"자유지상주의적 사회주의"의 두 판 사이의 차이

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'''자유지상적 사회주의'''(自由至上的社會主義, Libertarian socialism, 혹은 사회주의적 자유지상주의란 국가에 의한 중앙 집권적 국가 소유화와 경제 통제 그리고 국가마저 거부하는 [[반권위주의]]적 정치철학적 그룹을 일컫는다. 이들은 [[:en:Wage slavery|직장에서의 임금 노동 관계]]를 비판한다. 이들은 대신 [[노동자 자주경영]]과 정치 조직의[[:en:Decentralization|분권화]]를 강조한다. 이들은 [[생산수단]]을 통제하는 [[권위주의]]적 기관과 대중을 종속시키는 소유 계급, 정치적, 경제적 [[엘리트]]들의 제거를 통해 평등하고 정의로운 사회를 달성할 수 있다고 생각한다. 자유지상적 사회주의자들은 [[직접 민주제]]와 [[연방주의]], [[국가 연합|연합]] 등을 바탕으로 [[:en:Decentralization|분권화]]된 구조의 [[:en:libertarian municipalism|자유지상적 자치주의]]나 시민 어셈블리 [[노동 조합]], [[노동자 평의회]] 등을 옹호한다.<ref>"...preferring a system of popular self governance via networks of decentralized, local, voluntary, participatory, cooperative associations-sometimes as a complement to and check on state power..."</ref><ref>{{서적 인용| last=Rocker | first=Rudolf | title=Anarcho-Syndicalism: Theory and Practice | page=65 | year=2004 | publisher=[[AK Press]] | isbn=978-1-902593-92-0 }}</ref> 이 모든 것들은 인간의 삶에서 모든 불합리한 권위를 해체하는 것을 통하여<ref>{{웹 인용|title = The Soviet Union Versus Socialism|url = http://chomsky.info/1986____/|website = chomsky.info|accessdate = 2015-11-22|quote = Libertarian socialism, furthermore, does not limit its aims to democratic control by producers over production, but seeks to abolish all forms of domination and hierarchy in every aspect of social and personal life, an unending struggle, since progress in achieving a more just society will lead to new insight and understanding of forms of oppression that may be concealed in traditional practice and consciousness.}}</ref><ref>"Authority is defined in terms of the right to exercise social control (as explored in the "sociology of power") and the correlative duty to obey (as explred in the "philosophy of practical reason"). Anarchism is distinguished, philosophically, by its scepticism towards such moral relations – by its questioning of the claims made for such normative power – and, practically, by its challenge to those "authoritative" powers which cannot justify their claims and which are therefore deemed illegitimate or without moral foundation."[https://books.google.com/books?id=kkj5i3CeGbQC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false ''Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism'' by Paul McLaughlin. AshGate. 2007. p. 1]</ref><ref name="iaf-ifa.org">"The [[International of Anarchist Federations|IAF - IFA]] fights for : the abolition of all forms of authority whether economical, political, social, religious, cultural or sexual."[http://www.iaf-ifa.org/principles/english.html "Principles of The [[International of Anarchist Federations] {{웨이백|url=http://www.iaf-ifa.org/principles/english.html |date=20120105000000 }}]"]</ref><ref>"Anarchism, then, really stands for the liberation of the human mind from the dominion of religion; the liberation of the human body from the dominion of property; liberation from the shackles and restraint of government. Anarchism stands for a social order based on the free grouping of individuals for the purpose of producing real social wealth; an order that will guarantee to every human being free access to the earth and full enjoyment of the necessities of life, according to individual desires, tastes, and inclinations." [[Emma Goldman]]. "What it Really Stands for Anarchy" in ''[[Anarchism and Other Essays]]''.</ref><ref>Individualist anarchist Benjamin Tucker defined anarchism as opposition to authority as follows "They found that they must turn either to the right or to the left, — follow either the path of Authority or the path of Liberty. Marx went one way; Warren and Proudhon the other. Thus were born State Socialism and Anarchism...Authority, takes many shapes, but, broadly speaking, her enemies divide themselves into three classes: first, those who abhor her both as a means and as an end of progress, opposing her openly, avowedly, sincerely, consistently, universally; second, those who profess to believe in her as a means of progress, but who accept her only so far as they think she will subserve their own selfish interests, denying her and her blessings to the rest of the world; third, those who distrust her as a means of progress, believing in her only as an end to be obtained by first trampling upon, violating, and outraging her. These three phases of opposition to Liberty are met in almost every sphere of thought and human activity. Good representatives of the first are seen in the Catholic Church and the Russian autocracy; of the second, in the Protestant Church and the Manchester school of politics and political economy; of the third, in the atheism of Gambetta and the socialism of Karl Marx." [[Benjamin Tucker]]. [http://www.theanarchistlibrary.org/HTML/Benjamin_Tucker__Individual_Liberty.html ''Individual Liberty.'']</ref><ref name="Ward 1966">{{웹 인용|url=http://www.panarchy.org/ward/organization.1966.html|last=Ward|first=Colin|year=1966|title=Anarchism as a Theory of Organization|accessdate=1 March 2010| archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20100325081119/http://www.panarchy.org/ward/organization.1966.html| archivedate= 25 March 2010<!--Added by DASHBot-->}}</ref><ref>Anarchist historian [[George Woodcock]] report of [[Mikhail Bakunin]]'s anti-authoritarianism and shows opposition to both state and non-state forms of authority as follows: "All anarchists deny authority; many of them fight against it." (p. 9)...Bakunin did not convert the League's central committee to his full program, but he did persuade them to accept a remarkably radical recommendation to the Berne Congress of September 1868, demanding economic equality and implicitly attacking authority in both Church and State."</ref><ref>{{서적 인용|last=Brown |first=L. Susan |chapter=Anarchism as a Political Philosophy of Existential Individualism: Implications for Feminism |title=The Politics of Individualism: Liberalism, Liberal Feminism and Anarchism |publisher=Black Rose Books Ltd. Publishing |year= 2002 |page=106}}</ref> [[자유]]<ref>"LibSoc share with LibCap an aversion to any interference to freedom of thought, expression or choicce of lifestyle." [[Roderick T. Long]]. "Toward a libertarian theory of class." ''Social Philosophy and Policy''. Volume 15. Issue 02. Summer 1998. pp 305</ref> 그리고 [[자유연합론]]<ref>"What is implied by the term 'libertarian socialism'?: The idea that socialism is first and foremost about freedom and therefore about overcoming the domination, repression, and alienation that block the free flow of human creativity, thought, and action...An approach to socialism that incorporates cultural revolution, women's and children's liberation, and the critique and transformation of daily life, as well as the more traditional concerns of socialist politics. A politics that is completely revolutionary because it seeks to transform all of reality. We do not think that capturing the economy and the state lead automatically to the transformation of the rest of social being, nor do we equate liberation with changing our life-styles and our heads. Capitalism is a total system that invades all areas of life: socialism must be the overcoming of capitalist reality in its entirety, or it is nothing." "What is Libertarian Socialism?" by Ulli Diemer. Volume 2, Number 1 (Summer 1997 issue) of ''The Red Menace''.</ref> 을 목표로 한다. 이런 맥락에서 자유지상주의적 사회주의자들은 [[사회민주주의]]와 [[반레닌주의|레닌주의]]에 모두 반대하며 그들과 구별되고자 하는 사회주의자들로, [[국가사회주의]]를 반대한다.<ref>"It is forgotten that the early defenders of commercial society like [[Adam Smith|(Adam) Smith]] were as much concerned with criticising the associational blocks to mobile labour represented by [[guilds]] as they were to the activities of the state. The [[History of socialism|history of socialist thought]] includes a long associational and anti-statist tradition prior to the political victory of the [[Bolshevism]] in the east and varieties of [[Fabianism]] in the west. John O´Neil." ''The Market: Ethics, knowledge and politics''. Routledge. 1998. p. 3</ref><ref>"In some ways, it is perhaps fair to say that if Left communism is an intellectual- political formation, it is so, first and foremost, negatively – as opposed to other socialist traditions. I have labelled this negative pole ‘socialist orthodoxy’, composed of both Leninists and social democrats...What I suggested was that these Left communist thinkers differentiated their own understandings of communism from a strand of socialism that came to follow a largely electoral road in the West, pursuing a kind of social capitalism, and a path to socialism that predominated in the peripheral and semi- peripheral countries, which sought revolutionary conquest of power and led to something like state capitalism. Generally, the Left communist thinkers were to find these paths locked within the horizons of capitalism (the law of value, money, private property, class, the state), and they were to characterize these solutions as statist, substitutionist and authoritarian." Chamsy el- Ojeili. ''Beyond post-socialism. Dialogues with the far-left.'' Palgrave Macmillan. 2015. p. 8</ref>
 
과거와 오늘날의 자유지상적 사회주의의 운동들은 일반적으로 아나키즘을 포함(특히 [[아나르코공산주의]], [[집산주의적 아나키즘]], [[아나르코생디칼리슴]]<ref>{{서적 인용| last=Sims | first=Franwa | title=The Anacostia Diaries As It Is | page=160 | year=2006 | publisher=Lulu Press}}</ref>, 그리고 [[상호주의 (경제이론)|상호주의 아나키즘]]<ref>{{웹 인용 |url=http://www.mutualist.org/id32.html |제목=A Mutualist FAQ: A.4. Are Mutualists Socialists? |확인날짜=2010년 4월 29일 |보존url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090609075437/http://www.mutualist.org/id32.html |보존날짜=2009년 6월 9일 |깨진링크=예 }}</ref>)하며, [[자율주의]], [[:en:communalism|코뮤널리즘]], [[:en:Participism|참여주의]], [[:en:Guild socialism|길드 사회주의]],<ref>"It is by meeting such a twofold requirement that the libertarian socialism of G.D.H. Cole could be said to offer timely and sustainable avenues for the institutionalization of the liberal value of autonomy..." Charles Masquelier. ''Critical theory and libertarian socialism: Realizing the political potential of critical social theory.'' Bloombury. New York-London. 2014. pg. 190</ref> 혁명적 생디칼리즘 그리고 [[평의회주의]]나<ref>"Councilism and anarchism loosely merged into ‘libertarian socialism’, offering a non-dogmatic path by which both council communism and anarchism could be updated for the changed conditions of the time, and for the new forms of proletarian resistance to these new conditions." Toby Boraman. "Carnival and Class: Anarchism and Councilism in Australasia during the 1970s" in Alex Prichard, Ruth Kinna, Saku Pinta and Dave Berry (eds). Libertarian Socialism: Politics in Black and Red. Palgrave Macmillan, December 2012. pg. 268.</ref> [[룩셈부르크주의]]같은<ref name="Graham-2005">Murray Bookchin, ''Ghost of Anarcho-Syndicalism''; [[Robert Graham (historian)|Robert Graham]], ''The General Idea of Proudhon's Revolution''</ref> [[자유지상주의적 마르크스주의]] 등을 포함하며, 몇몇의 [[공상적 사회주의]]와<ref>Kent Bromley, in his preface to [[Peter Kropotkin]]'s book ''[[The Conquest of Bread]]'', considered early French utopian socialist [[Charles Fourier]] to be the founder of the libertarian branch of [[Socialism|socialist]] thought, as opposed to the authoritarian socialist ideas of [[François-Noël Babeuf|Babeuf]] and [[Philippe Buonarroti|Buonarroti]]." [[Peter Kropotkin|Kropotkin, Peter]]. ''The Conquest of Bread'', preface by Kent Bromley, New York and London, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1906.</ref> 개인주의적 아나키즘을 포괄한다.<ref>"[[Benjamin Tucker|(Benjamin) Tucker]] referred to himself many times as a socialist and considered his philosophy to be "Anarchistic socialism." ''[[An Anarchist FAQ]]'' by Various Authors</ref><ref>French individualist anarchist [[Émile Armand]] shows clearly opposition to capitalism and centralized economies when he said that the individualist anarchist "inwardly he remains refractory – fatally refractory – morally, intellectually, economically (The capitalist economy and the directed economy, the speculators and the fabricators of single are equally repugnant to him.)"[http://www.spaz.org/~dan/individualist-anarchist/library/emile-armand/life-activity.html "Anarchist Individualism as a Life and Activity" by Emile Armand]</ref><ref>Anarchist Peter Sabatini reports that In the United States "of early to mid-19th century, there appeared an array of communal and "utopian" counterculture groups (including the so-called [[free love]] movement). [[William Godwin]]'s anarchism exerted an ideological influence on some of this, but more so the socialism of [[Robert Owen]] and [[Charles Fourier]]. After success of his British venture, Owen himself established a cooperative community within the United States at [[New Harmony, Indiana]] during 1825. One member of this commune was [[Josiah Warren]] (1798–1874), considered to be the first [[individualist anarchist]]"[http://www.theanarchistlibrary.org/HTML/Peter_Sabatini__Libertarianism__Bogus_Anarchy.html Peter Sabatini. "Libertarianism: Bogus Anarchy"]</ref><ref>"It introduces an eye-opening approach to radical social thought, rooted equally in libertarian socialism and market anarchism." Chartier, Gary; Johnson, Charles W. (2011). ''Markets Not Capitalism: Individualist Anarchism Against Bosses, Inequality, Corporate Power, and Structural Poverty''. Brooklyn, NY:Minor Compositions/Autonomedia. Pg. Back cover</ref>
{{Quotation|20세기 초반엔, 자유지상주의적 사회주의는 [[사민주의]]나 공산주의 만큼이나 강력한 영향력이 있었다. 아나키스트들과 맑시스트들이 1872년 헤이그에서 열린 [[제1인터내셔널]]의 회의를 계기로 갈라지고 나서 얼마뒤 [[:en:Anarchist St. Imier International|’상티미에’에서 아나키스트 인터내셔널]]이 결성되었으며, 이들은 사민주의와 맑시스트들에 성공적으로 경쟁하면서 많은 반자본주의 활동가들, 혁명가들, 노동자들, [[노조]], 정치 정당들에게서 50여년이 넘도록 열렬한 지지를 받았다. 자유지상적 사회주의는 러시아에서 [[러시아 혁명 (1905년)|1905년]]과 [[러시아 혁명|1917년]]에 중요한 역할을 했다. 자유지상주의적 사회주의는 1911년의 [[멕시코 혁명]]에서도 중요한 역할을 했다. 자유지상주의적 사회주의는 1차 세계대전이 끝난지 20여년이 흐른 뒤에서도 1936년과 1937년동안 스페인 전역에 사회혁명을 일으키는데 충분한 힘을 발휘했다.<ref>Hahnel, Robin. [https://books.google.com/books?id=CI5d2CpL60oC ''Economic Justice and Democracy''], Routledge Press, 2005, p. 138 {{ISBN|0-415-93344-7}}</ref>}}
 
한편 1910년대 말 [[볼셰비키]]와 [[스탈린주의레닌주의]]가 권력을 장악하고 소련을 주무르기 시작할 때 이에 대항하여 [[자유지상주의적 마르크스주의]]가 발달하기 시작했다.
===반자본주의===
자유지상주의적 사회주의자들은 [[반자본주의]]자들이며 따라서 [[우파 자유지상주의]]와는 구분된다. 경제적 힘을 가장 많은 자본을 소유한 사람들이게 집중시키는 자본주의의 원칙과는 반대로, 자유지상주의적 사회주의자들은 사회 구성원들 사이에 그 힘을 분산시키고자 한다. 자유지상주의적 사회주의와 [[신자유주의]]의 핵심적인 차이는, 전자는 사람의 자유는 경제적 사회적 상황에 영향을 받는다고 생각하지만, 후자가 말하는 자유란 자본주의 틀안에서의 선택의 자유를 의미한다.<ref>Chomsky (2003) pp. 30–31</ref>