파리 회의 (1856) Congress of Paris in 1856
Before the Congress Assembled편집
The Crimean war was fought mainly on the Crimean Peninsula between Russia on one side, and Great Britain, France, The Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia on the other. It was fought mainly due to two reasons. First, the Russians demanded better treatment of and wanted to protect the Orthodox subjects of the Sultan of Turkey. This was later considered and promised by the Sultan of Turkey during the meeting at the Congress of Paris. The Second major reason was due to the dispute between the Russians and the French regarding the privileges of the Russian Orthodox and the Roman Catholic Churches in Holy Practices in Palestine. With the backing of Britain, the Turks didn't budge and declared war on Russia on October 4 of 1853. On March 28 1854, France and Britain also declared war against Russia, thus leaving Russia to fight off Turkey, Britain, and France alone. Then on January 26 1855, Sardinia-Piedmont also entered the war against Russia by sending 10,000 troops to aid the allies. Throughout the war, the Russian army's main concern was to make sure Austria didn't enter the war. Unfortunately, they weren't able to keep Austria out for too long, and their threat to enter the war, ultimately ended it.
Who, Why, and Where편집
The Congress of Paris took place in 1856 for the purpose of making peace after the almost three year Crimean War. The Congress of Paris was a peace Conference held in Paris, France, between representatives of the great powers in Europe, which at the time were: France, Great Britain, the Ottoman Empire (known today as Turkey), Sardinia, Russia, Austria, and Prussia. They assembled soon after February 1, 1856, when Russia accepted the first set of peace terms after Austria threatened to enter the war on the side of the Allies. The Congress of Paris worked out the final terms from February 25 through March 30. The Treaty of Paris (1856) was then signed on March 30 1856 with Russia on one side and France, Great Britain, Ottoman Turkey, and Sardinia-Piedmont on the other. The group of men negotiated at the Quai d’Orsay. One of the representatives who attended the Congress of Paris on behalf of the Ottoman Empire was A'ali Pasha, who was the grand vizier of the Empire. Russia was represented by Prince Orlov and Baron Brunnov. France sent their Ambassador at the time who was Earl Cowley. While other congresses, such as the Congress of Vienna, spread questions and issues for different committees to resolve, the Congress of Paris resolved everything in one group.
A significant diplomatic victory was scored by tiny Piedmont who, although not being yet considered a "great" European power, was nevertheless granted a seat at the Congress by the French Emperor Napoleon III mostly for having sent an expeditionary corps of 18,000 men to fight against Russia along with France and Prussia, but some say thanks to the intrigues of the very attractive Countess of Castiglione, who had caught the Emperor's attention. The Piedmontese foreign minister Camillo Benso di Cavour seized this opportunity to denounce Austrian political and military interference in the Italian peninsula stifling the wish of the Italian people to choose their own government.
The congress resulted in a pledge by all of the powers to jointly maintain "the integrity of the Ottoman Empire". They also guaranteed
Turkey’s independence. Also as a result of the conference Russia gave up the left bank of the mouth of the Danube River, including part of Bessarabia to Moldavia and gave up its claim to the special protection of Christians in the Ottoman Empire. Also Moldavia and Wallachia (which together later became Romania in 1858) along with Serbia were recognized as quasi-independent self-governing principalities under protection of the other European Powers. The sultan of Turkey agreed to in return, help improve the status of the Christian subjects in his empire. The territories of Russia and Turkey were restored to their prewar boundaries. The Black Sea was neutralized so therefore, no warships were allowed to enter; however, it was open to all other nations. It also opened the Danube River for shipping from all nations. Some of the rules and agreements that the congress came up with were altered 22 years later by the Congress of Berlin.
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