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히말라야 산맥편집

히말라야 산맥
(지리 유형: 산맥)
에베레스트 산의 북쪽면
티베트 자치구에 있는 베이스 캠프로
가는 길에서 본 모습
나라 네팔 · 미얀마 · 부탄 · 아프가니스탄 · 인도 · 중화인민공화국 · 파키스탄
최고점 에베레스트 산
 - 높이 8,848m (29,029ft)
 - 좌표

북위 27° 59′ 17″ 동경 86° 55′ 31″ / 북위 27.98806° 동경 86.92528°  / 27.98806; 86.92528

한영병기판편집

틀:Pp-move-indef 틀:Sprotect

Himalayas
Range
나라 Bhutan · 중화인민공화국(People's Republic of China· India · Nepal · Pakistan · Burma · Afghanistan
최고점 Mount Everest
 - 높이 8,848m (29,029ft)
 - 좌표

북위 27° 59′ 17″ 동경 86° 55′ 31″ / 북위 27.98806° 동경 86.92528°  / 27.98806; 86.92528

The Himalaya Range (산스크리트어(Sanskrit): literally, "abode of snow", Hindi/Sanskrit: हिमालय(हिमालय), IPA: /hɪˈmɑːləj(ə)/), the Himalayas or Himalaya for short, is a 산맥(mountain range) in 아시아(Asia), separating the 인도아대륙(Indian subcontinent) from the Tibetan Plateau(Tibetan Plateau). By extension, it is also the name of a massive mountain system that includes the 카라코람 산맥(Karakoram), the 힌두쿠시 산맥(Hindu Kush), and other, lesser, ranges that extend out from the 파미르 고원(Pamir Knot).

Together, the Himalayan mountain system is the planet's highest, and home to the world's highest peaks, the 8000미터 봉우리(Eight-thousander)s, which include 에베레스트 산(Mount Everest) and K2(K2). To comprehend the enormous scale of this mountain range, consider that 아콩카과 산(Aconcagua), in the 안데스 산맥(Andes), at 6,962 미터 (22,841 ft) is the highest peak outside Asia, whereas the Himalayan system includes over 100 mountains(over 100 mountains) exceeding 틀:M to ft.[1]

Some of the world's major (river)s, 갠지스 강(Ganges), Indus(Indus), Brahmaputra(Brahmaputra), Yangtze(Yangtze), 메콩 강(Mekong), Salween(Salween), 홍 강(Red River (Asia)), Xunjiang(Xunjiang), Chao Phraya(Chao Phraya), 이라와디 강(Irrawaddy River), 아무다리야 강(Amu Darya), 시르다리야 강(Syr Darya), 타림 강(Tarim River) and 황하(Yellow River), rise in the Himalayas, and their combined 유역(drainage basin) is home to some 3 billion people (almost half of Earth's population) in countries which includes 아프가니스탄(Afghanistan), 방글라데시(Bangladesh), 부탄(Bhutan), 중화인민공화국(People's Republic of China), 인도(India), 네팔(Nepal), 미얀마(Burma), 캄보디아(Cambodia), 타지키스탄(Tajikistan), 우즈베키스탄(Uzbekistan), 투르크메니스탄(Turkmenistan), 카자흐스탄(Kazakhstan), 키르기스스탄(Kyrgyzstan), 타이(Thailand), 라오스(Laos), 베트남(Vietnam), 말레이시아(Malaysia) and 파키스탄(Pakistan).

The Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of 남아시아(South Asia); many Himalayan peaks are sacred in 힌두교(Hinduism), 불교(Buddhism) and 시크교(Sikhism). The main Himalaya range runs, west to east, from the Indus river valley to the Brahmaputra river valley, forming an arc 틀:Km to mi long, which varies in width from 틀:Km to mi in the western Kashmir|카슈미르(Kashmir)-신장 위구르 자치구(Xinjiang) region to 틀:Km to mi in the eastern 티베트(Tibet)-아루나찰프라데시 주(Arunachal Pradesh) region. The range consists of three coextensive sub-ranges, with the northern-most, and highest, known as the Great or Inner Himalayas.

Ecology편집

 
Everest(Everest), the highest peak of the Himalayas

The flora and fauna of the Himalayas varies with climate, rainfall, altitude, and soils. The climate ranges from tropical at the base of the mountains to permanent ice and snow at the highest elevations. The amount of yearly rainfall increases from west to east along the front of the range. This diversity of climate, altitude, rainfall and soil conditions generates a variety of distinct plant and animal communities.

Lowland forests편집

On the Indo-Gangetic plain(Indo-Gangetic plain) at the base of the mountains, an 충적 평야(alluvial plain) drained by the Indus and Ganga-Brahmaputra river systems, vegetation varies from west to east with rainfall. The xeric(xeric) Northwestern thorn scrub forests(Northwestern thorn scrub forests) occupy the plains of Pakistan and the 펀자브 주 (인도)(Indian Punjab). Further east lie the Upper Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests(Upper Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests) of 우타라칸드 주(Uttarakhand) and 우타르프라데시 주(Uttar Pradesh) and Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests(Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests) of 비하르 주(Bihar) and 웨스트벵골 주(West Bengal). These are monsoon forests, with drought-deciduous trees that lose their leaves during the dry season. The moister Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests(Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests) occupy the plains of 아삼 주(Assam).

The Terai belt편집

Above the alluvial plain lies the Terai(Terai) strip, a seasonally marshy zone of sand and clay soils. The Terai has higher rainfall than the plains, and the downward-rushing rivers of the Himalaya slow down and spread out in the flatter Terai zone, depositing fertile silt during the monsoon season, and receding in the dry season. The Terai has a high water table due to groundwater percolating down from the adjacent zone. The central part of the Terai belt is occupied by the Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands(Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands), a mosaic of grasslands, savannas, deciduous and evergreen forests that includes some of the world's tallest grasslands. The grasslands of the Terai belt are home to the Indian rhinoceros(Indian rhinoceros) (Rhinoceros unicornis).

Bhabhar belt편집

Above the Terai belt is an upland zone known as the Bhabhar(Bhabhar), a zone of porous and rocky soils, made up of debris washed down from the higher ranges. The Bhabhar and the lower Shiwalik ranges have a subtropical climate. The Himalayan subtropical pine forests(Himalayan subtropical pine forests) occupy the western end of the subtropical belt, with forests dominated by Chir Pine(Chir Pine) (Pinus roxburghii). The central part of the range is home to the Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests(Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests), dominated by the sal tree(sal tree) (Shorea robusta). They are at the foot of the Himalayas where the Himalayan streams descend on to the plains.

Shiwalik Hills편집

Also called Churia or Margalla Hills, Sivalik Hills(Sivalik Hills) is an intermittent outermost range of foothills extending across the Himalayan region through 파키스탄(Pakistan), 인도(India), 네팔(Nepal) and 부탄(Bhutan). This region consists of many sub-ranges. Summits are generally 600 to 1,200 미터 (2,000 to 3,900 ft). Steeper southern slopes form along a fault zone called Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT); northern slopes are gentler. Permeable conglomerates and other rocks allow rainwater to percolate downslope into the Bhabhar and Terai, supporting only scrubby forests upslope. The Himalayan subtropical pine and broadleaf forests continue here.

Inner Terai or Dun Valleys편집

The Inner Terai valleys(Inner Terai valleys) are open valleys north of Shiwalik Hills or nestled between Shiwalik subranges. Examples include Dehra Dun(Dehra Dun) in India and Chitwan(Chitwan) in Nepal. Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests grow here.

Lesser Himalaya편집

Also called Mahabharat Range(Mahabharat Range), the Lesser Himalayas is a prominent range 2,000 to 3,000 미터 (6,600 to 9,800 ft) high formed along the Main Boundary Thrust fault zone, with a steep southern face and gentler northern slopes. They are nearly continuous except for river gorges, where rivers from to the north gather like candelabra in a handful of places to break through the range.

At these elevations and above the 생물지리학(biogeography) of the Himalayas is generally divided by the Kali Gandaki Gorge(Kali Gandaki Gorge) in central Nepal, one of the deepest canyons in the world.

At the middle elevations of the range, the subtropical forests yield to a belt of temperate broadleaf and mixed forests(temperate broadleaf and mixed forests) growing between 1,500 and 3,000 미터 (4,900 and 9,800 ft), with the western Himalayan broadleaf forests(western Himalayan broadleaf forests) to the west of the Gandaki River, and the eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests(eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests) to the east. The western broadleaf forests stretch from the Kashmir Valley(Kashmir Valley), across Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand, and through western Nepal. The eastern broadleaf forests stretch across eastern Nepal, through Sikkim and Bhutan, and through much of Arunachal Pradesh.

Midlands편집

This 'hilly' region (Pahad), averaging about 1,000 미터 (3,300 ft) immediately north of the Mahabharat Range, rises over about 100 킬로미터 (330,000 ft) to about 4,000 미터 (13,000 ft) at the Main Central Thrust fault zone, where the Greater Himalaya begin.

Above the broadleaf forests, between 3,000 and 4,000 미터 (9,800 and 13,100 ft), are temperate coniferous forests(temperate coniferous forests), likewise split by the Gandaki River. The western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests(western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests) are found below treeline in northern Pakistan, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and western Nepal. The eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests(eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests) are found in eastern Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, and Arunachal Pradesh. Along the border between Arunachal Pradesh and Tibet, the eastern subalpine conifer forests mix with the northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests(northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests). East Himalayan Fir(East Himalayan Fir), West Himalayan Spruce(West Himalayan Spruce), and Himalayan Hemlock(Himalayan Hemlock) are some important trees of these forests. 진달래속(Rhododendron)s are exceptionally diverse here, with over 60 species recorded in the northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests.

Greater Himalaya편집

North of the Main Central Thrust, the highest ranges rise abruptly as much as 4,000 미터 (13,000 ft) into the realm of perpetual snow and ice. As the Himalayan system becomes wider from east to west, the number of parallel high ranges increases. For example, Kagmara and Kanjiroba ranges both reach well over 6,000 미터 (20,000 ft) north of the 다울라기리(Dhaulagiri) Himalaya in central 네팔(Nepal).

Montane grasslands and shrublands(Montane grasslands and shrublands) grow above treeline. The northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows(northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows) are found in the high elevations of northern Pakistan, Jammu and Kashmir, and Himachal Pradesh. To the east, the western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows(western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows) cover extensive areas along the Tibetan border with Uttarakhand and western Nepal. The eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows(eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows) grow above the eastern and northeastern subalpine conifer forests, along the Tibetan border with eastern Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, and Arunachal Pradesh. The shrublands are composed of 노간주나무속(juniper)s as well as a wide variety of 진달래속(rhododendron)s. They also possess a remarkable variety of wildflowers: Valley of Flowers National Park(Valley of Flowers National Park) in the western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows contains hundreds of species. The upper limit of the grasslands increases from west to east, rising from 3,500 미터 (11,500 ft) to 5,500 미터 (18,000 ft). The grasslands are the summer habitat of the endangered snow leopard(snow leopard) (Uncia uncia).

Trans-Himalaya편집

The watershed between rivers flowing south into the Ganges or Indus and rivers flowing north into the Brahmaputra or mainstem Indus that flow around the ends of the entire range often follows somewhat lower, less rugged mountains tens of kilometers north of the highest ranges. South-flowing rivers form valleys in this region, often semi-arid due to rainshadow effects. These valleys hold some of the highest permanent villages on earth.

Origins and growth편집

 
The 6,000 km plus journey of the India landmass (Indian Plate) before its collision with Asia (Eurasian Plate) about 40 to 50 million years ago

The Himalayas are among the youngest mountain ranges on the planet, and consist mostly of uplifted sedimentary(sedimentary) and 변성암(metamorphic rock). According to the modern theory of 판 구조론(plate tectonics), their formation is a result of a continental collision(continental collision) or 조산 운동(orogeny) along the convergent boundary(convergent boundary) between the Indo-Australian Plate(Indo-Australian Plate) and the 유라시아판(Eurasian Plate). This is referred to as a fold mountain(fold mountain).

The collision began in the 백악기(Upper Cretaceous) period about 70 million years ago, when the north-moving Indo-Australian Plate(Indo-Australian Plate), moving at about 15 cm per year, collided with the 유라시아판(Eurasian Plate). About 50 million years ago, this fast moving Indo-Australian plate had completely closed the 테티스 해(Tethys Ocean), the existence of which has been determined by 퇴적암(sedimentary rock)s settled on the ocean floor, and the 화산(volcano)es that fringed its edges. Since these sediments were light, they crumpled into mountain ranges rather than sinking to the floor. The Indo-Australian plate continues to be driven horizontally below the Tibetan plateau(Tibetan plateau), which forces the plateau to move upwards. The 아라칸 산맥(Arakan Yoma) highlands in Myanmar(Myanmar) and the 안다만 니코바르 제도(Andaman and Nicobar Islands) in the 벵골 만(Bay of Bengal) were also formed as a result of this collision.

The Indo-Australian plate is still moving at 67 mm per year, and over the next 10 million years it will travel about 1,500 km into Asia. About 20 mm per year of the India-Asia convergence is absorbed by thrusting(thrusting) along the Himalaya southern front. This leads to the Himalayas rising by about 5 mm per year, making them geologically active. The movement of the Indian plate into the Asian plate also makes this region seismic(seismic)ally active, leading to 지진(earthquake)s from time to time.

Glaciers and river systems편집

The Himalayan range encompasses about 15,000 빙하(glacier)s, which store about 12,000 km3 of freshwater. The 70 km-long Siachen Glacier(Siachen Glacier) at the India-Pakistan border is the second longest glacier in the world outside the polar region. Some of the other more famous glaciers include the Gangotri(Gangotri) and Yamunotri(Yamunotri) (우타라칸드 주(Uttarakhand)), Nubra, Biafo and Baltoro (카라코람 산맥(Karakoram) region), Zemu (시킴 주(Sikkim)) and Khumbu(Khumbu) glaciers (에베레스트 산(Mount Everest) region).

The higher regions of the Himalayas are snowbound throughout the year, in spite of their proximity to the 열대(tropics), and they form the sources for several large perennial rivers(perennial rivers), most of which combine into two large river systems:

The eastern-most Himalayan rivers feed the Ayeyarwady River(Ayeyarwady River), which originates in eastern Tibet and flows south through Myanmar(Myanmar) to drain into the 안다만 해(Andaman Sea).

The Salween(Salween), 메콩 강(Mekong), 창 강(Yangtze) and the Huang He(Huang He) (Yellow River) all originate from parts of the Tibetan plateau(Tibetan plateau) that are geologically distinct from the Himalaya mountains, and are therefore not considered true Himalayan rivers. Some geologists refer to all the rivers collectively as the circum-Himalayan rivers.[3] In recent years, scientists have monitored a notable increase in the rate of glacier retreat(glacier retreat) across the region as a result of global 기후 변화(climate change).[4] Although the effect of this will not be known for many years, it potentially could mean disaster for the hundreds of millions of people who rely on the 빙하(glacier)s to feed the rivers of northern 인도(India) during the dry seasons.[5]

Lakes편집

 
A high Himalayan lake at an altitude of around 5,000 metres 시킴 주(Sikkim), 인도(India)

The Himalaya region is dotted with hundreds of lakes. Most lakes are found at altitudes of less than 5,000 m, with the size of the lakes diminishing with altitude. The largest lake is the Pangong Tso(Pangong Tso), which is spread across the border between India and China. It is situated at an altitude of 4,600 m, and is 8 km wide and nearly 134 km long. A notable high (but not the highest) lake is the Gurudogmar(Gurudogmar) in North Sikkim(North Sikkim), at an altitude of 5,148 m (17,100 ft) (altitude source: SRTM(SRTM)). Other major lakes include the Tsongmo lake(Tsongmo lake), near the Indo-China border in Sikkim, and Tilicho lake(Tilicho lake) in Nepal in the Annapurna massif, a large lake in an area that was closed to tourists until recently.

The mountain lakes are known to geographers as tarns(tarns) if they are caused by glacial activity. Tarns are found mostly in the upper reaches of the Himalaya, above 5,500 metres. For more information about these, see here.[6]

Impact on climate편집

 
Pass in Ladakh with the typical Buddhist prayer flags(prayer flags) and chorten(chorten)

The Himalayas have a profound effect on the 기후(climate) of the 인도아대륙(Indian subcontinent) and the Tibetan plateau(Tibetan plateau). They prevent frigid, dry 북극(Arctic) winds blowing south into the subcontinent, which keeps 남아시아(South Asia) much warmer than corresponding temperate(temperate) regions in the other continents. It also forms a barrier for the 계절풍(monsoon) winds, keeping them from traveling northwards, and causing heavy rainfall in the Terai(Terai) region. The Himalayas are also believed to play an important part in the formation of 중앙아시아(Central Asia)n deserts(deserts), such as the Taklamakan(Taklamakan) and Gobi(Gobi).

The mountain ranges also prevent western winter disturbances in 이란(Iran) from traveling further, resulting in snow in 카슈미르(Kashmir) and rainfall for parts of 펀자브 (동음이의)(Punjab) and northern India. Despite being a barrier to the cold, northernly winter winds, the Brahmaputra valley receives part of the frigid winds, thus lowering the temperature in the North East India(North East India) and 방글라데시(Bangladesh).

The Himalayas, which are often called "The Roof of the World", contain the greatest area of glaciers and permafrost outside of the poles. Ten of Asia’s largest rivers flow from here, and more than a billion people’s livelihoods depend on them. To complicate matters, temperatures are rising more rapidly here than the global average. In Nepal, the temperature has risen 0.6 degree C over the last decade, whereas the global warming has been around 0.7 degree C over the last hundred years.[7]

Mountain passes편집

 
The Himalayan range at Yumesongdong in 시킴 주(Sikkim), in the Yumthang(Yumthang) River valley

The rugged terrain makes few routes through the mountains possible. Some of these routes include:

Impact on politics and culture편집

 
Mountain sheds like these are used by the rural populace as shelter for cattle in summer months as they take them for grazing in higher altitudes.

It should be noted that almost half of the humans and 가축(livestock) of India live on one-third of the landscape within 500 km of the Himalayan range.(pdf, 3mb)

The Himalayas, due to their large size and expanse, have been a natural barrier to the movement of people for tens of thousands of years. In particular, this has prevented intermingling of people from the 인도아대륙(Indian subcontinent) with people from China and 몽골(Mongolia), causing significantly different languages and customs between these regions. The Himalayas have also hindered trade routes and prevented military expeditions across its expanse. For instance, 칭기즈 칸(Genghis Khan) could not expand his empire south of the Himalayas into the subcontinent.

Notable peaks of the Himalayan system (includes outlying ranges)편집

Peak Name Other names and meaning Elevation (m) Elevation (ft) First Western ascent Notes
에베레스트 산(Everest) Sagarmatha (Nepali), "Head of the World",[9]
Chomolangma (Tibetan), "Goddess mother of the snows"[9]
8,848 29,035.44 1953 Highest mountain on Earth, on the border between 네팔(Nepal) and 티베트 자치구(Tibet Autonomous Region), 중화인민공화국(People's Republic of China).
K2(K2) Chogo Gangri 8,611 28,251 1954 2nd highest mountain on Earth. Located on the border between the Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County(Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County) of 신장 위구르 자치구(Xinjiang), 중화인민공화국(People's Republic of China) and the Northern Areas(Northern Areas) of 파키스탄(Pakistan).
칸첸중가(Kangchenjunga) Kangchen Dzö-nga, "Five Treasures of the Great Snow" 8,586 28,169 1955 3rd highest mountain on Earth. Located on the border between 네팔(Nepal) and 시킴 주(Sikkim), 인도(India).
로체(Lhotse) "South Peak" 8,516 27,940 1956 4th highest mountain on Earth. Situated between 티베트 자치구(Tibet Autonomous Region), 중화인민공화국(People's Republic of China), and 네팔(Nepal), in the shadow of Mount Everest.
마칼루(Makalu) "The Great Black" 8,462 27,765 1955 5th highest mountain on Earth. Situated on the border between, 티베트 자치구(Tibet Autonomous Region), 중화인민공화국(People's Republic of China) and 네팔(Nepal).
초오유(Cho Oyu) Qowowuyag, "Turquoise Goddess" 8,201 26,905 1954 6th highest mountain on Earth. Situated on the border between Tibet Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China, and Nepal
다울라기리(Dhaulagiri) "White Mountain" 8,167 26,764 1960 7th highest mountain on Earth. Situated in Nepal.
마나슬루(Manaslu) Kutang, "Mountain of the Spirit" 8,156 26,758 1956 8th highest mountain on Earth. Located in the Gurkha Himal, Nepal.
낭가파르바트(Nanga Parbat) Diamir, "Naked Mountain" 8,126 26,660 1953 9th highest mountain on Earth. Located in the Northern Areas(Northern Areas) of 파키스탄(Pakistan).
안나푸르나(Annapurna) "Goddess of the Harvests" 8,091 26,545 1950 10th highest mountain on Earth. Situated in Nepal.
가셔브룸 1봉(Gasherbrum I) "Beautiful Mountain" 8,080 26,509 1958 11th highest mountain on Earth. Located in the 카라코람 산맥(Karakoram) of 파키스탄(Pakistan)
브로드피크(Broad Peak) Faichan Kangri 8,047 26,401 1957 12th highest mountain on Earth. Located in the 카라코람 산맥(Karakoram) of 파키스탄(Pakistan).
가셔브룸 2봉(Gasherbrum II) - 8,035 26,362 1956 13th highest mountain on Earth. Located in the 카라코람 산맥(Karakoram) of 파키스탄(Pakistan).
시샤팡마(Shishapangma) Xixiabangma, "Crest Above The Grassy Plains" 8,013 26,289 1964 14th highest mountain on Earth. Located in Tibet Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China.
갸충캉(Gyachung Kang) unknown 7,952 26,089 1964 15th highest mountain on Earth. Located on the border between Tibet Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China, and Nepal, it is the highest mountain under 8,000 meters.
Gasherbrum IV(Gasherbrum IV) - 7,925 26,001 1958 17th highest mountain on Earth. Located in the 카라코람 산맥(Karakoram) of 파키스탄(Pakistan).
마셔브룸(Masherbrum) unknown 7,821 25,660 1960 22nd highest mountain on Earth. Located in the 카라코람 산맥(Karakoram) of 파키스탄(Pakistan).
Nanda Devi(Nanda Devi) "Bliss-giving Goddess" 7,817 25,645 1936 23rd highest mountain on Earth. Located in 우타라칸드 주(Uttarakhand), 인도(India). It is the highest peak entirely within India.
Rakaposhi(Rakaposhi) "Shining Wall" 7,788 25,551 1958 A massive peak that towers above local terrain. Located in the Pakistani 카라코람 산맥(Karakoram).
강카르 푼섬(Gangkhar Puensum) Gankar Punzum, "Three Mountain Siblings" 7,570 24,836 Unclimbed World's highest unclimbed peak remains off limits to mountaineers. Located in the Kingdom of Bhutan.
Ama Dablam(Ama Dablam) "Mother And Her Necklace" 6,848 22,467 1961 Considered by some[누가?] to be one of the most beautiful peaks in the Himalayas. Located in the Khumbu(Khumbu), Nepal.

Panorama편집

Notable Himalayan mountaineers편집

Religion편집

 
The Taktshang(Taktshang) Monastery, also known as the "Tiger's Nest"

Several places in the Himalaya are of religious significance in 힌두교(Hinduism) and 불교(Buddhism). In Hinduism, the Himalaya have also been personified as the god Himavat(Himavat), the father of 시바(Shiva)'s consort, Parvati(Parvati).

Some of the important religious places in the Himalayas are:-

In addition to the above, a number of 티베트 불교(Tibetan Buddhist) sites are situated in the Himalaya, including the residence of the 달라이 라마(Dalai Lama). There were over 6,000 monasteries(monasteries) in Tibet.[13] The Tibetan Muslims(Tibetan Muslims) had their own mosques in 라싸 시(Lhasa) and 르카쩌 시(Shigatse).[14]

The following mystic entities are associated with the Himalayas:

  • The 예티(Yeti) is one of the most famous creatures in 미확인동물학(cryptozoology). It is a large 영장류(primate)-like creature that is supposed to live in the Himalaya. Most mainstream scientists and experts consider current evidence of the Yeti's existence unpersuasive, and the result of hoaxes, legend or misidentification of mundane creatures.
  • Shambhala(Shambhala) is a mystical city with various legends associated with it, it is one of twenty-four Himalayan hidden realms, or beyul(beyul), in 밀교(Vajrayana) Buddhism.[15] While some legends consider it to be a real city where secret Buddhist doctrines are being preserved, other legends believe that the city does not physically exist, and can only be reached in the mental realm.


The Himalayas in art, literature, and film편집

See also편집

References편집

  1. Yang, Qinye (2004). 《Himalayan Mountain System》. ISBN 9787508506654. 2007년 8월 7일에 확인함. 
  2. “Sunderbans the world’s largest delta”. gits4u.com. 
  3. Gaillardet, J; Métivier, Lemarchand, Dupré, Allégre, Li, Zhao (2003). “Geochemistry of the Suspended Sediments of Circum-Himalayan Rivers and Weathering Budgets over the Last 50 Myrs” (PDF). 《Geophysical Research Abstracts》 5 (13617). 2006년 11월 4일에 확인함. 
  4. “Vanishing Himalayan Glaciers Threaten a Billion”. Planet Ark. 2007년 6월 5일. 2009년 4월 17일에 확인함. 
  5. “Glaciers melting at alarming speed”. People's Daily Online. 2007년 7월 24일. 2009년 4월 17일에 확인함. 
  6. http://www.highestlake.com/highest-lake-world.html
  7. http://pulitzercenter.typepad.com/untold_stories/south-asias-troubled-waters/page/2/
  8. http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/documents/muehlberger/images/30.htm
  9. “Edelweiss trekking, mountaineering, rafting, safari cultural and pilgrimage tours in Nepal”. 2009년 4월 23일에 확인함.  [깨진 링크]
  10. United Nations, May 2007, Our Planet magazine
  11. Personal Time with Swami-ji, 157 mins Film, The Center for Healing Arts [1]
  12. Himalaya: Through the Lens of a Sudu Published August 2001 ISBN 81-901326-0-1
  13. Tibetan monks: A controlled life. BBC News. March 20, 2008.
  14. Mosques in Lhasa, Tibet. People's Daily Online. October 27, 2005.
  15. Levine, Norma (1993). 《Blessing Power of the Buddhas: Sacred Objects, Secret Lands》. Element Books. 132쪽. ISBN 1-85230-305-0. 

Further reading편집

External links편집

Image gallery편집

틀:GeoSouthAsia

좌표: 북위 28° 00′ 동경 82° 00′  / 북위 28.000° 동경 82.000°  / 28.000; 82.000

틀:Geography topics 틀:Physical geography topics


영한병기판편집

틀:Pp-move-indef 틀:Sprotect

Himalayas
Range
나라 Bhutan · People's Republic of China(중화인민공화국· India · Nepal · Pakistan · Burma · Afghanistan
최고점 Mount Everest
 - 높이 8,848m (29,029ft)
 - 좌표

북위 27° 59′ 17″ 동경 86° 55′ 31″ / 북위 27.98806° 동경 86.92528°  / 27.98806; 86.92528

The Himalaya Range (Sanskrit(산스크리트어): literally, "abode of snow", Hindi/Sanskrit: हिमालय(हिमालय), IPA: /hɪˈmɑːləj(ə)/), the Himalayas or Himalaya for short, is a mountain range(산맥) in Asia(아시아), separating the Indian subcontinent(인도아대륙) from the Tibetan Plateau(Tibetan Plateau). By extension, it is also the name of a massive mountain system that includes the Karakoram(카라코람 산맥), the Hindu Kush(힌두쿠시 산맥), and other, lesser, ranges that extend out from the Pamir Knot(파미르 고원).

Together, the Himalayan mountain system is the planet's highest, and home to the world's highest peaks, the Eight-thousander(8000미터 봉우리)s, which include Mount Everest(에베레스트 산) and K2(K2). To comprehend the enormous scale of this mountain range, consider that Aconcagua(아콩카과 산), in the Andes(안데스 산맥), at 6,962 미터 (22,841 ft) is the highest peak outside Asia, whereas the Himalayan system includes over 100 mountains(over 100 mountains) exceeding 틀:M to ft.[1]

Some of the world's major river()s, Ganges(갠지스 강), Indus(Indus), Brahmaputra(Brahmaputra), Yangtze(Yangtze), Mekong(메콩 강), Salween(Salween), Red River (Asia)(홍 강), Xunjiang(Xunjiang), Chao Phraya(Chao Phraya), Irrawaddy River(이라와디 강), Amu Darya(아무다리야 강), Syr Darya(시르다리야 강), Tarim River(타림 강) and Yellow River(황하), rise in the Himalayas, and their combined drainage basin(유역) is home to some 3 billion people (almost half of Earth's population) in countries which includes Afghanistan(아프가니스탄), Bangladesh(방글라데시), Bhutan(부탄), People's Republic of China(중화인민공화국), India(인도), Nepal(네팔), Burma(미얀마), Cambodia(캄보디아), Tajikistan(타지키스탄), Uzbekistan(우즈베키스탄), Turkmenistan(투르크메니스탄), Kazakhstan(카자흐스탄), Kyrgyzstan(키르기스스탄), Thailand(타이), Laos(라오스), Vietnam(베트남), Malaysia(말레이시아) and Pakistan(파키스탄).

The Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of South Asia(남아시아); many Himalayan peaks are sacred in Hinduism(힌두교), Buddhism(불교) and Sikhism(시크교). The main Himalaya range runs, west to east, from the Indus river valley to the Brahmaputra river valley, forming an arc 틀:Km to mi long, which varies in width from 틀:Km to mi in the western Kashmir(Kashmir|카슈미르)-Xinjiang(신장 위구르 자치구) region to 틀:Km to mi in the eastern Tibet(티베트)-Arunachal Pradesh(아루나찰프라데시 주) region. The range consists of three coextensive sub-ranges, with the northern-most, and highest, known as the Great or Inner Himalayas.

Ecology편집

 
Everest(Everest), the highest peak of the Himalayas

The flora and fauna of the Himalayas varies with climate, rainfall, altitude, and soils. The climate ranges from tropical at the base of the mountains to permanent ice and snow at the highest elevations. The amount of yearly rainfall increases from west to east along the front of the range. This diversity of climate, altitude, rainfall and soil conditions generates a variety of distinct plant and animal communities.

Lowland forests편집

On the Indo-Gangetic plain(Indo-Gangetic plain) at the base of the mountains, an alluvial plain(충적 평야) drained by the Indus and Ganga-Brahmaputra river systems, vegetation varies from west to east with rainfall. The xeric(xeric) Northwestern thorn scrub forests(Northwestern thorn scrub forests) occupy the plains of Pakistan and the Indian Punjab(펀자브 주 (인도)). Further east lie the Upper Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests(Upper Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests) of Uttarakhand(우타라칸드 주) and Uttar Pradesh(우타르프라데시 주) and Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests(Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests) of Bihar(비하르 주) and West Bengal(웨스트벵골 주). These are monsoon forests, with drought-deciduous trees that lose their leaves during the dry season. The moister Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests(Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests) occupy the plains of Assam(아삼 주).

The Terai belt편집

Above the alluvial plain lies the Terai(Terai) strip, a seasonally marshy zone of sand and clay soils. The Terai has higher rainfall than the plains, and the downward-rushing rivers of the Himalaya slow down and spread out in the flatter Terai zone, depositing fertile silt during the monsoon season, and receding in the dry season. The Terai has a high water table due to groundwater percolating down from the adjacent zone. The central part of the Terai belt is occupied by the Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands(Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands), a mosaic of grasslands, savannas, deciduous and evergreen forests that includes some of the world's tallest grasslands. The grasslands of the Terai belt are home to the Indian rhinoceros(Indian rhinoceros) (Rhinoceros unicornis).

Bhabhar belt편집

Above the Terai belt is an upland zone known as the Bhabhar(Bhabhar), a zone of porous and rocky soils, made up of debris washed down from the higher ranges. The Bhabhar and the lower Shiwalik ranges have a subtropical climate. The Himalayan subtropical pine forests(Himalayan subtropical pine forests) occupy the western end of the subtropical belt, with forests dominated by Chir Pine(Chir Pine) (Pinus roxburghii). The central part of the range is home to the Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests(Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests), dominated by the sal tree(sal tree) (Shorea robusta). They are at the foot of the Himalayas where the Himalayan streams descend on to the plains.

Shiwalik Hills편집

Also called Churia or Margalla Hills, Sivalik Hills(Sivalik Hills) is an intermittent outermost range of foothills extending across the Himalayan region through Pakistan(파키스탄), India(인도), Nepal(네팔) and Bhutan(부탄). This region consists of many sub-ranges. Summits are generally 600 to 1,200 미터 (2,000 to 3,900 ft). Steeper southern slopes form along a fault zone called Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT); northern slopes are gentler. Permeable conglomerates and other rocks allow rainwater to percolate downslope into the Bhabhar and Terai, supporting only scrubby forests upslope. The Himalayan subtropical pine and broadleaf forests continue here.

Inner Terai or Dun Valleys편집

The Inner Terai valleys(Inner Terai valleys) are open valleys north of Shiwalik Hills or nestled between Shiwalik subranges. Examples include Dehra Dun(Dehra Dun) in India and Chitwan(Chitwan) in Nepal. Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests grow here.

Lesser Himalaya편집

Also called Mahabharat Range(Mahabharat Range), the Lesser Himalayas is a prominent range 2,000 to 3,000 미터 (6,600 to 9,800 ft) high formed along the Main Boundary Thrust fault zone, with a steep southern face and gentler northern slopes. They are nearly continuous except for river gorges, where rivers from to the north gather like candelabra in a handful of places to break through the range.

At these elevations and above the biogeography(생물지리학) of the Himalayas is generally divided by the Kali Gandaki Gorge(Kali Gandaki Gorge) in central Nepal, one of the deepest canyons in the world.

At the middle elevations of the range, the subtropical forests yield to a belt of temperate broadleaf and mixed forests(temperate broadleaf and mixed forests) growing between 1,500 and 3,000 미터 (4,900 and 9,800 ft), with the western Himalayan broadleaf forests(western Himalayan broadleaf forests) to the west of the Gandaki River, and the eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests(eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests) to the east. The western broadleaf forests stretch from the Kashmir Valley(Kashmir Valley), across Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand, and through western Nepal. The eastern broadleaf forests stretch across eastern Nepal, through Sikkim and Bhutan, and through much of Arunachal Pradesh.

Midlands편집

This 'hilly' region (Pahad), averaging about 1,000 미터 (3,300 ft) immediately north of the Mahabharat Range, rises over about 100 킬로미터 (330,000 ft) to about 4,000 미터 (13,000 ft) at the Main Central Thrust fault zone, where the Greater Himalaya begin.

Above the broadleaf forests, between 3,000 and 4,000 미터 (9,800 and 13,100 ft), are temperate coniferous forests(temperate coniferous forests), likewise split by the Gandaki River. The western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests(western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests) are found below treeline in northern Pakistan, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and western Nepal. The eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests(eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests) are found in eastern Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, and Arunachal Pradesh. Along the border between Arunachal Pradesh and Tibet, the eastern subalpine conifer forests mix with the northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests(northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests). East Himalayan Fir(East Himalayan Fir), West Himalayan Spruce(West Himalayan Spruce), and Himalayan Hemlock(Himalayan Hemlock) are some important trees of these forests. Rhododendron(진달래속)s are exceptionally diverse here, with over 60 species recorded in the northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests.

Greater Himalaya편집

North of the Main Central Thrust, the highest ranges rise abruptly as much as 4,000 미터 (13,000 ft) into the realm of perpetual snow and ice. As the Himalayan system becomes wider from east to west, the number of parallel high ranges increases. For example, Kagmara and Kanjiroba ranges both reach well over 6,000 미터 (20,000 ft) north of the Dhaulagiri(다울라기리) Himalaya in central Nepal(네팔).

Montane grasslands and shrublands(Montane grasslands and shrublands) grow above treeline. The northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows(northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows) are found in the high elevations of northern Pakistan, Jammu and Kashmir, and Himachal Pradesh. To the east, the western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows(western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows) cover extensive areas along the Tibetan border with Uttarakhand and western Nepal. The eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows(eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows) grow above the eastern and northeastern subalpine conifer forests, along the Tibetan border with eastern Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, and Arunachal Pradesh. The shrublands are composed of juniper(노간주나무속)s as well as a wide variety of rhododendron(진달래속)s. They also possess a remarkable variety of wildflowers: Valley of Flowers National Park(Valley of Flowers National Park) in the western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows contains hundreds of species. The upper limit of the grasslands increases from west to east, rising from 3,500 미터 (11,500 ft) to 5,500 미터 (18,000 ft). The grasslands are the summer habitat of the endangered snow leopard(snow leopard) (Uncia uncia).

Trans-Himalaya편집

The watershed between rivers flowing south into the Ganges or Indus and rivers flowing north into the Brahmaputra or mainstem Indus that flow around the ends of the entire range often follows somewhat lower, less rugged mountains tens of kilometers north of the highest ranges. South-flowing rivers form valleys in this region, often semi-arid due to rainshadow effects. These valleys hold some of the highest permanent villages on earth.

Origins and growth편집

 
The 6,000 km plus journey of the India landmass (Indian Plate) before its collision with Asia (Eurasian Plate) about 40 to 50 million years ago

The Himalayas are among the youngest mountain ranges on the planet, and consist mostly of uplifted sedimentary(sedimentary) and metamorphic rock(변성암). According to the modern theory of plate tectonics(판 구조론), their formation is a result of a continental collision(continental collision) or orogeny(조산 운동) along the convergent boundary(convergent boundary) between the Indo-Australian Plate(Indo-Australian Plate) and the Eurasian Plate(유라시아판). This is referred to as a fold mountain(fold mountain).

The collision began in the Upper Cretaceous(백악기) period about 70 million years ago, when the north-moving Indo-Australian Plate(Indo-Australian Plate), moving at about 15 cm per year, collided with the Eurasian Plate(유라시아판). About 50 million years ago, this fast moving Indo-Australian plate had completely closed the Tethys Ocean(테티스 해), the existence of which has been determined by sedimentary rock(퇴적암)s settled on the ocean floor, and the volcano(화산)es that fringed its edges. Since these sediments were light, they crumpled into mountain ranges rather than sinking to the floor. The Indo-Australian plate continues to be driven horizontally below the Tibetan plateau(Tibetan plateau), which forces the plateau to move upwards. The Arakan Yoma(아라칸 산맥) highlands in Myanmar(Myanmar) and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands(안다만 니코바르 제도) in the Bay of Bengal(벵골 만) were also formed as a result of this collision.

The Indo-Australian plate is still moving at 67 mm per year, and over the next 10 million years it will travel about 1,500 km into Asia. About 20 mm per year of the India-Asia convergence is absorbed by thrusting(thrusting) along the Himalaya southern front. This leads to the Himalayas rising by about 5 mm per year, making them geologically active. The movement of the Indian plate into the Asian plate also makes this region seismic(seismic)ally active, leading to earthquake(지진)s from time to time.

Glaciers and river systems편집

The Himalayan range encompasses about 15,000 glacier(빙하)s, which store about 12,000 km3 of freshwater. The 70 km-long Siachen Glacier(Siachen Glacier) at the India-Pakistan border is the second longest glacier in the world outside the polar region. Some of the other more famous glaciers include the Gangotri(Gangotri) and Yamunotri(Yamunotri) (Uttarakhand(우타라칸드 주)), Nubra, Biafo and Baltoro (Karakoram(카라코람 산맥) region), Zemu (Sikkim(시킴 주)) and Khumbu(Khumbu) glaciers (Mount Everest(에베레스트 산) region).

The higher regions of the Himalayas are snowbound throughout the year, in spite of their proximity to the tropics(열대), and they form the sources for several large perennial rivers(perennial rivers), most of which combine into two large river systems:

The eastern-most Himalayan rivers feed the Ayeyarwady River(Ayeyarwady River), which originates in eastern Tibet and flows south through Myanmar(Myanmar) to drain into the Andaman Sea(안다만 해).

The Salween(Salween), Mekong(메콩 강), Yangtze(창 강) and the Huang He(Huang He) (Yellow River) all originate from parts of the Tibetan plateau(Tibetan plateau) that are geologically distinct from the Himalaya mountains, and are therefore not considered true Himalayan rivers. Some geologists refer to all the rivers collectively as the circum-Himalayan rivers.[3] In recent years, scientists have monitored a notable increase in the rate of glacier retreat(glacier retreat) across the region as a result of global climate change(기후 변화).[4] Although the effect of this will not be known for many years, it potentially could mean disaster for the hundreds of millions of people who rely on the glacier(빙하)s to feed the rivers of northern India(인도) during the dry seasons.[5]

Lakes편집

 
A high Himalayan lake at an altitude of around 5,000 metres Sikkim(시킴 주), India(인도)

The Himalaya region is dotted with hundreds of lakes. Most lakes are found at altitudes of less than 5,000 m, with the size of the lakes diminishing with altitude. The largest lake is the Pangong Tso(Pangong Tso), which is spread across the border between India and China. It is situated at an altitude of 4,600 m, and is 8 km wide and nearly 134 km long. A notable high (but not the highest) lake is the Gurudogmar(Gurudogmar) in North Sikkim(North Sikkim), at an altitude of 5,148 m (17,100 ft) (altitude source: SRTM(SRTM)). Other major lakes include the Tsongmo lake(Tsongmo lake), near the Indo-China border in Sikkim, and Tilicho lake(Tilicho lake) in Nepal in the Annapurna massif, a large lake in an area that was closed to tourists until recently.

The mountain lakes are known to geographers as tarns(tarns) if they are caused by glacial activity. Tarns are found mostly in the upper reaches of the Himalaya, above 5,500 metres. For more information about these, see here.[6]

Impact on climate편집

 
Pass in Ladakh with the typical Buddhist prayer flags(prayer flags) and chorten(chorten)

The Himalayas have a profound effect on the climate(기후) of the Indian subcontinent(인도아대륙) and the Tibetan plateau(Tibetan plateau). They prevent frigid, dry Arctic(북극) winds blowing south into the subcontinent, which keeps South Asia(남아시아) much warmer than corresponding temperate(temperate) regions in the other continents. It also forms a barrier for the monsoon(계절풍) winds, keeping them from traveling northwards, and causing heavy rainfall in the Terai(Terai) region. The Himalayas are also believed to play an important part in the formation of Central Asia(중앙아시아)n deserts(deserts), such as the Taklamakan(Taklamakan) and Gobi(Gobi).

The mountain ranges also prevent western winter disturbances in Iran(이란) from traveling further, resulting in snow in Kashmir(카슈미르) and rainfall for parts of Punjab(펀자브 (동음이의)) and northern India. Despite being a barrier to the cold, northernly winter winds, the Brahmaputra valley receives part of the frigid winds, thus lowering the temperature in the North East India(North East India) and Bangladesh(방글라데시).

The Himalayas, which are often called "The Roof of the World", contain the greatest area of glaciers and permafrost outside of the poles. Ten of Asia’s largest rivers flow from here, and more than a billion people’s livelihoods depend on them. To complicate matters, temperatures are rising more rapidly here than the global average. In Nepal, the temperature has risen 0.6 degree C over the last decade, whereas the global warming has been around 0.7 degree C over the last hundred years.[7]

Mountain passes편집

 
The Himalayan range at Yumesongdong in Sikkim(시킴 주), in the Yumthang(Yumthang) River valley

The rugged terrain makes few routes through the mountains possible. Some of these routes include:

Impact on politics and culture편집

 
Mountain sheds like these are used by the rural populace as shelter for cattle in summer months as they take them for grazing in higher altitudes.

It should be noted that almost half of the humans and livestock(가축) of India live on one-third of the landscape within 500 km of the Himalayan range.(pdf, 3mb)

The Himalayas, due to their large size and expanse, have been a natural barrier to the movement of people for tens of thousands of years. In particular, this has prevented intermingling of people from the Indian subcontinent(인도아대륙) with people from China and Mongolia(몽골), causing significantly different languages and customs between these regions. The Himalayas have also hindered trade routes and prevented military expeditions across its expanse. For instance, Genghis Khan(칭기즈 칸) could not expand his empire south of the Himalayas into the subcontinent.

Notable peaks of the Himalayan system (includes outlying ranges)편집

Peak Name Other names and meaning Elevation (m) Elevation (ft) First Western ascent Notes
Everest(에베레스트 산) Sagarmatha (Nepali), "Head of the World",[9]
Chomolangma (Tibetan), "Goddess mother of the snows"[9]
8,848 29,035.44 1953 Highest mountain on Earth, on the border between Nepal(네팔) and Tibet Autonomous Region(티베트 자치구), People's Republic of China(중화인민공화국).
K2(K2) Chogo Gangri 8,611 28,251 1954 2nd highest mountain on Earth. Located on the border between the Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County(Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County) of Xinjiang(신장 위구르 자치구), People's Republic of China(중화인민공화국) and the Northern Areas(Northern Areas) of Pakistan(파키스탄).
Kangchenjunga(칸첸중가) Kangchen Dzö-nga, "Five Treasures of the Great Snow" 8,586 28,169 1955 3rd highest mountain on Earth. Located on the border between Nepal(네팔) and Sikkim(시킴 주), India(인도).
Lhotse(로체) "South Peak" 8,516 27,940 1956 4th highest mountain on Earth. Situated between Tibet Autonomous Region(티베트 자치구), People's Republic of China(중화인민공화국), and Nepal(네팔), in the shadow of Mount Everest.
Makalu(마칼루) "The Great Black" 8,462 27,765 1955 5th highest mountain on Earth. Situated on the border between, Tibet Autonomous Region(티베트 자치구), People's Republic of China(중화인민공화국) and Nepal(네팔).
Cho Oyu(초오유) Qowowuyag, "Turquoise Goddess" 8,201 26,905 1954 6th highest mountain on Earth. Situated on the border between Tibet Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China, and Nepal
Dhaulagiri(다울라기리) "White Mountain" 8,167 26,764 1960 7th highest mountain on Earth. Situated in Nepal.
Manaslu(마나슬루) Kutang, "Mountain of the Spirit" 8,156 26,758 1956 8th highest mountain on Earth. Located in the Gurkha Himal, Nepal.
Nanga Parbat(낭가파르바트) Diamir, "Naked Mountain" 8,126 26,660 1953 9th highest mountain on Earth. Located in the Northern Areas(Northern Areas) of Pakistan(파키스탄).
Annapurna(안나푸르나) "Goddess of the Harvests" 8,091 26,545 1950 10th highest mountain on Earth. Situated in Nepal.
Gasherbrum I(가셔브룸 1봉) "Beautiful Mountain" 8,080 26,509 1958 11th highest mountain on Earth. Located in the Karakoram(카라코람 산맥) of Pakistan(파키스탄)
Broad Peak(브로드피크) Faichan Kangri 8,047 26,401 1957 12th highest mountain on Earth. Located in the Karakoram(카라코람 산맥) of Pakistan(파키스탄).
Gasherbrum II(가셔브룸 2봉) - 8,035 26,362 1956 13th highest mountain on Earth. Located in the Karakoram(카라코람 산맥) of Pakistan(파키스탄).
Shishapangma(시샤팡마) Xixiabangma, "Crest Above The Grassy Plains" 8,013 26,289 1964 14th highest mountain on Earth. Located in Tibet Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China.
Gyachung Kang(갸충캉) unknown 7,952 26,089 1964 15th highest mountain on Earth. Located on the border between Tibet Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China, and Nepal, it is the highest mountain under 8,000 meters.
Gasherbrum IV(Gasherbrum IV) - 7,925 26,001 1958 17th highest mountain on Earth. Located in the Karakoram(카라코람 산맥) of Pakistan(파키스탄).
Masherbrum(마셔브룸) unknown 7,821 25,660 1960 22nd highest mountain on Earth. Located in the Karakoram(카라코람 산맥) of Pakistan(파키스탄).
Nanda Devi(Nanda Devi) "Bliss-giving Goddess" 7,817 25,645 1936 23rd highest mountain on Earth. Located in Uttarakhand(우타라칸드 주), India(인도). It is the highest peak entirely within India.
Rakaposhi(Rakaposhi) "Shining Wall" 7,788 25,551 1958 A massive peak that towers above local terrain. Located in the Pakistani Karakoram(카라코람 산맥).
Gangkhar Puensum(강카르 푼섬) Gankar Punzum, "Three Mountain Siblings" 7,570 24,836 Unclimbed World's highest unclimbed peak remains off limits to mountaineers. Located in the Kingdom of Bhutan.
Ama Dablam(Ama Dablam) "Mother And Her Necklace" 6,848 22,467 1961 Considered by some[누가?] to be one of the most beautiful peaks in the Himalayas. Located in the Khumbu(Khumbu), Nepal.

Panorama편집

Notable Himalayan mountaineers편집

Religion편집

 
The Taktshang(Taktshang) Monastery, also known as the "Tiger's Nest"

Several places in the Himalaya are of religious significance in Hinduism(힌두교) and Buddhism(불교). In Hinduism, the Himalaya have also been personified as the god Himavat(Himavat), the father of Shiva(시바)'s consort, Parvati(Parvati).

Some of the important religious places in the Himalayas are:-

In addition to the above, a number of Tibetan Buddhist(티베트 불교) sites are situated in the Himalaya, including the residence of the Dalai Lama(달라이 라마). There were over 6,000 monasteries(monasteries) in Tibet.[13] The Tibetan Muslims(Tibetan Muslims) had their own mosques in Lhasa(라싸 시) and Shigatse(르카쩌 시).[14]

The following mystic entities are associated with the Himalayas:

  • The Yeti(예티) is one of the most famous creatures in cryptozoology(미확인동물학). It is a large primate(영장류)-like creature that is supposed to live in the Himalaya. Most mainstream scientists and experts consider current evidence of the Yeti's existence unpersuasive, and the result of hoaxes, legend or misidentification of mundane creatures.
  • Shambhala(Shambhala) is a mystical city with various legends associated with it, it is one of twenty-four Himalayan hidden realms, or beyul(beyul), in Vajrayana(밀교) Buddhism.[15] While some legends consider it to be a real city where secret Buddhist doctrines are being preserved, other legends believe that the city does not physically exist, and can only be reached in the mental realm.


The Himalayas in art, literature, and film편집

See also편집

References편집

  1. Yang, Qinye (2004). 《Himalayan Mountain System》. ISBN 9787508506654. 2007년 8월 7일에 확인함. 
  2. “Sunderbans the world’s largest delta”. gits4u.com. 
  3. Gaillardet, J; Métivier, Lemarchand, Dupré, Allégre, Li, Zhao (2003). “Geochemistry of the Suspended Sediments of Circum-Himalayan Rivers and Weathering Budgets over the Last 50 Myrs” (PDF). 《Geophysical Research Abstracts》 5 (13617). 2006년 11월 4일에 확인함. 
  4. “Vanishing Himalayan Glaciers Threaten a Billion”. Planet Ark. 2007년 6월 5일. 2009년 4월 17일에 확인함. 
  5. “Glaciers melting at alarming speed”. People's Daily Online. 2007년 7월 24일. 2009년 4월 17일에 확인함. 
  6. http://www.highestlake.com/highest-lake-world.html
  7. http://pulitzercenter.typepad.com/untold_stories/south-asias-troubled-waters/page/2/
  8. http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/documents/muehlberger/images/30.htm
  9. “Edelweiss trekking, mountaineering, rafting, safari cultural and pilgrimage tours in Nepal”. 2009년 4월 23일에 확인함.  [깨진 링크]
  10. United Nations, May 2007, Our Planet magazine
  11. Personal Time with Swami-ji, 157 mins Film, The Center for Healing Arts [2]
  12. Himalaya: Through the Lens of a Sudu Published August 2001 ISBN 81-901326-0-1
  13. Tibetan monks: A controlled life. BBC News. March 20, 2008.
  14. Mosques in Lhasa, Tibet. People's Daily Online. October 27, 2005.
  15. Levine, Norma (1993). 《Blessing Power of the Buddhas: Sacred Objects, Secret Lands》. Element Books. 132쪽. ISBN 1-85230-305-0. 

Further reading편집

External links편집

Image gallery편집

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