been the teacher of Pythagoras.[25] That he was the first to teach such a thing is doubtful, but that he was among the first and that he did profess this teaching is certain. Hermann S. Schibli concludes that Pherecydes "included in his book ["Pentemychos"] at least a rudimentary treatment of the immortality of the soul, its wanderings in the underworld, and the reasons for the soul’s incarnations".[26]

Pherecydes was occasionally counted among the Seven Sages of Greece. A sun-dial ("helio-tropion"), supposedly made by Pherecydes, was said by Diogenes Laërtius to be "preserved on the island of Syros."[27]


  1. C. H. Kahn - (Harvey Yunis ed.) - Written texts and the rise of literate culture in ancient Greece - 262 pages ISBN 0-521-80930-4 Cambridge University Press, 2003 Retrieved 2012-02-08
  2. Herbert Granger, (2007), The Theologian Pherecydes of Syros and the Early Days of Natural Philosophy, pp. 135-163 Harvard Studies in Classical Philology. Vol. 103.
  3. Mark Henderson Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the tyranny of Asia: a study of sovereignty in ancient religion - 452 pages ISBN 0-520-24349-8 - p48 University of California Press, 1 June 2006 Retrieved 2012-02-08
  4. Diogenes Laertius, i. 116-121; Diodorus Siculus, 10.4.3; Suda, Pherekudes Babuos Syrios
  5. Aristotle, Metaphysics, 1091b8
  6. Plutarch, Sulla 36
  7. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, i. 16
  8. William Smith, (1870), Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology - Boston, Little archive Retrieved 2012-02-08 and also earlier
  9. Tufts University - perseus Retrieved 2012-02-08 ← edit 15:51, 27 November 2010
  10. G.Kirk, J.Raven and M. Schofield (2003). 《The Presocratic Philosophers》. Cambridge University Press.  p. 51,
  11. H.S.Schibli (1990). 《Pherekydes of Syros》. Clarendon Press Oxford.  p. 48,
  12. Kirk et al - p 56-60
  13. Kirk et al, p. 34
  14. H.S.Schibli, - p. 22
  15. Kirk et al , - p. 62
  16. Kirk et al , - p. 63
  17. Martin Litchfield West Indo-European poetry and myth - 525 pages ISBN 0-19-928075-4 - page 347 Oxford University Press, 12 July 2007]
  18. Kirk et al, - p. 66
  19. Kirk et al , - pp. 66-67,
  20. Kirk et al, - p. 66"
  21. Schibli, - p. 22
  22. Kirk et al , - p. 59
  23. Schibli, - p. 104
  24. 9th Edition of Encyclopedia Britannica - Volume 18: Pherecydes Of Syros Retrieved 2012-02-08
  25. Wikisource-logo.svg Diogenes Laërtius, Book 1, 13, 118-9. Wikisource-logo.svg Book 8, 2, 40.
  26. Schibli, - p. 108
  27. Wikisource-logo.svg Diogenes Laërtius, Book 1, 119.

Further reading

  • Hermann S. Schibli, (1990), Pherekydes of Syros. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-814383-4

External links

SECTION 3 (Page 33)편집

[Page 33]

"Nimrod was a Mighty Hunter" is a proverb편집

[Page 33] III. Nimrod "was a Mighty Hunter ([greek] gigas chynegos) before the Lord, wherefore35) it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the Lord."

35) Gen. x. v. 9.

This is a curious passage in the laconic (말을 많이 하지 않는, 할 말만 하는) books of Moses; and we cannot but ask, by whom was it said, and wherefore (왜 (why), 무슨 이유로, 무엇 때문에)?

It is a proverb (속담, 대동사), and it was said by the [greek] ainigmatisai, "them that speak36) in proverbs." Proverbium, is a phrase substituted for another phrase, and adagio (= adage, 속담, 격언) seems to signify the approximation of two different things by comparison, or if you read it abegio37), the deflexion (굴절[편향/꺾임])

36) Numb. xxi. v. 28.

37) See Varto Ling. Imt. vi p. 87* Bipont

[Page 34] of your language from the direct and proper to the oblique and symbolical, whence ((…한) 곳에서) the name Loxias, the phrase [greek] scholioi logoi, etc. As, when you say Auribus lupum teneo (= [구글 번역] I hold the wolf by the ears), or, I have caught a Tartar, which you say is simply false, there being neither any wolf nor any Tartar; but it is true that your actual circumstances do bear a certain similitude to those, which are supposed in the fable of the Wolf or of the Tartar. Therefore, by substitution or adaction, that which you say is true. Discourse being compared to a path along which the mind is travelling.

[greek] Esi moi Theon echati
[greek] Myria panta cheleuthos

it followed, that such discourses as were different from the direct and beaten track (밟아 다져진 길; 보통의 방법, 상도(常道)), but leading towards the same goal, were by-paths, [greek] par-oimiai, by which name the first of Solomon's scriptures is called, or [greek] parodia.

From the idea of motion in such an indirect and oblique line, the same were called [greek] parabolai, by which appellation the illustrations by way of similitude, in the new testament, are mostly called.

AEnigma, though now most commonly applied to similitudes hard of discovery and made in jest (농담으로), was the peculiar name for those oracles, which the fierce and overweening Sibyl of Thebes used to deliver.

Therefore, if Nimrod was called " a Hunter before God" pro-verbially, par-oemiacally, or para-bolicaliy, that is as much to say, as, that those who called him so did not mean the sport or business of hunting, but meant something else beside that, but similar to it.

Who said the proverb "Nimrod was a Mighty Hunter"?편집

Nimrod "was a Mighty Hunter ([greek] gigas chynegos) before the Lord, wherefore35) it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the Lord."

It is not usual in Holy Writ to cite authorities in confirmation of the fact asserted, for this reason, that the scriptures of the Israelites did not repose upon (~에 놓여 있다, ~에 잠겨 있다) the authority of their traditions, but were particularly distinguished from them, and rested upon an inherent and self-sufficing authority. But although citations from profane or even sacred sources are seldom, if ever, used to confirm the allegations (혐의[주장]) of the text, they

[Page 35] are habitually brought forward, in order to their own confirmation or rather elucidation ((더 자세히) 설명하다); that is to say, either to point out the fulfilment of a plain38) prophecy, or to explain the drift of an oblique39) and paroemiacal prediction.

38) 1 Kings, xv. 29. 2 Kings, xv. 12.

39) Matt. xxiv. 15. John, iii. 14, 15, xix. 24. Acts, xiii. 35, 36.

There are several such quotations in the Old Testament, in which the sacred writings of the Church of God, anterior to the imposing of the fetters of the law, the Church of Shem, and of Abraham, are cited in evidence of their own fulfilment.

One of these volumes called the Book of Jasher, is quoted in that of Joshua40),

40) C. x. 13.

"Is not this written in the book of Jasher? So the Sun stood still in the midst of Heaven, and hastened not to go down about a whole day."

And the following occurs in41) Samuel,

41) L. %. c. 1.v. 18.

"And David lamented with this lamentation over Saul and over Jonathan his son; also he bade them teach it to the children of Judah, behold it is written in the book of Jasher."

So say the Greek interpreters, and the context demands that meaning; but our version hath teach the use of the bow, which is absurd in its literal sense, but arises, as I suppose, out of some metaphor of the ancient seer, similar to that of Pindar42),

42) Isth. v. v. 58. and sec Olymp. 11. v. 150. 163. ix. v. 8. 17. Eurip. Troad. 446. Ion. 256.

[greek] TAwcrcra
[greek] JXOJ ro^cVfj^ar eyji tsci
[greek] xstvcoy

And people have not observed that these are illustrations of prophecy, owing to the words being in the past tense, and forgetting that the visions of prophecy are often delivered in that tense, and in the likeness of a man living in the time of their real occurrence.

"He hath passed over the river, he hath laid up his carriages at Micmas, Rama is afraid, Gibeah of Saul hath fled."

Sefer haYashar (Hebrew ספר הישר "Book of the Upright One"). In English, Jashar was traditionally left untranslated and rendered Book of Jasher.

Biblical references

Rabbinical treatises

  • Sefer haYashar (Amoraim), a collection of sayings of the sages from the Amoraim period in Rabbi Zerahiah's Sefer Hayasher
  • Sefer haYashar (Ibn Ezra), a commentary on the Pentateuch by the 12th century Rabbi Abraham Ibn Ezra
  • Sefer haYashar, by the Kabbalist and philosopher Rabbi Abraham Abulafia
  • Sefer haYashar, Jacob ben Meir's 12th century treatise on Jewish ritual and ethics
  • Sefer haYashar of Zerahiah ha-Yevani, a moral treatise of the 13th century published as Ha-Yewani Zerahiah, Sefer Hayashar, The Book of the Righteous
  • Sefer haYashar of Jonah ben Abraham, a 14th century work by Rabbi Jonah ben Abraham of Gerona
  • Sefer haYashar (midrash), a 15th century book of Jewish legends covering the period from the creation of man to the first wave of the conquest of Canaan



  • Book of Jashar by Benjamin Rosenbaum. A fictional translation of the supposed Book of Jasher mentioned in 2 Samuel.

The Book of Jasher (also, Jashar) or Book of the Just Man (Hebrew sēfer ha yāšār ספר הישר) is an unknown book mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. The translation "Book of the Just Man" is the traditional Greek and Latin translation, while the transliterated form "Jasher" is found in the King James Bible, 1611.

Biblical references

The book appears to be referenced from around the reign of David. 2 Samuel 1:18 states:

To teach the Sons of Judah the use of the bow; behold it is written in the Book of the Upright (per haiYāšār).

David's lament for Jonathan immediately follows.[1]

The Book of Joshua 10:13 states:

And the Sun stood still, and the Moon stayed,
until the people had avenged themselves on their enemies.
Is this not written in the Book of the Upright (per haiYāšār)?[2]

The presence of this event in a book of poetry has been interpreted as a poetic description of the prolonged battle.[3] Some think it was inserted because Joshua wanted to show non-believers of the event that even another person besides him recorded it.[4]

The Septuagint translation renders sefer hayashar in both cases as 'Book of the Just'. The reference to the bow is here missing so that the text reads:

And he gave orders to teach it the sons of Iouda: behold it is written in the Book of the Just.

According to the Medieval Jewish scholar, Rashi, Sefer HaYashar refers to the Pentateuch, as a fulfillment of Jacob's prophecy regarding Ephraim “His [Ephraim's] seed will fill the nations.” (Gen. 48:19) and that this refers to Joshua's renown after the miracle of the standing of the sun.[5]


Book of Enoch편집

[Page 36] The epistle of St. Jude contains a prophecy of the antediluvian patriarch Enoch,

"Behold the Lord cometh with ten thousand of his saints," etc.

From which it has been supposed that the authour of that epistle received and cited, as a holy scripture, that which is called the Book of Enoch, being an ignorant and ridiculous effusion concerning the supposed intermarriage of men with the angels of heaven.

But that supposition (which goes to the rejection of Jude's epistle) is answerable in two ways.

1. The book in question is so monstrously absurd, that no person citing it, or supposed to cite it, for scripture, could have obtained credit with Tertullian, and so many other shrewd (상황 판단이 빠른, 예리한) and judicious (신중한, 판단력 있는) men, as did in early times pin (꽂다[고정시키다]) their faith upon that epistle.

2. A man so profoundly ignorant of criticism, as to receive the said book for a divine revelation, and so nearly allied to the errours of gnosticism, as to believe in its contents, would never have been able or willing to write an epistle so evangelical and free from the taint of haeresy, as that of Jude.

The solution, which derives this passage from the false Enoch, doth [as people say] prove too much.

The just inference is, that St. Jude hath cited a genuine fragment of the earliest patriarchal scriptures, probably not from the entire prophecies of Enoch, but more likely from sacred books of a later date than his, in which those words were preserved;

and that Jude's epistle furnished a handle for a subsequent fabrication of the grossest kind43).

43) In like manner, the Libellus de Ascensione Mosis must have been fabricated upon the ninth verse of Jude, in which the body of the Mosaical church is figuratively called the body of Moses. See Origen. de Principiis, L. 3. c. 2. p. 138. Paris, 1733.

And it shews, that the style, and application, of prophecy, in Enoch's time, was the same as under the circumscribed church of Israel.

"Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, for he hath visited and redeemed his people, and hath raised up a horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David; as he spake by the mouth of the holy44) prophets, which have been since the world

44) Luke c. 1. v. 70. see Gen. iv. 23. v. 29.

[Page 37] began."

These words are very correctly translated, and it would be poor sort of quibbling (트집) to try to account for them, by a single stanza sung by Lamech the Cainite, and by one solitary prophecy of Lamech the Sethite concerning his son Noah.

Book of the Wars of Jehovah편집

Another work, long since forgotten,45) is the Book of the Wars of Jehovah, the possession of which might perhaps have rendered superfluous ((더 이상) 필요치 않은[불필요한]) many of the conjectures in this volume.

45) However, this obvious opportunity for forgery and blasphemy was laid hold of, by some of those societies who take and administer secret oaths. Their Book of the Wars related to the atchievements of certain Heroes, sons of Incubi and of Succubae. Nous en avons les Histoires par devcrs nous, dans le livre des Guerres du Seigneur, cite au vingt-troisieme chapitre des Nombres (= [구글 번역] We have the stories written before us in the Book of the Wars of the Lord, quoting the twenty-third chapter of Numbers). Comte de Gabalis, p. 140. cd. Amst 1671.

Moses46) quotes from thence the following words,

46) Numb. xxi. 14.

"What he did in the Red-Sea, and in the brooks (시내, 개천) of Arnon, and at the stream of the brooks, that goeth down to the dwelling of Ar, and lieth upon the border of Moab."

But the poems most immediately to our purpose, are those which are cited as "they who speak in proverbs," and from whom47) Moses hath quoted, and Jeremiah hath partly borrowed, these words,

47) Ib. v. 27.

"Come into Heshbon, and let the city of Sihon be built and prepared. For there is a fire gone out of Heshbon, a flame from the city of Sihon. It hath consumed Ar of Moab, the lords of the high-places of Arnon. Woe to thee Moab! thou art undone, O people of Chemosh. He hath given his sons that escaped, and his daughters, into captivity unto Sihon, king of the Amorites. We have shot at them. Heshbon is perished even unto Dibon, and we have laid them waste even unto Nophah, which reacheth unto Medebah."

This, which is called a proverb, is the effusion of a poet filled with the spirit of prophecy. And from those poems probably, or from some other of the same sort, those words are borrowed,

"Even as Nimrod the Mighty Hunter before Jehovah,"

which the Greek version calls an aenigma.

The Book of the Wars of the Lord ( סֵפֶר מִלְחֲמֹת יהוה ) is one of several non-canonical books referenced in the Bible which have now been completely lost.[1] It is mentioned in Numbers 21:14–15, which reads: "From there they set out and camped on the other side of the Arnon, which is in the desert and bounding the Amorite territory. For Arnon is the border of Moab, between Moab and the Amorites. That is why the Book of the Wars of the LORD says: '... Waheb in Suphah and the ravines of Arnon, and at the stream of the ravines that lead to the dwelling of Ar, which lies along the border of Moab.'"

Amongst academics[누가?], it is generally thought to be a collection of victory songs or poems,[출처 필요] although some readers[누가?] have suggested it may be a prose military history. David Rosenberg suggests in his The Book of David that it was written in 1100 BCE or thereabouts. It has been suggested by the theologian Joseph Barber Lightfoot that the book was one and the same as the mysterious biblical Book of Jasher.

The Book of the Wars of the LORD is cited in the mediaeval Book of Jasher (trans. Moses Samuel c. 1840, ed. J. H. Parry 1887) Chapter 90:48 as being a collaborative record written by Moses, Joshua, and the children of Israel.[2]

See also

External links


  1. Student, Gil. On the Authorship of the Torah. (Aishdas.org) The author writes: "So far, we have seen the talmudic and midrashic evidence that the forefathers, including Moshe, wrote books other than the Torah that were maintained and studied. However, there is also much internal evidence that there were other books written. Consider the following verses," after which the author cites as examples of lost books Exodus 17:14 (words written in remembrance of the destruction of Amalek), Exodus 24:7 (Book of the Covenant), Numbers 11:26 (recorded ones), Numbers 21:14 (Book of the Wars of the LORD), and Numbers 33:2 (Journeys).
  2. Book of Jasher 90:48

Even as Nimrod the Mighty Hunter before Jehovah편집

Considering the symbolical nature of all prophetic compo-

[Page 38] sitions, and that the hunting of a wild animal is an action devoid of (~이 없는) all moral or religious importance, we must suppose that some other thing, of which hunting may furnish a similitude, is really meant; or perhaps, several other things are meant, for the more similitudes coincide in one assimilation, the more admirable is the choice of the symbol, and the more pregnant with truth is the prophecy.

The prophecy of Enoch relates to the latter days, and so, as I conjecture, does this of the AEnigmatists, foreshadowing the life and actions of another Mighty Hunter of the bodies and souls of men. This interpretation is adopted by the poet Prudentius, who treats of Nimrod, as of a type of Satan or Demogorgon, seeking whom he may devour,

Ars olli captare feras, animalia bruta
Irretire plagis, retinacula denique caecis
Indeprensa locis erranti opponere praedae.
Hic ille est venator atrox, qui caede frequenti
Incautas animas non cessat plectere Nehroth;
Qui mundum, curvis amfractibus et sylvosis
Horrentem scopulis, versuto circuit astu.
[구글 번역]
Art Straining to catch game, animals
entangled stripes, finally ties the blind
UNSEEN blindly oppose places to loot.
This is a fierce hunter, who crowded the murder
Unwary souls never stops Nehroth braid;
Who world, winding and winding wooded
Rugged cliffs, about wily cunning.

When Christ met the fishermen, Simon and Andrew, he said, Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men. They were Mighty Fishers before Jehovah.

And Jeremiah48) says of the reassembling of the scattered tribes of Israel,

48) Jer. c. xvi. v. 16.

"Behold, I will send for many fishers, and they shall fish them; and after I will send for many hunters, and they shall hunt them, from every mountain and from every hill, and out of the holes of the rocks."

Nimrod hunted with fierce dogs of war, by whose violence he set up a spiritual imposture and, it's consequence, a theocratic tyranny, but Peter's fishing was widely different, and he filled his nets with men, neither by eloquence, nor by violence, but by a miraculous draught (물약, 찬바람[외풍], 죽 들이마시기).

SECTION 4 (Page 39)편집

Names of the Mighty Hunter편집

[Page 38] IV. The Mighty Hunter was an awful and well-known

[Page 39] personage among the legendary Daemons and Heroes of the gentiles, and appears under a variety of names.


No. 1. Foremost stands Orion, armed with a brazen club, as he is described in the descent of Ulysses to Hell; not, however, in the authentic part of that narrative.

[greek] Toy $s \t?t 'nptwva Tleh-ilpiov slcrsvoyjara49)
[greek] c/xou eltevvra xar drpo$e\ov

[Page 40]

[greek] Tov$ avT0$ xaretitfvev h
[greek] Xgf?cr?y l%a>v poitaXov irayxatocsov, ale* daye$.

49) Pseud-Homer. Od. xi. v. 571.

[greek] xxxxx
[greek] 'Ot/8* Q?ov iv Mahays rs xorj'A^oSAq* pr/ lyetaf,

saith old Hesiod; and he is generally understood to recommend mallows (아욱) and asphodel (아스포델 (백합과), [그리스신화] 낙원에 피는 지지 않는 꽃; 수선화) for a man's diet. Which I will not here tarry to controvert (반박[반증]하다); although I have read somewhere (I believe in Abbate Fortis's History of Dalmatia) that the Asphodel is a very deleterious root. Whatever cause may have rendered this plant sacred or mystical, such it certainly was.

On the shores of Oceanus stood a stone called Gigonian, so vast that no force would move it, but at the touch of Asphodel it would move. Ptol. Heph. ap. Phot. 1. 3.

And Gigon, according to Stephen of Byzantium, was the king of the AEthiopes or Cushim whom Bacchus conquered. This Gigonian stone is an inaccurate account of the portentous ((특히 불길한) 전조[징후]가 되는) rocking stones.

The Asphodel was called by Tbeophrastus the Epimenidian plant, but Epimenides (as I shall elsewhere shew) was Nimrod. The name As-Phod-El is formed upon that of the God Phod or Buddha, whose name rings every change upon the vowels, and upon the two variable consonants B-F-P-V and D-T-Th.

The Campus Buddhicus where Orion hunts is the same as the [greek] pedion aleion, or untilled (갈지 않은, 경작하지 않은) plain, of Bellerophontes; and agrees with the Cyrrhaean plain of Delphi, the Martial Plains of the Colchic AEetes (아이에테스: 헬리오스와 페르세이스의 아들, 콜키스의 왕) and of the Romans, the Elysian plain of Rhodes, [greek] Elysion, iiros pedion peri Rodon, Etym. M., the [greek] chabieromenon pedion of the island Panchaia, Diod. v. c. 44, and the Orgas of Eleusin. Paus. 1. 3. c. 4.

It was a part of the Nimrodian institute [carried far and wide by his dispersed subjects] to dedicate a land to the Lord which men might not use, nor the plough (쟁기, 북두칠성) violate; arising no doubt from what "his father had shown him and his elders had told him" concerning the reserved and demesne ((과거 장원(manor)에 딸려 있던) 영지(領地)) inheritance of the Lord. V. Deut. xxxii. vss. 7, 8, 9. Ps. cv. v. 11. cviii. vss. 7, 8, etc.

The real demesne was usurped by the house of Canaan, by some tribes of Cushim or Rephaim, and by the Shemite Pentapolis of Sodom; and in lieu (대신에) thereof a tract of land was superstitiously dedicated. Thus unused and afforested (삼림으로 만들다) it would be filled with beasts, and to hunt in it was lawful and even necessary. Here we have the origin of the Royal Forest or King's Desert; and it is remarkable that our system of Norman forest laws is taken from that still extant [v. Manwood], which was brought in by Canute the Dane; so that I believe we may trace the game laws of the Huntsman King, into the wild northern woods of his descendants the European Goths.—See Plutarch Val. Publ. c. 13, 14. The name Paradise was extended even to these homing wildernesses. Philostr. Ap. Tyan. L. 41. c. 38. p. 46.

Archer Hercules of the Odyssey편집

This is one of the mythic interpolations, for which the descent of Ulysses afforded the fabulous minstrels (음유 시인들) such a famous opportunity. And the Archer Hercules of the Odyssey, with his baldric (수대(綬帶) (어깨에서 옆구리에 걸치어 칼을 차는)) adorned with every sort of wild beast, seems to be the same character under another name;

the ancients at least showed themselves convinced of their virtual identity, by taking the Club of Orion to arm Hercules withal (게다가, 마찬가지로, 동시에); although the latter is exclusively an Archer in Homer, whose genuine verses describe him thus,

[greek] 9A[u$i $6 P1* x^a7y^ vsxvwv50)
[greek] ijV, (QUOVOJV ws *°
[greek] TJavTor drvtypsvooy) 6 8*
[greek] egepvy} yvxn FeFotxwg,
[greek] rofyy e^wv, noil eiri vevpxtyy oi'roy,
[greek] am GaXeovrt FeFoixoug.
[greek] oi d[i(pi irspi rrfsffw doprqg Iva $$nteka Fepya rervx.ro,
[greek] kpxrm T", dy^ors^t re xve$, ^apoieoi re re,
---------------Black he stood as night,
His bow uncased, his arrow strung for flight;
Stern-gazing He, like one pre,par'd to smite.
About him went, to hang his trusty blade,
A golden belt, where godlike art had made
Bears and wild hogs, the tawny lion's pride,
Battles, and death, and various homicide.

50) The Parthian kings performed sacrifice to Hercules the Huntsman upon Mount Sambulos in Assyria, who, at stated times, used to appear to his priests in the night, and order them to saddle his horses for the chase. The horses, being equipped, and furnished with quivers (화살통, 전동) full of arrows, would run wild into the forests, and return home weary at night, with their quivers empty. Then the God used to appear a second time, and declare what tract of forest he had visited; and throughout that tract the wild beasts were found to be slain. Tacit. Annal. L. xii. c. 13.

Here we observe, that the Person, so pre-eminent in the

[Page 41] Chase, was equally so in War: The Chase not only IS A school of hardihood (대담, 배짱, 용기) calculated to form warriors, but it in fact WAS THE school out of which war originally came; and no small part, of what we set down for Notions and Theories, are simple commemorations of ancient Fact. A searcher of antiquity should carry that along with him.

Golden telamon of Hercules편집

The golden telamon (남상주(男像柱)) of Hercules is no other than the belt of Orion, so celebrated in the Sphere, concerning which Aratus says,


51) Phaen. 587.

This Telamon or Belt grew into a person, and forms in mythology the hero Telamon father of Ajax. The said Hero did little or nothing on his own account, but was the sole companion and partner of Hercules in three notable enterprises,

  1. the liberation of Hesione and seizure of the city Ilion;
  2. the destruction of the Meropes;
  3. and lastly (and most to our purpose) the capture of the Talismanic Belt from the Queen of the Amazons, to obtain which, they made an expedition into Scythia.

Telamon is therefore the telamon of Hercules; but if the Homeric [greek] Telamoniades be a patronymic (아버지[남자 조상]의 이름을 딴 이름) from a real man's name, and be not rather expressive of some superstitious idea respecting the birth of Ajax, we must then understand that some favourite and confidential friend of Nimrod, was represented as standing him in the same stead, which was mystically denoted by the Belt, whatever that was.

Telamon was the father of the hero Ajax in Greek mythology.

Telamon may also refer to:

Architectural telamon on the Wayne County, Ohio courthouse.

In Greek mythology, Telamon (Τελαμών), son of the king Aeacus of Aegina, and Endeis and brother of Peleus, accompanied Jason as one of his Argonauts, and was present at the hunt for the Calydonian Boar. In the Iliad he was the father of Greek heroes Ajax the Great and Teucer the Archer by different mothers. Some accounts mention a third son of his, Trambelus.[1][2] He and Peleus were also close friends with Heracles, assisting him on his expeditions against the Amazons and against Troy (see below).

In an earlier account recorded by Pherecydes, Telamon and Peleus were not brothers, but friends. According to this account, Telamon was the son of Actaeus and Glauce, with the latter being the daughter of Cychreus, king of Salamis;[3] and Telamon married Periboea, daughter of King Alcathous of Megara.


After killing their half-brother, Phocus, Telamon and Peleus had to leave Aegina. King Cychreus of Salamis welcomed Telamon and befriended him. Telamon married Cychreus' daughter Periboea, who gave birth to Ajax. Later, Cychreus gave Telamon his kingdom. In other versions of the myth Cychreus' daughter is named Glauce, and Periboea is Telamon's second wife, and the daughter of Alcathous.

Telamon also figures in both versions of Heracles' sacking of Troy, which was ruled by King Laomedon (or Tros in the alternate versions). Before the Trojan War, Poseidon sent a sea monster to attack Troy.

In the King Tros version, Heracles (along with Telamon and Oicles) agreed to kill the monster if Tros would give him the horses he received from Zeus as compensation for Zeus' kidnapping Ganymede, Tros' son. Tros agreed; Heracles succeeded and Telamon married Hesione, Tros' daughter, giving birth to Teucer by her.

In the King Laomedon version, Laomedon planned on sacrificing his daughter Hesione to Poseidon in the hope of appeasing him. Heracles rescued her at the last minute and killed both the monster and Laomedon and Laomedon's sons, except for Ganymede, who was on Mt. Olympus, and Podarces, who saved his own life by giving Heracles a golden veil Hesione had made. Telamon took Hesione as a war prize and married her, and she gave birth to Teucer by him. Due to Ajax committing suicide at Troy, Telamon banished Teucer from Salamis for not bringing his brother home.

In Apollodorus' Library, Telamon was almost killed during the siege of Troy. Telamon was the first one to break through the Trojan wall, which enraged Hercules as he was coveting that glory for himself. Hercules was about to cut him down with his sword when Telamon began to quickly assemble an altar out of nearby stones in honor of Hercules. Hercules was so pleased, after the sack of Troy he gave Telamon Hesione as a wife. Hesione requested that she be able to bring her brother Podarces with her. Hercules would not allow it unless Hesione bought Podarces as a slave. Hesione paid for her brother with a veil. Podarces name was then changed to Priam – which, according to Greek author Apollodorus, was derived from the Greek phrase “to buy”.

The Telamon

The Telamon (also Song of Telamon, Telamon Song, Telamon-song) is an ancient Greek song (fl. 5th century BC) only found referred to by name in some ancient Greek plays[4] and later scholia or commentaries. It is usually thought to be a warlike song[5] about Telamon's son Ajax,[6] though some other commentaries thought it to be a mournful song about Telamon himself.[7] It began with: "Son of Telamon, warlike Ajax! They say you are the bravest of the Grecians who came to Troy, next to Achilles."[8]

In architecture

In architecture telamons are colossal male figures used as columns.[9] (See image above) These are also called atlas, atlantes or atlantids; they are the male versions of caryatids.


  1. Parthenius, Love Romances, 26
  2. Tzetzes on Lycophron, 467
  3. Bibliotheca iii. 12. 6
  4. Especially Aristophanes, Lysistrata, line 1236-1238.
  5. E.g. Anton Powell, Stephen Hodkinson, The Shadow of Sparta, Routledge, 1994, p. 39-40; and most annotated editions of Lysistrata (such as Jeffrey Henderson, Three Plays by Aristophanes, Routledge, 1996, p. 220).
  6. According to Eustathius of Thessalonica (commentaries on Iliad, Roman Edition, vol. 2, p. 285), the song took this name from its first line, "Son of Telamon".
  7. According to Erasmus (Adagia, 3, 4, 10: "Canere de Telamone"), the Telamon would have been a plaintive song about the father mourning his son.
  8. English translation of the Telamon quoted from A Select Collection of English Songs, vol. I, 1783, "A Historical Essay on the Origin and Progress of National Song", subpage x
  9. Hersey, George, The Lost Meaning of Classical Architecture, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1998 pp. 125, 126


External links

  • 위키미디어 공용에 Telamon 관련 미디어 분류가 있습니다.

Zodiacal Belt편집

The Belt is perhaps assigned to him as representing, in small, the Zodiacal Belt of the Heavens, an ornament which seems to confirm the arrogant pretensions ascribed to Nimrod of being the Son or Creator Word.

Believing, as I suppose we must, that the obliquity (경사진 것; 비뚤어진 상태) of the Equator's plane to that of the Ecliptic originated in the same violent exertion of Divine Power which made the Flood,

[Page 42]

[greek] xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxx52),

52) Orpheus H.47.

the Zodiac would be regarded by the Noachidae as an important discovery, and would be connected in their minds with a manifestation of the Deity.

Some say HE bade his Angels turn askance (옆으로, 비스듬히)
The poles of Earth, twice ten degrees and more
From the Sun's axle; they with labour pushed
Oblique (비스듬한, 사선의) the centric globe. Some say, the Sun
Was bid turn reins from the equinoctial (주야 평분시의, 춘분[추분]의) road
Like distant breadth through Taurus with the Seven
Atlantic sisters and the Spartan Twins
Up to the Tropick Crab, thence down amain (힘껏, 쏜살같이; 황급히, 매우, 심히)
By Leo and the Virgin and the Scales
As deep as Capricorn, to bring in change
Of seasons to each clime; else had the Spring
Perpetual smiled on earth with vernant (= Flourishing, as in spring; vernal) flowers,
Equal in days and nights, except to those
Beyond the polar circles; to them day
Had unbenighted (= To overtake with night.) shone, while the low Sun
Had rounded still the horizon, and not known
Or East or West, which had forbid the snow
From cold Estotiland and south as far
Beneath Magellan.

The false notion of the Five Terrestrial Zones was only a perseverance in believing that which once had been, or was believed to have been, the fact. If the plane of the Ecliptic (황도(黃道)의) coincided with that of the Equator ((지구의) 적도) produced, the equatorial regions would become adust (바싹 탄[마른], 햇볕에 탄) and barren, by the heat of their perpetual summer; and, except where springs and rivers fostered (조성하다) vegetation, uninhabitable. And some of the more northern regions, where a short but wonder-working summer now brings the corn to ripeness, would, under the distant and horizontal rays of the sun, have borne little food for man. Has

[Page 43] inter mediamque (= between the central) lay those fortunate regions in which a temperate (온화한) summer always reigned, and which peradventure (아마) were capable of nourishing as many people as the precarious (불안정한; 위태로운) harvests of the whole earth are now.

With abundance they afforded also the precious gift of health, with the more questionable advantage of longevity, for diseases are mainly the effect of the climates of the earth, all different, and almost all inclement (날씨가 (춥거나 비가 오는 등으로) 좋지 못한[궂은]). The communication by land from one Fortunate Zone to the other must have been very uneasy, like the voyages which are now made over the sands into Nigritia (= A region in central and western Africa including present-day Sudan).

Belt as the Band of Union편집

Unity of Empire was the watchword (좌우명) of the House of Cush, and the declared object of the establishment at Babel; and the Belt was no doubt regarded in another light, as the Band of Union, by which mankind were kept in subjection to it's wearer.


The Scythae are named after the man from whom they descend, Cuth son of Ham, the [greek] s being added, as it has been to the words [greek] Kedao, Kamandros, Myrina, and others; but in some instances it is not prefixed, as in the Aia or Ai-Aia of the Colchic Scythae, which is [greek] Kyt-Aia.

The Scythae, saith Diodorus,53) are descended from Scythes, son of Jove, and of a giantess, the daughter of the earth, whose upper parts were those of a woman, but her lower parts were those of the serpent Echidna (에키드나: 거대한 뱀, 반인반수, 포르키스와 케토스의 딸 혹은 크리사오르와 칼리로에의 딸, 모든 몬스터의 어머니).

53) Bibl. L. 2. c. 43.

This statement gives the name of Cuth, but the legend of Nimrod's birth, and therefore applies properly to those Scythae who were descended from the latter.

Of these we read somewhat in54) Herodotus, much to our purpose. Jove and the daughter of the river Borysthenes, had a son Targitaus, and three grandsons, Lipoxais, Arpoxais, and Colaxais, who were kings of Scythia; and in their time there fell from heaven certain utensils (기구, 밥그릇) made of burning gold, a plough, a yoke, a battle axe, and a phial (작은 유리병)55), which the elders could not touch for

[Page 44] their heat, but Colaxais (the youngest) handled them with impunity (벌을 받지 않고, 무사히).

54) L. 4. c 5. et. seq.

55) Among these Utensils was a Golden Flask, or Phial, which the Royal Scythians ever after wore in their Belts. Herod. 4. c. 10.

When the king of the Salian Franks embraced Christianity at Rheims, the Dove came down from Heaven with a Phial.

The reader will readily comprehend that the Heaven-descended Ampulla came out of his own Scythian belt. The Christian religion was then a compound into which the Spirit of Paganism was unavoidably admitted, and the conversions of those days were but so many compromises made with the old superstitions of the Catechumeni.

The tribe called Salians were probably of the Royal or Nimrodian family; and cherished that Herculean abhorrence (혐오) of female monarchy, which is the chief thing remembered in their code ef laws.

Terra Salica in mulierem non transit. Leg. Sal. tit. 62.
The willows (버드나무) of the land does not pass for a woman. [구글 번역]

To Clovis there were

"Tria pignora de coelo missa, Scutum Liliatum, Phiala odorata, et Vexillum splendidum purpuram aetheriam confitens

pro certo." Tolosan. cit. Wendelin. de Ampulla.

"Three children sent from heaven, shield Liliatum, perfume vials, and bright purple banner acknowledging the ether

for certain." [구글 번역]

This banner was called auri-flamma ( = gold-flame), another striking mark of connexion between Gold and coelestial Fire.

The Lilies are an obscure matter: some say they are a corrupt representation of the BEE; they may also be regarded as the heads of spears. And this I take to be the fact.

The Asphodelus of Epimenides (of which mention has already been made) belongs to the tribe of lilies, and was called the Spear of the King, and when we read that kings in the time of Quirinus (whose name is from Quiris, a spear) wore "hastas pro diademate ( = spears for crown [구글 번역])," we can only understand the heads of spears, or fleurs de lys ( = lily flowers [구글 번역]), placed in a circle. Justin. L. xliii. c. 3.

It is more extraordinary, that the Lily should bear the same name that was given of old to the prophetic voice of the Muses, [greek] Theon spi AEIPIOESSHEI. Theogon. v. 41. Iliad, iii. v. 152.

But this difficulty will nearly vanish when we recollect, that "the ancients, from the first origin of human affairs, pro Diis immortalibus hastas coluere ( = for the immortal gods worshiped spears [구글 번역])." Justin ubi sup.

Although language could not, literally, be spoken by means of lilies or spear-heads, it might be, and it was, so written.

The arrow or javelin-head (창두) writing found in Assyria and Babylonia, is, I suppose, an imitation of the spear-head or liliaceous writing of the primitive Assyrians, if it be not the same.

Litteras semper arbitror Assyrias fuisse ( = I think it was always a letter Assyrians [구글 번역]), saith Pliny. L. vii. c 57.

If language was called, and when committed to writing actually was, a flight of arrows, we have found the origin of the metaphor used in the book of Jasher, and afterwards so much employed by Pindar, and also of Homer's remarkable phrase, [greek] epea pteroenta.

Athenaeus says that Suson was a Greek word for a Lily, and that the name of the city Susa, meant the Lilies. But if the city of Shushan was called the Lilies, in like manner might the language of Cush, or of the Gods, be called the Susan or liliaceous voice, [greek] Op leirioessa. This Greek word, being obsolete, is probably Pelasgic, and as the Pelasgi were Cushim, it is again probable that they (or perhaps only the Royal Scythae) used the Lilies for their device. V. Athen. l. 12. s. 8.

I have said that the Salians, who, like the Saliares of Numa, possessed the ancilia, were a family of Nimrodians, or Heraclidae, who presided over the Franc nation; that they were but a small part of that nation, we have the high authority of Count Zosimus, who says, [greek] Zxxtwv tdyo?, tyayxa>? airofxoipov. L. 3. p. 147. Oxon.1697.

The Royal Scythians were descended from Colaxais편집

[Page 44] The Royal Scythians were descended from him (= Colaxais); and three kingdoms were formed for the three sons of Colax-

[Page 45] ais, in the principal of which the Coelestial Gold was kept.

On this, again, we must observe, that the GOLD which BURNED is the same Aour, from which, owing to its colour and spleadour, the metal has taken its name, Aur or Or.

Bow and Belt편집

The above is the Scythian tradition; but he (= Herodotus) gives another, upon the authority of the Greeks, who were settled upon the shores of the Euxine. Hercules (that is, Herculean Jove, the father, not the magnum incrementum (= great growth [구글 번역]), of which difference hereafter) founded the Scythian empire, and begot three sons of the serpent-nymph Echidna (에키드나: 거대한 뱀, 반인반수, 포르키스와 케토스의 딸 혹은 크리사오르와 칼리로에의 딸, 모든 몬스터의 어머니), of whom Scythes (the youngest) reigned in Scythia, and all the kings of the Scythians are from Scythes son of Hercules.

This Hercules left a bow and a belt in the hands of Echidna, and said to her,

"When your three sons came to manhood, give this land to him, who can bend the bow, as I bend it, and gird himself with the belt, as I gird myself."

The belt is therefore the symbol of the kingdom of Hercules; and Hercules, saith Dion56) Chrysostom,

56) Orat 1. de Regno, p. 12. ed. Casaubon.

"was king over all the earth from the rising to the setting sun."

He had formed a resolution, that he would suffer no portion of the human race to be subject to57) female domination, [greek] xxxyumixoxparsxxx, and therefore he made war upon the Gorgons (고르고: 세 명의 고르곤 자매, 포르키스와 케토스의 딸들) and Amazons; which brings us to the same point, his contest with the Amazons for the belt, being a contest for sovereign power.

57) Diod. Sic. L. 3. c 54.

Pomponius Mela saith58),

58) L. 2. c 1.

Mars omnium [Scytharum] Deus; ei pro SIMULACHRIS Enses et CINCTORIA dedicant, hominesque pro victimis feriunt.
Mars all [Scythians] God, for her images of swords and the girdle dedicate strike men as victims. [구글 번역]

Here we have the dire (대단히 심각한, 엄청난, 지독한) telamon, with its [greek] ponos and dndrochtasiai, representing not an hero merely but their supreme God.

Bow and Club편집

The Bow (which, with the Belt, formed the regalia of Scythia) is the weapon of Homer's Hercules. The club, which arms the Orion of the Homeridae, and the Hercules of all

[Page 46] other writers, was itself either a god, or at least (as Mela hath it) a simulachrum, and it was a weapon corresponding to the Sword of the Dove, being made from an Olive Tree59), so imperishable (불멸의, 불후의), that whenever he rested it against the earth, it sprouted forth into leaf, from whence this club obtained the name of Phyllites (천매암).

59) Palaeph. Incred. Pausan. L. 2. c. 31. s.13.

After the fall of the Assyrian empire, and under Xerxes ( = Xerxes I of Persia, reigned 485–465 BCE), the Assyrians, properly so called, were distinguished in his army by the extraordinary fashion of their brazen helmets, and by their clubs or maces, [greek] fornaXa Zv\w*60) rsrvXtvfiBva, wtypw.

60) Herod, viii. c 63.

In the Asiatic Researches61) we have an Indian drawing of the Mino-taur or bull-headed giant Asura fighting the goddess Cali, with a towery tiara upon his head, and a club in his hand,

61) Vol. viiLp. 76.


being an exact illustration of the fabled Hercules Orion, and of the Assyrian or Curdish troops of Xerxes.

The posterity of these latter are described by Geoffrey Winesauf, as they appeared in a desperate attack upon the lines of contravallation (대루(對壘): 포위군이 적의 요새의 둘레에 쌓는 참호·포루(砲壘)) before St. John d'Acre.

Gens quaedam larvalis . . . nigriore colore, enormi statura, feritate immanes, pro galeis habentes in capite rubra tegumenta, ferreis hirsutas62) dentibus clavas gestantes in manibus, quarum ictibus quassanda nec cassis resisteret nee lorica.
Larvalis a nation. . . rather swarthy (거무스름한) complexion, enormous stature, savage brutality, instead of having the head of the red helmets, blankets, shaggy (텁수룩한) teeth of iron nails, they carry in their hands, which blows quashed ((반란 등을) 진압하다; (소문 등을) 잠재우다[불식시키다]) nor oppose helmet or breastplate. [구글 번역]

62) It. Ric. Reg. L. 1. c. 35.

I know not whether this tribe of Nimrodians be yet in existence.

Ensifer Orion (Orion, the sword-bearer)편집

Hercules is seldom described as a63) sword-bearer, but the other is continually alluded to as Ensifer Orion (= SWORD-BEARING Orion). But among the various passages of antiquity in which that hero's actions

63) Pseud.-Hesiod. Scut. v. 138.

[Page 47] are commemorated (기념하다), I can remember none that alludes to his sword; it is always the Orion of the spheres, the constellation, to whom the sword is ascribed.

It is true that Lycophron saith of Diomede, about to sacrifice Iphigenea,

[greek] Pouarei rpiifarpov faayoLvw Kav$&ovo$64),

64) Lycophr. v. 328* Should we not read [greek] KavSaogo? paa-yavo is the opposite of the[greek] a-ya?a jSeXja. It is from [greek] Phasso, I slaughter, and [greek] ganos, which means Joy and Paradise; Hesychius; the joy purchased by piacular (속죄의; 죄 많은(sinful); 언어도단의, 지독한(atrocious)) bloodshed, the Valhalla of Odin.

in conformity with Mela's observation that men were sacrificed to the Enses Simulachra (= swords Images [구글 번역]).

In such case the Ensiform idol (칼 모양의(xiphoid) 우상) was both the Deity to whom, and the Rex Sacrificus (= king sacrifice) or Popa (= state of siege) by whom, the bloody rites were performed; he was God, King, and High-Priest;


and as much may be said of the Club, for Ropalus,65) son of Hercules, on the same day held obsequies (장례식) to his father as a Hero, and did sacrifice to him as a God.

65) Ptol. Heph. Nov. Hist. p. 148. Berol. 1824.


If we render [greek] pargano "with the sword," it is, therefore, true, because the swords were similitudes of Orion Tripator; but I believe that [greek] pargano is in the dative (여격), and that the words of Lycophron are equivalent to Lucian's66) [greek] Schythai men Achinache Thyontes.

66) Jup. Trag. c. 42.

"The ancients," saith Justin, "worshipped Spears, as, and for, the Immortal Gods;" and Suidas mentions that Acinaces among the Persians meant a Spear. But it was also 67) a sword, the form whereof in sacred mysteries is indicated by that of Dulfakar, but for the purposes of war it was a weapon of that curved form which we call a scimitar (언월도), the talismanic sickle of the bloody reaper Perseus (페르세우스: 반신),

67) Quint. Curt L. 3. c. 3. Jul. Pollux. Oxon. L. x. s. 138.

[greek] Zyv doBitayyjv xov$i?s r a o it r o A t K68).

68) Nonnus L. xlvii. v. 557.


Mars Acinaces69), and the Wind, were the gods of the Scy-

69) Herod. iv. c. 62. Lucian. Scyth. c 4. Toxar. c. 38. Ammianus. xxxi. c. 2. s. 23. Epiphan. Haeres. p. 8. Paris. 1622.

[Page 48] thians, and the idol of the former was an iron Sword erected upon a knoll (둔덕) of earth; he was their oath, [greek] ma ton Achinachen, and in their 70) solemn treaties (조약) they used to immerse him in their own blood.

70) Herod, iv. 70.

This weapon was not only held in honour by the Parthians, or Scytho-Persians, and worn on the right side by them, as we may learn from Valerius, describing Myracea the Parthian,

Subligat extrema patrium cervice tiaram,
Insignis manicis, insignis acinace dextro,
[구글 번역]
he binds extreme neck native headdress
The notorious handcuffs, marked scimitar on the right,

but it was, even under the Medo-Persian dynasty and Hystaspean creed, so far a talisman of the Asian Empire, that when Codomannus, in the exercise of his military experience, assimilated its form to that of the Grecian sword, the Chaldees declared that the empire would pass from his hands into those of the Greeks.

Sword of Ali편집

The worship of Acinaces, which even now subsists in Persia, under the modified title of the Sword of Ali, is one of the strongest marks of an original identity, subsisting between Magianism and Scythism.

Enchanted sword편집

The [greek] Agalma, or Simulachrum was usually made by the hands of men, and consecrated by all such magic rites as could infuse into it the Divine Principle, like magnetic power into the steel; even as Tirfing, the daemon sword of Gothic tradition, was wrought (초래하다[일으키다]) in the caverns of the North,

71) Sage Dualin wrought the precious blade,
It's edge on charmed anvil laid,
And as each stroke portentous (전조[징후]가 되는, 거들먹거리는, 거창하게 구는) rung,
The magic strain old Durin sung,
And Thorin and Nyrader wise
Swell'd the fell chorus to the skies.

71) Helga, B. 1. v. 1376.

[Page 49] This is, in the literal sense of the word, an enchanted or incantated sword.

But at times it happened (so men believed) that the god descended, ensiform, from Heaven, or ascended from Hell, [greek] achoiropoietos, or at least from no human smithy; but forged, if at all, upon the anvil of Acmon, the father of Uranus (우라노스: 태초신, 하늘의 남신, 가이아의 단성생식으로 낳은 아들), or of Acmon, the proudest of the Corybants, who discovered72)

72) See Schol. Ap. Rhod. 1.1129.

[greek] 'E; ifvp T* yvtyxav,
[greek] xat apnrpeire$ spyov efeifav.

This was more than even a virtuous or talismanic idol, it was the god himself, not indeed essentially, but in the form which he preferred to assume for making manifest his presence.

Such an event was perhaps an usual precursor of great revolu tions in Scythia; and in one instance it certainly was, I mean, that of Attila's attempt to subjugate (지배[통제]하에 두다) the world. I have observed once already that Attila was a great spiritual impostor, if he did not himself labour under a terrific delusion. One of his herdsmen (목동), tracking the blood of a wounded heifer (어린 암소), found a sword sticking in the earth, and upon which she had trodden, and brought it to Attila,

and Jornandes informs us of the vast inferences he drew from this event.

"Quo ille munere gratulatus, ut erat magnanimus, arbitrator se totius mundi principem constitutum, et per Martis gladium potestatem sibi concessam esse bellorum."
"After congratulating him upon whom is this gift and, being ambitious, they thought he appointed ruler of the whole world, and by the sword of Mars had been granted to the wars of the authority to himself." [구글 번역]

It may be wondered, why so ordinary a thing, as an old sword being found among the pastures (초원, 목초지) of a warlike nation, should have been in the king's eyes a manifestation of Acinaces. The answer is, that those who were led to any place by following the steps of a bull or a cow, were supposed to be led thither by the guidance of Divine Providence, as I shall hereafter have to explain more fully.

Chalyb, Chrysaor and Excalibar편집

To the Swords, Oarion, Acinaces, Dulfakar, and Tirfing,

[Page 50] should be added, 73) Chalyb, or Ascalon, the sword of Comana, which armed the Cappadocian daemon Georgius, Chrysaor the sword of Artegal, son of Gorloes,

73) Mautuan. Georg. op. tom. 2. p. 205. b. Seven Champions, c. 1.

Which steely brand, to make him dreaded more,
Astraea (아스트라이아: 에오스와 아스트라이오스의 딸) gave him, gotten by her slight,
And earnest search, where it was kept in store
In Jove's eternal house, unwist (= unknown, unrecognized) of wight (귀신, 유령, 혼령, 용맹스러운; 활발한, 민첩한),
Since He himself it used, in that great fight
Against the Titans, that whilome (예전에) rebelled
'Gainst highest heaven; Chrysaor (크리사오르: 포세이돈과 메두사의 아들, 페가수스의 형제) it was hight (…이라 일컫는),
Chrysaor, that all other swords excelled,
Well proved in that same day when Jove the giants quelled (진압[평정]하다),

and Excalibar, the sword of Arthur, whose spirit was so interwoven with the life of that wizard king, that he could not depart from the field of slaughter, where he lay wounded, to his enchanted garden, until Excalibar was cast into water; but that was no sooner done, than Arthur vanished through the air, in the shape of a phantom sword.

But the identity of these three goblin warriours of romance 74) is not to be doubted.

74) See Spenfcer. F. Q. 1. x. 65. and 111. iii. 26, 27.

The following passage from the Preiddeu Annwn (the Spoils of the Deep) of Taliessin, darkly as it is worded, shews that the sword of Arthur is that of the fiery Cherubim at the gate.

Is it not the cauldron from the Chief of Annwn75),
In it's fashion, a ridge round its edge of pearls?
It will not boil the food of a coward not sworn.
A sword bright flashing to him was brought,
And in the hand of Llaminawg was left;
Before the passage of the gate of Uffern
The Horns of Light are burning.
[Page 51] And when we went with Arthur, in his labours like


Excepting seven, none returned from Caer Vedivid.

75) Taliessin apud Turner, Hist, Ang. Sax. vol. 3. p. 627, 8.

Arthur and Christianity of the Britons편집

This poem shews that the Christianity of the Britons did not escape the wide-spreading infection of Gnosticism, in its worst form, and with it the infamous practice of administering secret oaths.

Annwn is Styx (스틱스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 딸, 강의 여신, 세상과 지하세계의 경계에 흐르는 강), the chaotic or abyssine waters, and Uffern is said to mean Hell, in allusion (as I suppose) to the subterraneous paradise called Elysium.

Arthur built a wall round the lake Lumonoz76), in which there were sixty islands, and upon each island was a rock, and upon each rock was an eagle's nest, and the sixty eagles used to assemble yearly, and, screaming aloud, proclaim the fates and fortunes of the year.

76) Gervas. Tilb. de Regno Britonum. p. 44. Helmstadt. 1573.

Into Lumonoz flowed sixty rivers, but one only flowed out of it into the sea.

This walled lake (if I be not deceived) is the enridged (= To make into ridges) cauldron (가마솥) of Annwn,

and Lumonoz77), in Gervas, must be taken from the name Llaminawg, given (I know not why) to it's Raven chief.

77) Mr. Davies, in his work upon the Rites of the Druids, translates Llaminnwg, the Sword-bearer, and supposes Loch Lomond to be the site of the other legend.

To this topic we must also refer the Geomantic Sword (풍수학의 검) (Ensis 78) Hellopius (= blade Hellopius)) of Theseus, which he took from under a ponderous (대단히 무거운, 크고 무거운) rock, and thereby established his birthright and sovereignty, the magic sword, no doubt, of Orion the Hellopian; that which Arthur drew from the cleft of a rock at Winchester, and that which was wedged (박혀서 꼼짝 않는) in the enchanted rock of Ormandine, but yielded to the hand of George "as though it had been hung by a thread of untwisted silk."

78) Hygin. Poet. Astron. c. 6. p. 436.


On the words of Aratus, [greek] Panta pheros potamon, it may be observed, that as an incarnation of the great daemon of the Flood, he is depicted in the Sphere as pouring out of his left foot the [greek] potamoio mega sthenos Ocheanoio. The river proceed-

[Page 52] ing from Orion is vulgarly called Eridanus (에리다노스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 강의 남신), but Eratosthenes 79) maintains that it is the Nile. This latter is the river Oceanus (오케아노스, 티타네스, 거대한 강의 남신, 세계해의 남신, 우라노스와 가이아의 아들, 3000 오케아니스의 아버지) of the Egyptians.

79) Catast. 37.

"Some" saith Herodotus80), "account for the swelling of the Nile, by saying that it flows from the Oceanus, but the Oceanus flows around the whole earth."

80) L. 2. c. 21. Diod. Sic. L. 1. c. 12. c. 19. c. 37.

Diodorus adds, that this was the doctrine of the priests, and that the Gods were born upon the banks of the Oceanus.

Homer accordingly describes the feast of Jove at Diospolis in AEthiopia (afterwards Upper AEgypt) in these terms,

[greek] Zeus gar es %?l x. & a v o y psr di&vfMms 'Atfliomja^
[greek] . *a,rn$ kftovro;

by which is meant the outlet of the subterranean diluvial ((특히 Noah의) 대홍수로 생겨난) waters, of which Penelope speaks in her grief,

xar d'dpoevra,
  • Ev ftp&xpr,s be GaXot dtyoppou81),

81) Od. xx. v. 65.

and at one day's sail before the wind from this outlet, Homer placed Pharos, the sacred isle of Proteus and Eidothea,

Totnrov dvev&, orrov ye
y, y Aiyu; spag eirnrmr,nv o,

a mystic legend which has given scope for the monstrous credulity of geographers in supposing that Alexandria was once as far from AEgypt, as a ship could sail in one day with the wind in her poop (선미루(배의 뒷부분에 있는 선루)).

In the newly published fragments of the Phaethon of Euripides we find that Aurora, the city of Merops and Clymena his parents, was situated on the plains through which the river Oceanus flowed,

[greek] 'Xlxsavou itehvuy Jtxyropes,

and the AEgyptian account of the Nile is more particularly

[Page 53] given by 82) Pausanias, namely, that the Nile actually was the river Euphrates, which, after discharging itself into a lake or inland sea, reappeared under that name in Upper AEthiopia.

82) L. 2. c. 5. s. 2.

Nor had that fable ceased to obtain (존재하다), even unto the thirteenth century, when Sir J. Mandeville 83) was informed upon the spot, that

83) Mand. p. 53. edit. 1725.

"this ryvere cometh rennynge from Paradys Terrestre, between the deserts of Ynde, and aftre, it smytt into londe and rennethe longe tyme many grete contrees undre erthe. And aftre, it gothe out undre an highe hille, that men clepen Alothe, that is betwene Ynde and Ethiope, the distance of five moneths journeyes fro the entree of Ethiope."

The river Oceanus편집

The river Oceanus is therefore the fountain of the Great Deep bursting out at the sources of the Euphrates in Paradise, where also the principal eruption of the deluge took place.

When all waters were but branches of the great reservoir, it is difficult to explain on any other principle, why the fount of the four streams was considered to be, emphatically (강조하여; 힘차게; 단호히), and by way of excellence (두드러지게), the mouth of the great deep, as it certainly was.

Fons sive fluvius egrediebatur ad irrigandum Paradisum. Hic est lingua Paradisi. Fons iste matrix fuit omnium aquarum84), quasi abyssus.
A spring or river went to irrigate Paradise. This is the language of Paradise. This was the source of the matrix of all the waters, as deep. [구글 번역]

84) Gerv. Tilb. Ot. Imp. L. 1. c. xi. p. 892.

It waters the whole earth by trachones, those are, subterraneous conduits (도관), from the four principal of which flow the Ganges, Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris.

And whenever a river was particularly distinguished, as [greek] Stygos aporroe, like the Titaresius in Thessaly, and the Inopus in Delos, they were probably such as flowed from an a-byss or pool which refused the plummet (급강하, 곤두박질치다, 급락하다), as Wastwater in Cumberland is reported to do.

Homer does in no part of his works confound (…이 틀렸음을 입증하다, 어리둥절[당혹]하게 만들다) the Sea, with the Oceanic Stream,

[greek] 'E? iwirep ttaytss irorafiot, KOU it a, r a 0 a X atr v a,85)
[greek] Kai irtiwou xprjvai, xa* tyeiara fLdxpa vouwrw.

85) II. xxi. v. 196; and see Od. xii. vss. 1 and 2.

The real flux (유동, 흐름) and reflux (역류; 퇴조(退潮), 썰물) of the ancient Oceanus (producing

[Page 54] the phaenomenon of tides) must be sought for at the poles of the earth, and they are the rivers mentioned by Virgil,

Pleias et Oceani spretos pede reppulit amnes,
Pleias of the ocean and the foot of rivers rejected, [구글 번역]

because86) (as Servius saith)

86) In Geo. iv. 233.

in morem fluminis ejus fluenta reditura prorumpunt.
in the manner of a river burst its return streams. [구글 번역]

But all the streams, and rivers, and the sea itself, were but [greek] aporroges or branches of Oceanus, whose main reservoirs (of which Styx was the most famous) could not appear upon the surface of the earth without working such portentous (불길한) ruin, as when Jove fulminated (맹렬히 비난하다) and Styx absorbed the Nephilim or Titans (티탄),

[greek] Helthe de ara prote Styx aothitos Oulymposde87)

87) Theogonia. v. 397.

Indeed, the Stygian oath, sworn by Jove and attested by Iris (이리스: 무지개의 여신, 신들의 전령사 여신) the daughter of Thaumas (타우마스: 바다의 남신, 바다의 경이로움, 폰토스와 가이아의 아들), forbade that he (= Oceanus) should ever be again roused from his infernal bed,

[greek] vor$w h BSWY88)

[greek] TLXVTCI Soup&roc vouu [greek] KJocrjy dgyvQsoto'i itgos dugavo

88) Theogonia. 777.

Therefore, when Jove summoned all the daemons and spirits of the world, including even the nymphs of the fountains and meadows, he (= Oceanus) alone was absent,

'Oure ft$ QUY * o r a ft co v 'atfeyv, itkyv 'Xlx?avoio.w89)

89) Iliad, xx. v. 7.

The river flowing from Orion's foot graphically illustrates Homer's [greek] Diipeteos Potamoio, or the river flowing from Dis, But in truth there is no difference between the Nile or Dark Blue river of Hell and the fabled (전설적인) Eridanus (에리다노스: 오케아노스와 테티스의 아들, 강의 남신) ; in the fortunate groves of Hades (하데스: 테오이 크토니오이, 크로노스와 레아의 아들, 죽음과 지하세계의 남신), so Virgil sings,

Plurimus Eridani per sylvam volvitur amnis;
Most of the wood Eridanus rolls; [구글 번역]


  1. It was Aëtius, later Patrician of the West, who managed this operation.