"러시아어 문자"의 두 판 사이의 차이

10,199 바이트 제거됨 ,  3년 전
 
== 모양 ==
일반적으로 다른 [[키릴 문자]]에서는 없는 '요'(Ё) 발음을 낼 수 있는 문자를 만들었다. 기본적인 문자는 다른 키릴 문자와 비슷하다. 현재의 알파벳은 모음자모 10개, 자음자모 21개, 기호자모 2개로 구성되어 모두 33개 자모로 되어 있다.
 
{| align=center cellpadding=4 style="text-align:center;"
{| class=wikitable
|- style="vertical-align:bottom; background:#eee; "
! align=left | 문자
! align=left | 필기체
! align=left | 이름
! align=left | 옛 이름
! align=left | [[국제 음성 기호|IPA]]
! align=left | 해당 영어 발음
! align=left | 수
! align=left | [[유니코드]] ([[Hexadecimal|Hex]])
|-
|[[А]]<br />{{IPA|/a/}}||[[Б]]<br />{{IPA|/b/}}||[[В]]<br />{{IPA|/v/}}||[[Г]]<br />{{IPA|/ɡ/}}||[[Д]]<br />{{IPA|/d/}}||[[Е]]<br />{{IPA|/jɛ/}}||[[Ё]]<br />{{IPA|/jo/}}||[[Ж]]<br />{{IPA|/ʐ/}}||[[З]]<br />{{IPA|/z/}}||[[И]]<br />{{IPA|/i/}}||[[Й]]<br />{{IPA|/j/}}
| '''[[А]]а''' || [[File:01-Russian alphabet-А а.svg]] || а<br>{{IPA-ru|a|}} || азъ<br>{{IPA|[as]}} || {{IPAslink|a}} || f'''a'''ther || 1 || U+0410 / U+0430
|-
| '''[[БК]]б'''<br />{{IPA|/k/}}|| [[File:02-Russian alphabet-Б б.svgЛ]]<br />{{IPA|/l/}}| бэ|[[М]]<br />{{IPA-ru|bɛ|/m/}} || буки[[Н]]<br />{{IPA|/n/}}||[ˈbukʲɪ]]<br />{{IPA|/o/}} ||[[П]]<br />{{IPAslinkIPA|b/p/}}||[[Р]]<br or />{{IPA|/r/}} ||[[С]]<br '''b'''ad />{{IPA|/s/}}|-|[[Т]]<br />{{IPA| U+0411/t/}}||[[У]]<br />{{IPA|/u/}}||[[Ф]]<br U+0431/>{{IPA|/f/}}
|-
| '''[[ВХ]]в'''<br />{{IPA|/x/}}|| [[File:03-Russian alphabet-В в.svgЦ]]<br />{{IPA|/ʦ/}}| вэ|[[Ч]]<br />{{IPA-ru|vɛ|/ʨ/}} ||[[Ш]]<br />{{UnicodeIPA|вѣди/ʂ/}}||[[Щ]] <br />{{IPA|[ˈvʲedʲɪ]/ɕː/}} ||[[Ъ]]<br />{{IPAslinkIPA|v/◌ˠ/}}||[[Ы]]<br or/> {{IPA|/ɨ/}} ||[[Ь]]<br '''v'''ine />{{IPA|/◌ʲ/}}||[[Э]]<br 2 />{{IPA|/ɛ/}}| U+0412|[[Ю]]<br />{{IPA|/ju/}}||[[Я]]<br U+0432/>{{IPA|/ja/}}
|-
| '''[[Г]]г''' || [[File:04-Russian alphabet-Г г.svg]] || гэ<br>{{IPA-ru|ɡɛ|}} || глаголь<br>{{IPA|[ɡlɐˈɡolʲ]}} || {{IPAslink|ɡ}} || '''g'''o || 3 || U+0413 / U+0433
|-
| '''[[Д]]д''' || [[File:05-Russian alphabet-Д д.svg]] || дэ<br>{{IPA-ru|dɛ|}} || добро<br>{{IPA|[dɐˈbro]}} || {{IPAslink|d̪|d}} or {{IPA|/dʲ/}} || '''d'''o ||4 || U+0414 / U+0434
|-
| '''[[Е]]е''' || [[File:06-Russian alphabet-Е е.svg]] || е<br>{{IPA-ru|je|}} || есть<br>{{IPA|[jesʲtʲ]}} || {{IPA|/je/}}, {{IPA|/&nbsp;ʲe/}} or {{IPAslink|e}} || '''ye'''s || 5 || U+0415 / U+0435
|-
| '''[[Ё]]ё''' || [[File:07-Russian alphabet-Ё ё.svg]] || ё<br>{{IPA-ru|jo|}} || – || {{IPA|/jo/}} or {{IPA|/&nbsp;ʲɵ/}} || '''yo'''lk || - || U+0401 / U+0451
|-
| '''[[Ж]]ж''' || [[File:08-Russian alphabet-Ж ж.svg]] || жэ<br>{{IPA-ru|ʐɛ||Russian Ж pronunciation.ogg}} || {{Unicode|живѣте}}<br>{{IPA|[ʐɨˈvʲetʲɪ]}}{{Refn | group = "lower-alpha" | {{Citation | publisher = Yandex | url = http://slovari.yandex.ru/dict/ushakov/article/ushakov/07/us186306.htm?text=%D0%B6%D0%B8%D0%B2%D0%B5%D1%82%D0%B5 | place = [[Russia|RU]] | type = article | contribution = живете | script-title=ru:Толковый словарь русского языка Ушакова | author-link = Dmitry Ushakov| last = Ushakov | first = Dmitry | language = Russian | trans_title = Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language}}; the dictionary makes difference between ''е'' and ''ё''.<ref>{{Citation | last = Ushakov | first = Dmitry | publisher = Yandex | place = RU | url = http://slovari.yandex.ru/dict/ushakov/article/ushakov/06/us183315.htm?text=%D0%B5%D0%BB%D0%BA%D0%B0 | script-title=ru:Толковый словарь русского языка Ушакова | contribution = ёлка| language = Russian }}.</ref>}} || {{IPAslink|ʐ}}|| plea'''s'''ure || – || U+0416 / U+0436
|-
| '''[[З]]з''' || [[File:09-Russian alphabet-З з.svg]] || зэ<br>{{IPA-ru|zɛ|}} || земля<br>{{IPA|[zʲɪˈmlʲæ]}} || {{IPAslink|z}} or {{IPA|/zʲ/}} || '''z'''oo || 7 || U+0417 / U+0437
|-
| '''[[И]]и''' || [[File:10-Russian alphabet-И и.svg]] || и<br>{{IPA-ru|i|}} || иже<br>{{IPA|[ˈiʐɨ]}} || {{IPAslink|i}} or {{IPA|/&nbsp;ʲi/}}|| m'''e''' || 8 || U+0418 / U+0438
|-
| '''[[Й]]й''' || [[File:11-Russian alphabet-Й й.svg]] || и краткое<br>{{IPA-ru|i ˈkratkəɪ|}} || и съ краткой<br>{{IPA|[ɪ s ˈkratkəj]}} || {{IPAslink|j}} || to'''y''' || - || U+0419 / U+0439
|-
| '''[[К]]к''' || [[File:12-Russian alphabet-К к.svg]] || ка<br>{{IPA-ru|ka|}} || како<br>{{IPA|[ˈkakə]}} || {{IPAslink|k}} or {{IPA|/kʲ/}} || '''k'''iss || 20 || U+041A / U+043A
|-
| '''[[Л]]л'''{{ref|El|†}} || [[File:13-Russian alphabet-Л л.svg]] || эл ''or'' эль<br>{{IPA-ru|ɛl|}} ''or'' {{IPA-ru|ɛlʲ|}} || люди<br>{{IPA|[ˈlʲʉdʲɪ]}} || {{IPAslink|l}} or {{IPA|/lʲ/}} || '''l'''amp || 30 || U+041B / U+043B
|-
| '''[[М]]м''' || [[File:14-Russian alphabet-М м.svg]] || эм<br>{{IPA-ru|ɛm|}} || {{Unicode|мыслѣте}}<br />{{IPA |[mɨˈsʲlʲetʲɪ]}}<ref>{{Citation | publisher = Yandex | url = http://slovari.yandex.ru/dict/ushakov/article/ushakov/13/us228814.htm | type = article | contribution = мыслете | script-title=ru:Толковый словарь русского языка Ушакова | author-link = Dmitry Ushakov| last = Ushakov | first = Dmitry | place = RU | language = Russian | trans_title = Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language}}.</ref> || {{IPAslink|m}} or {{IPA|/mʲ/}} || '''m'''ap || 40 || U+041C / U+043C
|-
| '''[[Н]]н''' || [[File:15-Russian alphabet-Н н.svg]] || эн<br>{{IPA-ru|ɛn|}} || нашъ<br>{{IPA|[naʂ]}} || {{IPAslink|n̪|n}} or {{IPA|/ɲ/}}|| '''n'''ot || 50 || U+041D / U+043D
|-
| '''[[О]]о''' || [[File:16-Russian alphabet-О о.svg]] || о<br>{{IPA-ru|о|}} || онъ<br>{{IPA|[on]}} || {{IPAslink|o}} ||m'''o'''re|| 70 || U+041E / U+043E
|-
| '''[[П]]п''' || [[File:17-Russian alphabet-П п.svg]] || пэ<br>{{IPA-ru|pɛ|}} || покой<br>{{IPA|[pɐˈkoj]}} || {{IPAslink|p}} or {{IPA|/pʲ/}}|| '''p'''et || 80 || U+041F / U+043F
|-
| '''[[Р]]р''' || [[File:18-Russian alphabet-Р р.svg]] || эр<br>{{IPA-ru|ɛr|}} || рцы<br>{{IPA|[rt͡sɨ]}} || {{IPAslink|r}} or {{IPA|/rʲ/}} || [[Alveolar trill|rolled r]] || 100 || U+0420 / U+0440
|-
| '''[[С]]с''' || [[File:19-Russian alphabet-С с.svg]] || эс<br>{{IPA-ru|ɛs|}} || слово<br>{{IPA|[ˈslovə]}} || {{IPAslink|s}} or {{IPA|/sʲ/}}|| '''s'''ee || 200 || U+0421 / U+0441
|-
| '''[[Т]]т''' || [[File:20-Russian alphabet-Т т.svg]] || тэ<br>{{IPA-ru|tɛ|}} || твердо<br>{{IPA|[ˈtvʲerdə]}} || {{IPAslink|t̪|t}} or {{IPA|/tʲ/}} || '''t'''ool || 300 || U+0422 / U+0442
|-
| '''[[У]]у''' || [[File:21-Russian alphabet-У у.svg]] || у<br>{{IPA-ru|u|}} || укъ<br>{{IPA|[uk]}} || {{IPAslink|u}} || b'''oo'''t || 400 || U+0423 / U+0443
|-
| '''[[Ф]]ф''' || [[File:22-Russian alphabet-Ф ф.svg]] || эф<br>{{IPA-ru|ɛf|}} || фертъ<br>{{IPA|[fʲert]}} || {{IPAslink|f}} or {{IPA|/fʲ/}} || '''f'''ace || 500 || U+0424 / U+0444
|-
| '''[[Х]]х''' || [[File:23-Russian alphabet-Х х.svg]] || ха<br>{{IPA-ru|xa|}} || {{Unicode| хѣръ}}<br>{{IPA|[xʲer]}} || {{IPAslink|x}} || lo'''ch''' || 600 || U+0425 / U+0445
|-
| '''[[Ц]]ц''' || [[File:24-Russian alphabet-Ц ц.svg]] || це<br>{{IPA-ru|tsɛ|}} || цы<br>{{IPA|[t͡sɨ]}} || {{IPAslink|t͡s}} || si'''ts'''|| 900 || U+0426 / U+0446
|-
| '''[[Ч]]ч''' || [[File:25-Russian alphabet-Ч ч.svg]] || че<br>{{IPA-ru|tɕe|}} || червь<br>{{IPA|[t͡ɕerfʲ]}} || {{IPAslink|t͡ɕ}} || '''ch'''ip || 90 || U+0427 / U+0447
|-
| '''[[Ш]]ш''' || [[File:26-Russian alphabet-Ш ш.svg]] || ша<br>{{IPA-ru|ʂa|}} || ша<br>{{IPA|[ʂa]}} || {{IPAslink|ʂ}} || '''sh'''arp|| - || U+0428 / U+0448
|-
| '''[[Щ]]щ''' || [[File:27-Russian alphabet-Щ щ.svg]] || ща<br>{{IPA-ru|ɕɕæ|}} || ща<br>{{IPA|[ɕt͡ɕæ]}} || {{IPA|/ɕɕ/}} || '''sh'''eer (sometimes [[Russian phonology#Supplementary notes|instead pronounced]]<br>as in fre'''sh-ch'''eese)|| - || U+0429 / U+0449
|-
| '''[[Ъ]]ъ''' || [[File:28-Russian alphabet-ъ.svg]] || твёрдый знак<br>{{IPA-ru|ˈtvʲɵrdɨj znak||Russian Ъ pronunciation.ogg}} || еръ<br>{{IPA|[jer]}} || || (called "hard sign") silent, prevents [[Palatalization (phonetics)|palatalization]] of the preceding consonant ||- || U+042A / U+044A
|-
| '''[[Ы]]ы''' || [[File:29-Russian alphabet-ы.svg]] || ы<br>{{IPA-ru|ɨ|}} || еры<br>{{IPA|[jɪˈrɨ]}} || {{IPAblink|ɨ}} || ros'''e'''s, h'''i'''t|| – || U+042B / U+044B
|-
| '''[[Ь]]ь''' || [[File:30-Russian alphabet-ь.svg]] || мягкий знак<br>{{IPA-ru|ˈmʲæxʲkʲɪj znak||Russian Ь pronunciation.ogg}} || ерь<br />{{IPA|[jerʲ]}}</td> ||{{IPA|/&nbsp;ʲ/}} || (called "soft sign") silent, [[Palatalization (phonetics)|palatalizes]] the preceding consonant (if it is phonologically possible) || - || U+042C / U+044C
|-
| '''[[Э]]э''' || [[File:31-Russian alphabet-Э э.svg]] || э<br>{{IPA-ru|ɛ|}} || э оборотное<br>{{IPA|[ˈɛ əbɐˈrotnəɪ]}} || {{IPAslink|ɛ}} || m'''e'''t || - || U+042D / U+044D
|-
| '''[[Ю]]ю''' || [[File:32-Russian alphabet-Ю ю.svg]] || ю<br />{{IPA-ru |ju|}} || ю<br />{{IPA |[ju]}} || {{IPA |/ju/}} or {{IPA|/&nbsp;ʲʉ/}} || '''u'''se || - || U+042E / U+044E
|-
| '''[[Я]]я''' || [[File:33-Russian alphabet-Я я.svg]] || я<br />{{IPA-ru |ja|}} || я<br />{{IPA |[ja]}} || {{IPA |/ja/}} or {{IPA|/&nbsp;ʲæ/}} || '''ya'''rd || – || U+042F / U+044F
|- style="vertical-align:bottom; background:#eee; "
! align=left colspan=8 | letters eliminated in 1917–18
|-
| '''[[І]]і''' || – || – || і десятеричное<br>{{IPA-ru|i|}} || {{IPA|/i/}} or {{IPA |/&nbsp;ʲi/}} or {{IPA |/j/}} || Like '''и''' or '''й'''|| 10 ||
|-
| '''{{Unicode|[[Ѳ]]}}{{Unicode|ѳ}}''' || – || – || {{Unicode |ѳита}}<br />{{IPA-ru |fʲɪˈta|}} || {{IPA |/f/}} or {{IPA |/fʲ/}} || Like '''ф''' || 9 ||
|-
| '''{{Unicode|[[Ѣ]]}}{{Unicode|ѣ}}''' || – || – || ять<br>{{IPA-ru|jætʲ|}} || {{IPAslink|e}} or {{IPA |/&nbsp;ʲe/}} || Like '''е''' || - ||
|-
| '''{{Unicode|[[Ѵ]]}}{{Unicode|ѵ}}''' || – || – || ижица<br>{{IPA-ru|ˈiʐɨtsə|}} || {{IPA|/i/}} or {{IPA |/&nbsp;ʲi/}} || Usually like '''и''', see [[#Letters eliminated in 1918|below]] || - ||
|- style="vertical-align:bottom; background:#eee; "
! align=left colspan=8 | letters eliminated before 1750
|-
| '''{{Unicode|[[Dze|Ѕ]]}}{{Unicode|ѕ}}''' || – || – || {{Unicode |зѣло}}<br />{{IPA-ru |zʲɪˈlo|}}<ref>{{Citation | url = http://feb-web.ru/feb/sl18/slov-abc/08/sl816402.htm?cmd=2&istext=1 | title = ФЭБ | publisher = Feb web | place = RU}}.</ref> || {{IPA|/z/}} or {{IPA|/zʲ/}} || Like '''з''' || 6 ||
|-
| {{Unicode |[[Ksi (Cyrillic letter)|Ѯ]]}}{{Unicode |ѯ}} || – || – || кси<br />{{IPA-ru |ksʲi|}} || {{IPA |/ks/}} or {{IPA|/ksʲ/}} || Like '''кс''' || 60 ||
|-
| {{Unicode|[[Psi (Cyrillic)|Ѱ]]}}{{Unicode|ѱ}} || – || – || пси<br />{{IPA-ru |psʲi|}} || {{IPA |/ps/}} or {{IPA |/psʲ/}} || Like '''пс''' || 700 ||
|-
| {{Unicode|[[Omega (Cyrillic)|Ѡ]]}}{{Unicode|ѡ}} || – || – || омега<br>{{IPA-ru|ɐˈmʲeɡə|}} || {{IPA|/o/}} || Like '''о''' || 800 ||
|-
| {{Unicode |[[Yus|Ѫ]]}}{{Unicode |ѫ}} || – || – || юсъ большой<br>{{IPA-ru|jus bɐlʲˈʂoj|}} || {{IPA |/u/, /ju/}} or {{IPA|/&nbsp;ʲu/}} || Like '''у''' or '''ю''' || – ||
|-
| {{Unicode|[[Yus|Ѧ]]}}{{Unicode|ѧ}} || – || – || юсъ малый<br>{{IPA-ru|jus ˈmɑlɨj|}} || {{IPA|/ja/}} or {{IPA |/&nbsp;ʲa/}} || Like '''я''' || – ||
|-
| {{Unicode|[[Yus|Ѭ]]}}{{Unicode|ѭ}} || – || – || юсъ большой іотированный<br>{{IPA-ru|jus bɐlʲˈʂoj jɪˈtʲirəvənnɨj|}} || {{IPA|/ju/}} or {{IPA|/&nbsp;ʲu/}} || Like '''ю''' || – ||
|-
| {{Unicode|[[Yus|Ѩ]]}}{{Unicode|ѩ}} || – || – || юсъ малый іотированный<br>{{IPA-ru|jus ˈmɑlɨj jɪˈtʲirəvən.nɨj|}} || {{IPA|/ja/}} or {{IPA|/&nbsp;ʲa/}} || Like '''я''' || – ||
|}
 
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