"크테시폰"의 두 판 사이의 차이

4,969 바이트 제거됨 ,  13년 전
잔글
-미번역 제거
잔글 (로봇이 더함: id:Ctesiphon, lt:Ktesifonas)
잔글 (-미번역 제거)
 
[[Image:tagkasra.jpg|thumb|크테시폰 (1824, 하트 대위)]]
 
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Ctesiphon is located approximately at [[Al-Mada'in]], 20 miles southeast of the modern city of [[Baghdad]], [[Iraq]], along the river Tigris. Ctesiphon measured 30 square kilometers (cf. the 13.7 square kilometers of 4th century imperial Rome). The only visible remain is the great arch [[Taq-i Kisra]] located in what is now the Iraqi town of [[Salman Pak]].
 
== History ==
Ctesiphon rose to prominence during the Parthian Empire in the first century BC, and was the seat of government for most of its rulers. The city was located nearby [[Seleucia]], the Hellenistic capital. [[Strabo]] abundantly describes its foundation:
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[[Image:Stamp Iraq 1923 3a.jpg|left|thumb|크테시폰 유적, 이라크의 1923 우표]]
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{{quote|"In ancient times [[Babylon]] was the metropolis of [[Assyria]]; but now Seleuceia is the metropolis, I mean the [[Seleuceia on the Tigris]], as it is called. Near by is situated a village called Ctesiphon, a large village. This village the kings of the Parthians were wont to make their winter residence, thus sparing the Seleuceians, in order that the Seleuceians might not be oppressed by having the Scythian folk or soldiery quartered amongst them. Because of the Parthian power, therefore, Ctesiphon is a city rather than a village; its size is such that it lodges a great number of people, and it has been equipped with buildings by the Parthians themselves; and it has been provided by the Parthians with wares for sale and with the arts that are pleasing to the Parthians; for the Parthian kings are accustomed to spend the winter there because of the salubrity of the air, but they summer at [[Ecbatana]] and in [[Hyrcania]] because of the prevalence of their ancient renown."|Strabo XVI, 1, 16<ref>[http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Strabo/16A*.html Strabo XVI, 1, 16]</ref>}}
 
Because of its importance, Ctesiphon was a major military objective for the leaders of the [[Roman Empire]] in its eastern wars. The city was captured by Rome or by its successor state, the [[Byzantine Empire]], five times in its history, three times in the [[2nd century|second century]] alone. The emperor [[Trajan]] captured Ctesiphon in [[116]]. After one year of occupation his successor [[Hadrian]] decided to willingly return it in [[117]] as part of a peace settlement. The Roman general [[Avidius Cassius]] captured Ctesiphon during another Parthian war in [[164]], but abandoned it when peace was concluded. In [[197]], the emperor [[Septimius Severus]] sacked Ctesiphon and carried off thousands of its inhabitants, whom he sold into slavery.
 
Late in the [[3rd century|third century]], after the Parthians had been supplanted by the [[Sassanid dynasty|Sassanid]]s, the city again became a source of conflict with Rome. In [[295]], [[Galerius]] was defeated by the Persians outside the city. Humiliated, he returned a year later and won a tremendous victory which ended in the fourth and final capture of the city by a Roman army. He returned it to the Persian king [[Narseh of Persia|Narses]] in exchange for [[Armenia]]. About 325 and again in 410 the city, or the Greek colony directly across the river, was the site of church councils for the [[Church of the East]].
 
[[Julian the Apostate|Emperor Julian]] was [[Battle of Ctesiphon (363)|killed]] outside of the city walls in [[363]] during his war against [[Shapur II]]. Finally, in [[627]], the Byzantine Emperor [[Heraclius]] surrounded the city, the capital of the Sassanid Empire, leaving it after the Persians accepted his peace terms.
 
Ctesiphon fell to the Muslims during the [[Islamic conquest of Persia]] in [[637]] under the military command of Sa'ad Ibn Abi Waqqas during the caliphate of Umar. However, the general population was not harmed. Still, as political and economic fortune had passed elsewhere, the city went into a rapid decline, especially after the founding of the [[Abbasid]] capital at [[Baghdad]] in the [[8th century]] and soon became a [[ghost town]]. It is believed to be the basis for the city of [[Isbanir]] in the ''[[Thousand and One Nights]]''.
 
The ruins of Ctesiphon were the site of [[Battle of Ctesiphon (1915)|a major battle of World War I]] in November of [[1915]]. The [[Ottoman Empire]] defeated troops of [[United Kingdom|Britain]] attempting to capture Baghdad, and drove them back some 40 miles before trapping the British force and compelling it to surrender.
 
== Palaces of Ctesiphon==
 
:''Main article: [[Taq-i Kisra]]''
:''See also: [[Sassanid architecture]]''
The splendor of the imperial palace complex at Ctesiphon, to include [[Khosrau I of Persia]]'s palace (Shâhigân-ǐ Sepid = the white palace, now almost totally ruined) and the great arch [[Taq-i Kisra]], remain legendary. The Throne room—presumably under or behind the arch—was more than 110 ft high. The massive barrel vault covered an area 80ft wide by 160 ft long, and was the largest vault ever constructed in Persia.
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