증권거래소는 주식, 채권 등을 사고 팔 수 있는 거래소이다.
12세기 프랑스에서 courretiers de change는 은행들 대신 농업 공동체의 빚을 관리하과 규제하는 일에 관여했다. 이 사람들은 부채로 거래했으므로 이들은 최초의 중개인으로 불릴 수 있었다.
- Tracy, James D. (1985). 《A Financial Revolution in the Habsburg Netherlands: Renten and Renteniers in the County of Holland, 1515–1565》. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-05425-3.
- Goetzmann, William N.; Rouwenhorst, K. Geert (2005). 《The Origins of Value: The Financial Innovations that Created Modern Capital Markets》. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517571-9.
- Goetzmann, William N.; Rouwenhorst, K. Geert (2008). The History of Financial Innovation, in Carbon Finance, Environmental Market Solutions to Climate Change. (Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, chapter 1, pp. 18–43). As Goetzmann & Rouwenhorst (2008) noted, "The 17th and 18th centuries in the Netherlands were a remarkable time for finance. Many of the financial products or instruments that we see today emerged during a relatively short period. In particular, merchants and bankers developed what we would today call securitization. Mutual funds and various other forms of structured finance that still exist today emerged in the 17th and 18th centuries in Holland."
- Sylla, Richard (2015). "Financial Development, Corporations, and Inequality". (BHC-EBHA Meeting). As Richard Sylla (2015) notes, "In modern history, several nations had what some of us call financial revolutions. These can be thought of as creating in a short period of time all the key components of a modern financial system. The first was the Dutch Republic four centuries ago."