"사용자:Yxe:h/연습장2"의 두 판 사이의 차이

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대한민국에서는 영화 《[[기생충 (영화)|기생충]]》이 대한민국 영화 최초로 후보에 올라서 큰 주목을 받았다.<ref>{{뉴스 인용|url=http://woman.chosun.com/client/news/viw.asp?cate=C01&mcate=M1004&nNewsNumb=20200264150|제목=TV조선 ‘제92회 아카데미 시상식’ 독점 생중계…진행 이동진·안현모|뉴스=[[여성조선]]|저자=강현숙|날짜=2020-02-10|확인날짜=2020-02-10}}</ref> 수상 결과, 국제영화상, 각본상, 감독상, 작품상을 수상했다. 황금종려상과 아카데미 작품상을 동시에 수상한 작품은 1955년작 로맨스 영화 《[[마티 (영화)|마티]]》에 이은 두 번째 사례이다.<ref>{{뉴스 인용|url=https://news.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2020/02/10/2020021002244.html|제목="역사적 승리이자 놀라운 반전"...'아카데미 4관왕' 기생충에 쏟아진 외신 찬사|저자=유진우|신문=[[조선일보]]|날짜=2020-02-10|확인날짜=2020-02-11}}</ref> [[문재인]] 대통령은 봉준호 감독에게 축전을 보내며 "어려움을 함께 이겨내고 있는 국민들께 자부심과 용기를 줘 특별히 감사드린다"라고 말했다.<ref>{{뉴스 인용|url=https://www.yna.co.kr/view/AKR20200210120351001?section=news|제목=문대통령 '아카데미 수상' 봉준호 감독에 축전…"다음계획 궁금"(종합)|뉴스=[[연합뉴스]]|저자=임형섭|날짜=2020-02-10|확인날짜=2020-02-11}}</ref>
== 제작 과정 ==
=== 기획 ===
[[File:Martin Scorsese (8250485096).jpg|thumb|upright|[[Martin Scorsese]], director and producer of the film.]]
《아이리시맨》은 1980년대부터 구상이 되어 있던 프로젝트였다. 스코세이지 감독의 가디언지 인터뷰에 따르면, 35년 전 로버트 드니로와 본인이 함께 《[[배드 앤 뷰티]]》와 《낯선 곳에서의 두 주》의 리메이크 아이디어가 논의되었다. 세월이 지나 드니로는 찰스 브랜트의 책 《자네가 페인트칠을 한다던데》를 보고
In an interview with ''[[The Guardian]]'', Scorsese mentioned that the original contemplation of this project started in the 1980s, stating: "Bob [De Niro] and I had tried for many years to come up with a project. This one actually started about 35 years ago with the idea of the remake of ''[[The Bad and the Beautiful]]'' and the sequel ''[[Two Weeks in Another Town]]''. Somehow we exhausted that."<ref name="1980s" />
[[Robert De Niro]] then revived that old discussion and "got the project underway" after reading a copy of the 2004 book ''[[I Heard You Paint Houses]]'' written by [[Charles Brandt]],<ref name="DeNiroBook" /> with [[Martin Scorsese]] saying that De Niro "became rather emotional" as he told him about the lead character.<ref name="SpikeLee" /> Scorsese then became interested in directing a film adaptation of the book and in casting De Niro, [[Al Pacino]], and [[Joe Pesci]].<ref name="ScorseseInterested" />
 
가장 많은 후보작을 올린 [[영화 배급사]]는 스트리밍 플랫폼 [[넷플릭스]]로, 《아이리시맨》, 《결혼 이야기》 등의 작품으로 총 24개 부문에 후보를 올렸다. 그러나 수상 결과 장편 다큐멘터리 영화상(《아메리칸 팩토리》)과 여우조연상(《결혼 이야기》) 두 개 상만을 수상했다.<ref>{{뉴스 인용|url=https://news.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2020/02/10/2020021002867.html|제목="아카데미상 최대 '루저'는 넷플릭스"...24개 부문 후보 올리고도 수상은 2개|저자=이현승|신문=[[조선일보]]날짜=2020-02-10|확인날짜=2020-02-11}}</ref>
''The Irishman'' started its development phase in 2007.<ref name="Variety" /><ref name="Rosenthal" /> New plot materials and rewrites caused the movie to lose its place in the film release calendar, and Scorsese went on to direct three more films, ''[[Hugo (film)|Hugo]]'' (2011), ''[[The Wolf of Wall Street (2013 film)|The Wolf of Wall Street]]'' (2013) and ''[[Silence (2016 film)|Silence]]'' (2016), before returning to ''The Irishman''.<ref name="Brandt" /> In September 2014, after years of [[development hell]],<ref name="Variety" /> Pacino confirmed that the film would be Scorsese's next project after ''Silence''.<ref name="PacinoStillHappening" /> In October 2015, De Niro stated that the film was still happening and could have started filming in 2016 and [[Steven Zaillian]] was confirmed as screenwriter.<ref name="DeNiroConfirmed" /><ref name="ZaillianConfirmed" /> In July 2017, it was reported that the film would be presented as a series of flashbacks of an older Frank Sheeran, depicted as recollecting his many criminal activities over several decades,<ref name="Writing" /> with De Niro appearing "as young as 24 years and as old as 80."<ref name="2015Test" /> Producer [[Irwin Winkler]] defined the project as "the coming together of people that have worked together since we're kids together",<ref name="Winkler" /> while Rosenthal said that "what will surprise you is, as a Scorsese movie, it is a slower movie [...] it is guys looking at themselves through an older perspective."<ref name="Rosenthal" />
 
=== Writing ===
In July 2009, Brandt received a phone call from De Niro that led to a meeting a month later between the two of them, Scorsese and screenwriter Steven Zaillian.<ref name="Brandt" /> The meeting was supposed to last an hour but ended up lasting four hours. Brandt said that "the material was new to them" and Zaillian already had a script ready, but the additions Brandt made required a do-over. To help, Brandt handed over a screenplay of his own. Brandt said, "Zaillian is a great writer, don't get me wrong [...] I wanted to log the material."<ref name="Brandt" /> In the opening credits and as a reflection of the writing adaptation process, the final film is titled ''I Heard You Paint Houses'', the name of the [[I Heard You Paint Houses|novel on which the picture is based]], while the title ''The Irishman'' only appears in the end credits.<ref name="OnScreenTitle" />
 
The truthfulness of Sheeran's supposed confessions and the book on which the film was based has been challenged by "The Lies of the Irishman", an article on ''[[Slate (magazine)|Slate]]'' by Bill Tonelli,<ref name="Tonelli" /> to which Chip Fleischer, the publisher of the book, wrote a detailed reply,<ref name="PublisherReply" /> and by "Jimmy Hoffa and The Irishman: A True Crime Story?" by [[Harvard Law School]] professor [[Jack Goldsmith]], which appeared in ''[[The New York Review of Books]]''.<ref name="Goldsmith" /> In an interview, De Niro has defended the writing process of the film by stating, "we're not saying we're telling the actual story [...] we're telling our story."<ref name="DeNiroResponse" />
 
=== Casting ===
[[File:Harvey Keitel Cannes 2015.jpg|thumb|upright|[[Harvey Keitel]] portrayed the mob boss [[Angelo Bruno]].]]
In July 2017, Pacino and Pesci officially joined the cast, with [[Ray Romano]] also joining and [[Bobby Cannavale]] and [[Harvey Keitel]] in final negotiations.<ref name="PacinoStillHappening" /> Pesci was offered his role a reported 50 times before agreeing to take part, at first saying he did not want to do "the gangster thing again", while Scorsese tried to persuade him ''The Irishman'' would be "different."<ref name="SpikeLee" /> De Niro played a big part in convincing Pesci to take the role, telling him "We gotta do this. Who knows if there'll be anything after?"<ref name="Empire" /> In September 2017, [[Jack Huston]],<ref name="Cast1" /> [[Stephen Graham]],<ref name="Cast2" /> [[Domenick Lombardozzi]], [[Jeremy Luke]], Joseph Russo,<ref name="LombardozziConfirmed" /> [[Kathrine Narducci]],<ref name="Cast3" /> Danny Abeckaser,<ref name="Cast4" /> [[J. C. MacKenzie]], and Craig Vincent<ref name="Cast5" /> joined the cast. In October, [[Gary Basaraba]],<ref name="BarasabaConfirmed" /> [[Anna Paquin]],<ref name="PaquinConfirmed" /> Welker White,<ref name="WhiteConfirmed" /> and [[Jesse Plemons]] joined the cast of the film. Later, Craig Di Francia and [[Action Bronson]] were revealed to have joined the cast.<ref name="DiFranciaConfirmed" /><ref name="BronsonConfirmed" /> [[Sebastian Maniscalco]] and [[Paul Ben-Victor]] were later revealed as being part of the cast.<ref name="ManiscalcoConfirmed" /><ref name="Ben-VictorConfirmed" />
 
''The Irishman'' is the [[Martin Scorsese and Robert De Niro|ninth feature collaboration between De Niro and Scorsese]] and their first since 1995's ''[[Casino (1995 film)|Casino]]''; the fourth film to star both De Niro and Pacino (following ''[[The Godfather Part II]]'', ''[[Heat (1995 film)|Heat]],'' and ''[[Righteous Kill]]''); the seventh to star both De Niro and Pesci (following ''[[Raging Bull]]'', ''[[Once Upon a Time in America]]'', ''[[Goodfellas]]'', ''[[A Bronx Tale]]'', ''Casino'', and ''[[The Good Shepherd (film)|The Good Shepherd]]''); the first to star both Pacino and Pesci; and the first time Pacino has been directed by Scorsese. Scorsese said of finally working with Pacino, "I'd been wanting to work with Al for years. [[Francis Ford Coppola|Francis Coppola]] introduced me to him in 1970. Then he's in [[The Godfather|''The Godfather'' one]] and [[The Godfather Part II|two]], and he's in the stratosphere. For me, Al was always something unreachable. We even tried to make a film in the 1980s but couldn't get the financing for it. I said, 'What's he like to work with?' Bob [De Niro] said, 'Oh, he's great. You'll see.'" Scorsese added that there is a meta aspect to seeing Pacino and De Niro interact in ''The Irishman'', saying, "What you see in the film is their relationship as actors, as friends, over the past 40, 45 years. There's something magical that happens there."<ref name="ScorsesePacino" />
 
=== Costume design ===
[[Sandy Powell (costume designer)|Sandy Powell]] was assigned as the costume designer. She appointed Christopher Peterson as co-designer. Speaking about Scorsese, Powell said, "one of the things he said on a first meeting was that we weren't doing the same kind of gangsters as Goodfellas or Casino [...] these weren't flashy peacock looks. We were doing a low-key version. I mean, there are some obvious mafia types in there, but half of that is the way these people hold themselves." The film had a total of "250 characters and 6,500 extras", said Peterson, with Powell adding that "you need a lot of research, a lot of hard work, and you need to just get down and do it, [...] you basically have to sort of divide your brain up into those five different decades, and approach it as if there are three or four films in one. You're filming more than one decade in one day, and that's when you'd have to really know what you were doing."<ref name="CostumeDesign" />
 
=== Filming ===
Filming was originally set to start in August 2017, in and around [[New York City]],<ref name="Filming2" /><ref name="NewYorkPost" /> and would continue through December 2017.<ref name="FilmingDuration" /><ref name="RomanoConfirmed" /> [[Principal photography]] ended up beginning on September 18, 2017 in New York City and in the [[Mineola, New York|Mineola]] and [[Williston Park]] sections of [[Long Island]],<ref name="Filming1" /><ref name="FilmingStart" /><ref name="FilmingInNewYork" /> and wrapped on March 5, 2018, for a total of 108 shooting days.<ref name="Wrapped" /><ref name="Empire" /> Additional scenes were filmed in the [[Hudson Valley]] in [[Salisbury Mills, New York|Salisbury Mills]] and [[Suffern, New York|Suffern]] among other sites.<ref name="Filming3" /><ref name="Filming4" /> A posture coach was brought on set to offer tips to De Niro, Pacino, and Pesci on how to comport themselves like much younger men.<ref name="Empire" /> The picture was primarily shot on [[35 mm movie film]] with [[Arricam]] ST and LT, and with [[Red Digital Cinema|RED Helium]] for sections shot on digital, with two IR-capable Alexa Mini as witness-cameras for the de-aging.<ref name="Cameras1" /><ref name="Cameras2" /> All scenes that required de-aging effects were shot digitally with a custom three-camera rig. De-aging was facilitated by infrared makeup and flesh-colored tracking markers glued to the actors' skin. These tracking marks were then illuminated with infrared light, invisible to the main Helium camera but visible to the two witness-cameras attached to the rig. The two auxiliary witness-cameras captured facial performance data based on these infrared markers and allowed a portion of the complex de-aging process to be automated.<ref name="Cameras1" /> The film was shot at 117 different locations, for a total of 319 scenes.<ref name="ScorsesePodcast" /><ref name="Empire" />
 
=== Editing ===
Bill Desowitz, writing for IndieWire, stated that the film has been considered as contending for an Oscar nomination for its editing. [[Thelma Schoonmaker]] commented on working on the editing of the film stating: "Marty wanted to show the banality of the violence... It’s not like the incredible camera moves or flashy editing of the earlier movies. Victims are killed in an instant — often in very simple wide shots. And his brilliant idea of slamming the titles in front of the audience (describing how various mob characters die) was a way of showing that being part of the Mafia is not a good idea".<ref name="Editing" />
 
=== Visual effects ===
{{Quote box
|quote = There's a great deal of [[Computer-generated imagery|CGI]] because we're doing this youthification of De Niro, Pesci, and Al Pacino. They had to be CGI [...] Why I'm concerned, we're all concerned is that we're so used to watching them as the older faces. When we put them all together, it cuts back and forth [...] Now, it's real. Now, I'm seeing it. Now, certain shots need more work on the eyes, need more work on why these exactly the same eyes from the plate shot, but the wrinkles and things have changed. Does it change the eyes at all? If that's the case, what was in the eyes that I liked? Was it intensity? Was it gravitas? Was it threat?
| source = —[[Martin Scorsese]] speaking on ''[[A24 (company)|The A24 Podcast]]'' on May 15, 2019.<ref name="ScorsesePodcast" />
| width = 400px
| tstyle = font-size:100%
| quoted = true
| salign = right
}}
[[Industrial Light & Magic]] and [[visual effects supervisor]] [[Pablo Helman]] handled the effects for the film.<ref name="VisualEffects" /> In August 2015, Scorsese and De Niro made a test reel by recreating a scene from ''[[Goodfellas]]'' (1990), to see if the [[de-aging in film|de-aging]] could work. Scorsese said that "the risk was there, and that was it. We just tried to make the film. After sitting on the couch for ten years [...] we finally had a way."<ref name="2015Test" /> In March 2018, speaking about the de-aging process, Pacino told [[IndieWire]]: "I was playing Jimmy Hoffa at the age of 39, they're doing that on a computer [...] we went through all these tests and things [...] someone would come up to me and say, 'You're 39.' [You'd recall] some sort of memory of 39, and your body tries to acclimate to that and think that way. They remind you of it."<ref name="PacinoDeAging" /> Nicholas Rapold, writing for ''[[Film Comment]]'', gave the de-aging [[Computer-generated imagery|CGI]] approach used in the filming a mixed assessment, stating that: "De Niro's rosy complexion as a truck driver 'kid' recalls a tinted postcard photo more than a twentysomething person, and I can't explain away the same de-aged De Niro curb-stomping a grocer, looking more like the septuagenarian star he is than a ferociously protective thirtysomething dad."<ref name="Rapold" />
 
The extent of the visual effects used in the film for de-aging was further made evident during the award season when the amount of FX was quantified in an article stating: "Once again technology caught up with need when Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) developed an innovative, digital de-aging process without facial impediments [...] The impressive results put ILM on the Academy's longlist this week for the VFX Oscar [...] The costly VFX de-aging, therefore, became the tech centerpiece, with 1,750 shots created for two and a half hours of footage."<ref name="DeAging" />
 
=== Financing and budget ===
In May 2016, Mexican production company [[Fábrica de Cine]] had offered $100 million to finance the film, and through that deal [[Paramount Pictures]] would retain domestic rights.<ref name="Financing1" /> [[IM Global]] was also circling to bid for the film's international sales rights.<ref name="Financing1" /> [[STX Entertainment]] bought the international distribution rights to the film for $50 million beating out other studios like [[Universal Pictures]], [[20th Century Fox]], and [[Lionsgate]], while Fábrica de Cine closed the deal and Paramount retained its domestic rights.<ref name="Financing2" /><ref name="Financing3" />
 
By February 2017, Paramount Pictures had dropped domestic distribution rights for ''The Irishman'' following the announcement that Fábrica de Cine would not be financing the film due to its climbing budget. [[Netflix]] then bought the film rights for $105 million and agreed to finance the film's $125 million budget with a projected release date of October 2019.<ref name="105EstimatedBudget" /><ref name="125EstimatedBudget" /> In March 2018, it was also reported the film's budget had ballooned from $125 million to $140 million, due in large part to the visual effects needed to make De Niro, Pacino, and Pesci appear younger at various points throughout the film.<ref name="140EstimatedBudget" /> By August of that year, speculation had arisen that the cost had reportedly risen to as much as $175 million by the time post-production was to have wrapped, and some publications asserted that it might go as high as $200 million.<ref name="Independent" /><ref name="200EstimatedBudget" /> In August 2019, it was reported that the film's official cost was $159 million.<ref name="ReutersBudget" /><ref name="LosAngelesTimesBudget" />
 
=== Soundtrack ===
{{Anchor|Music|Score|Soundtrack}}
{{Infobox album
| name = The Irishman (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack)
| type = Soundtrack
| artist = Various artists
| released = {{Start date|2019|11|8}}<br />{{small|(Digital download)}}
| length = 60:13
| label = [[Sony Music]]
}}
[[Robbie Robertson]] and [[music supervisor]] [[Randall Poster]] compiled the soundtrack.<ref name="Robertson" /><ref name="Soundtrack" /> It features both original and existing music tracks.<ref name="Soundtrack" /> Speaking to ''[[Rolling Stone]]'', Robertson said, "this is probably the tenth film I've worked on with Marty [Scorsese], and every time we do it, it's a whole new experience [...] the music score for ''The Irishman'' was an unusual feat. We were trying to discover a sound, a mood, a feel, that could work, over the many decades that this story takes place."<ref name="Soundtrack" /> Robertson also wrote the score for the film, although only his "Theme for the Irishman" appears on the soundtrack.<ref name="Soundtrack" /> In December 2019, ''Indiewire'' reported that Robertson would be ineligible for an Oscar nomination for his original music used in the film due to the presence of too many high profile hit singles featured in the film's soundtrack.<ref name="Ineligible" />
{{Track listing
| headline = ''The Irishman (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack)''
| extra_column = Artist(s)
| title1 = [[In the Still of the Night (The Five Satins song)|In the Still of the Night]]
| extra1 = [[The Five Satins]]
| length1 = 3:05
| title2 = [[Tuxedo Junction]]
| extra2 = [[Glenn Miller]] and [[Glenn Miller Orchestra|His Orchestra]]
| length2 = 3:26
| title3 = [[I Hear You Knockin']]
| extra3 = [[Smiley Lewis]]
| length3 = 2:45
| title4 = [[The Fat Man (song)|The Fat Man]]
| extra4 = [[Fats Domino]]
| length4 = 2:36
| title5 = [[El Negro Zumbón]]
| extra5 = [[Flo Sandon's]]
| note5 = from the motion picture ''[[Anna (1951 film)|Anna]]''
| length5 = 2:29
| title6 = Le Grisbi
| extra6 = Jean Wetzel
| length6 = 3:26
| title7 = [[Delicado]]
| extra7 = [[Percy Faith]] and His Orchestra
| length7 = 2:53
| title8 = Have I Sinned
| extra8 = [[Donnie Elbert]]
| length8 = 2:59
| title9 = Theme for the Irishman
| extra9 = [[Robbie Robertson]]
| length9 = 4:36
| title10 = Song of the Barefoot Contessa
| extra10 = [[Hugo Winterhalter]] and His Orchestra
| length10 = 2:39
| title11 = [[A White Sport Coat (And a Pink Carnation)]]
| extra11 = [[Marty Robbins]] {{small|(feat. [[Ray Conniff]])}}
| length11 = 2:31
| title12 = [[Canadian Sunset]]
| extra12 = [[Eddie Heywood, Jr.|Eddie Heywood]] & Hugo Winterhalter and His Orchestra
| note12 = Single Version
| length12 = 2:55
| title13 = [[Honky Tonk (instrumental)|Honky Tonk, Pt. 1]]
| extra13 = [[Bill Doggett]]
| length13 = 3:05
| title14 = Melancholy Serenade
| extra14 = [[Jackie Gleason]]
| length14 = 3:15
| title15 = Qué Rico el Mambo
| extra15 = [[Pérez Prado]]
| length15 = 3:58
| title16 = [[Cry (Churchill Kohlman song)|Cry]]
| extra16 = [[Johnnie Ray]] & [[The Four Lads]]
| length16 = 3:04
| title17 = [[Sleep Walk]]
| extra17 = [[Santo & Johnny]]
| length17 = 2:27
| title18 = The Time Is Now
| extra18 = [[The Golddiggers]]
| length18 = 2:03
| title19 = [[Al di là]]
| extra19 = [[Jerry Vale]] & The Latin Casino All Stars
| length19 = 3:18
| title20 = Pretend You Don't See Her
| extra20 = The Latin Casino All Stars
| length20 = 2:42
| total_length = 60:13
}}