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=== 동소체 ===
{{main article|탄소 동소체}}
단일 탄소 원자는 매우 수명이 짧다. 따라서 탄소는 보통 여러 분자 배열을 가진 다양한 원자 구조, 즉 안정적인 동소체로 존재한다. 대표적인 탄소 동소체로는 [[비정질 탄소]], [[흑연]], [[다이아몬드]] 등이 있다. 신물질인 [[풀러렌]]은 오늘날 주로 합성하여 연구에 사용되며, 풀러렌에는 [[버크민스터풀러렌]]<ref name="buckyballs">{{cite web|url=http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/local/projects/unwin/Fullerenes.html|title=Fullerenes(An Overview)|author=Unwin, Peter|accessdate=2007-12-08|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20071201165240/http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/local/projects/unwin/Fullerenes.html|archivedate=2007-12-01|df=}}</ref><ref name="nanotubes">{{cite book|editor=Ebbesen, T. W.|date=1997|title=Carbon nanotubes—preparation and properties|publisher=CRC Press|location=Boca Raton, Florida|isbn=0-8493-9602-6}}</ref>, [[탄소 나노튜브]]<ref name="nanotubes2">{{cite journal|editor=Dresselhaus, M. S.|editor2= Dresselhaus, G.|editor3= Avouris, Ph.|date=2001|title=Carbon nanotubes: synthesis, structures, properties and applications|journal=Topics in Applied Physics|volume=80|isbn=3-540-41086-4|publisher=Springer|location=Berlin}}</ref>, [[탄소 나노돌기]]<ref name="nanobuds">{{cite journal|date=2007|title=A novel hybrid carbon material|journal=Nature Nanotechnology|volume=2|pages=156–161|doi=10.1038/nnano.2007.37|last1=Nasibulin|first1=Albert G.|pmid=18654245|last2=Pikhitsa|first2=P. V.|last3=Jiang|first3=H.|last4=Brown|first4=D. P.|last5=Krasheninnikov|first5=A. V.|last6=Anisimov|first6=A. S.|last7=Queipo|first7=P.|last8=Moisala|first8=A.|last9=Gonzalez|first9=D.|issue=3|bibcode=2007NatNa...2..156N|display-authors=8 }}</ref>, [[탄소 나노섬유]]<ref>{{cite journal|date=2007|title=Investigations of NanoBud formation|journal=Chemical Physics Letters|volume=446|pages=109–114|doi=10.1016/j.cplett.2007.08.050|last1=Nasibulin|first1=A.|last2=Anisimov|first2=Anton S.|last3=Pikhitsa|first3=Peter V.|last4=Jiang|first4=Hua|last5=Brown|first5=David P.|last6=Choi|first6=Mansoo|last7=Kauppinen|first7=Esko I.|bibcode=2007CPL...446..109N }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|date=2004|title=Synthesis and characterisation of carbon nanofibers with macroscopic shaping formed by catalytic decomposition of C{{sub|2}}H{{sub|6}}/H{{sub|2}} over nickel catalyst|journal=Applied Catalysis A: General|volume=274|pages=1–8|doi=10.1016/j.apcata.2004.04.008|author=Vieira, R|last2=Ledoux|first2=Marc-Jacques|last3=Pham-Huu|first3=Cuong}}</ref> 등이 있다. 이외에도 [[론스달라이트]]<ref name="lonsdaletite">{{cite journal|date=1967|title=Lonsdaleite, a new hexagonal polymorph of diamond|journal=Nature|volume=214|pages=587–589|doi=10.1038/214587a0|first=Frondel|last=Clifford|last2=Marvin|first2=Ursula B.|issue=5088|bibcode=1967Natur.214..587F }}</ref>, [[유리상 탄소]]<ref name="glassy carbon"/>, [[탄소 나노폼]]<ref>{{cite journal|author=Harris, PJF|date=19992004|url=http://www.physics.usyd.edu.au/~powles/PDFs/Harris_2004.pdf|title=StructuralFullerene-related analysisstructure of acommercial carbonglassy foam formed by high pulse-rate laser ablationcarbons|journal=Applied Physics A: Materials Science &Philosophical ProcessingMagazine|volume=6984|pages=S755–S7583159–3167|doi=10.10071080/s00339005152214786430410001720363|authorissue=Rode, A. V.29|last2bibcode=Hyde|first2=S2004PMag. T.|last3=Gamaly|first3=E. G84.3159H|last4=Elliman|first4=R. G.|last5=McKenzie|first5=D. R.|last6=Bulcock|first6=S.|issue=7}}</ref>, [[선형 아세틸렌성 탄소]]<ref name=LAC>{{cite book|author=Heimann, Robert Bertram|author2=Evsyukov, Sergey E.|author3=Kavan, Ladislav|last-author-ampdeadurl=yes|title=Carbyne and carbynoid structures|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=swSQZcTmo_4C&pg=PA1|accessdate=2011-06-06|date=28 February 1999|publisher=Springer|isbn=978-0-7923-5323-2|pages=1–|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/2012112315342420120319054641/http://bookswww.googlephysics.comusyd.edu.au/books?id=swSQZcTmo_4C&pg=PA1~powles/PDFs/Harris_2004.pdf|archivedate=23 November 2012-03-19|df=|access-date=2011-07-06|citeseerx=10.1.1.359.5715}}</ref> 등이 있다.
, [[탄소 나노폼]]<ref>{{cite journal|date=1999|title=Structural analysis of a carbon foam formed by high pulse-rate laser ablation|journal=Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing|volume=69|pages=S755–S758|doi=10.1007/s003390051522|author=Rode, A. V.|last2=Hyde|first2=S. T.|last3=Gamaly|first3=E. G.|last4=Elliman|first4=R. G.|last5=McKenzie|first5=D. R.|last6=Bulcock|first6=S.|issue=7}}</ref>, [[선형 아세틸렌성 탄소]]<ref name=LAC>{{cite book|author=Heimann, Robert Bertram|author2=Evsyukov, Sergey E.|author3=Kavan, Ladislav|last-author-amp=yes|title=Carbyne and carbynoid structures|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=swSQZcTmo_4C&pg=PA1|accessdate=2011-06-06|date=28 February 1999|publisher=Springer|isbn=978-0-7923-5323-2|pages=1–|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20121123153424/http://books.google.com/books?id=swSQZcTmo_4C&pg=PA1|archivedate=23 November 2012|df=}}</ref> 등이 있다.
 
2009년 기준으로 [[그래핀]]은 현재까지 실험적으로 검증된 가장 강한 물질이다.<ref name="lee">{{cite journal|last=Lee|first=C.|last2=Wei|first2=X.|last3=Kysar|first3=J. W.|last4=Hone|first4=J.|date=2008|title=Measurement of the Elastic Properties and Intrinsic Strength of Monolayer Graphene|journal=Science|volume=321|issue=5887|pages=385–8|bibcode=2008Sci...321..385L|doi=10.1126/science.1157996|pmid=18635798|laysummary=https://web.archive.org/web/20090531134104/http://www.aip.org/isns/reports/2008/027.html}}</ref> [[흑연]]에서 그래핀을 분리하는 공정은 아직까지 경제성이 떨어져 추가적인 기술 발전이 필요하다.<ref name="nypost">{{cite web|url=http://www.nypost.com/seven/08252008/news/regionalnews/toughest_stuff__known_to_man_125993.htm|title=Toughest Stuff Known to Man : Discovery Opens Door to Space Elevator|last=Sanderson|first=Bill|date=2008-08-25|publisher=nypost.com|accessdate=2008-10-09|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080906171324/http://www.nypost.com/seven/08252008/news/regionalnews/toughest_stuff__known_to_man_125993.htm|archivedate=2008-09-06|df=}}</ref> 저렴한 공정이 개발된다면, 그래핀은 [[우주 엘리베이터]] 건설에 사용될 수 있을 것이다. 그리고 수소 연료 자동차에서 안전한 수소 저장고를 만드는 데 사용될 수도 있다.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Jin|first=Zhong|last2=Lu|first2=Wei|last3=O’Neill|first3=Kevin J.|last4=Parilla|first4=Philip A.|last5=Simpson|first5=Lin J.|last6=Kittrell|first6=Carter|last7=Tour|first7=James M.|date=2011-02-22|title=Nano-Engineered Spacing in Graphene Sheets for Hydrogen Storage|url=https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cm1025188|journal=Chemistry of Materials|volume=23|issue=4|pages=923–925|doi=10.1021/cm1025188|issn=0897-4756}}</ref>