뇌신경은 뇌로부터 바로 나오는 신경이다. 척수신경에 대응하는 개념으로, 척수신경이 척수의 척수분절에서 나오는 것에 대응한다. 일반적으로 뇌신경은 12쌍으로 분류한다. Although thirteen cranial nerves in humans fit this description, twelve are conventionally recognized. The nerves from the third onward arise from the brain stem. Except for the tenth and the eleventh nerve, they primarily serve the motor and sensory systems of the head and neck region. However, unlike peripheral nerves which are separated to achieve segmental innervation, cranial nerves are divided to serve one or a few specific functions in wider anatomical territories.
The 12 pairs of cranial nerves are traditionally abbreviated by the corresponding Roman numerals. They are numbered according to where their nuclei lie in the brain stem, e.g. Cranial Nerve III (the Oculomotor nerve) leaves the brainstem at a higher position than Cranial nerve XII, whose origin is located more caudally (lower) than the other cranial nerves.
|I||Olfactory nerve||Transmits the sense of smell|
|II||Optic nerve||Transmits visual information to the brain|
|III||Oculomotor nerve||Innervates levator palpebrae superioris, superior rectus, medial rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique, which collectively perform most eye movements|
|IV||Trochlear nerve||Innervates the superior oblique muscle, which depresses, pulls laterally, and intorts the eyeball|
|V||Trigeminal nerve||Receives sensation from the face and innervates the muscles of mastication|
|VI||Abducens nerve (or abducent nerve)||Innervates the lateral rectus, which abducts the eye|
|VII||Facial nerve||Provides motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression and stapedius, receives the special sense of taste from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue, and provides secretomotor innervation to the salivary glands (except parotid) and the lacrimal gland|
|VIII||Vestibulocochlear nerve (or auditory-vestibular nerve or statoacustic nerve)||Senses sound, rotation and gravity (essential for balance & movement)|
|IX||Glossopharyngeal nerve||Receives taste from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue, provides secretomotor innervation to the parotid gland, and provides motor innervation to the stylopharyngeus|
|X||Vagus nerve||Supplies branchiomotor innervation to most laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles; provides parasympathetic fibers to nearly all thoracic and abdominal viscera down to the splenic flexure; and receives the special sense of taste from the epiglottis|
|XI||Accessory nerve (or cranial accessory nerve or spinal accessory nerve)||Controls muscles of the neck and overlaps with functions of the vagus|
|XII||Hypoglossal nerve||Provides motor innervation to the intrinsic muscles of the tongue and other glossal muscles|
Cranial nerves in non-human vertebrates편집
Human cranial nerves are evolutionarily homologous to those found in many other vertebrates. Cranial nerves XI and XII evolved in the common ancestor to amniotes (non-amphibian tetrapods) thus totalling twelve pairs. These characters are synapomorphies for their respective clades. In some primitive cartilagenous fishes, such as the dogfish (Squalos acanthos), there is a terminal nerve numbered zero (as it exits the brain before the first cranial nerve).
As the list is important to keep in mind during the examination of the nervous system, there are many mnemonic devices in circulation to help remember the names and order of the cranial nerves. Because the mind recalls rhymes well, the best mnemonics often use rhyming schemes. Examples are:
- On Old Olympus Towering Tops, A Finn And German Viewed Some Hops.
- OLd OPie OCcasionally TRies TRIGonometry And Feels VEry GLOomy, VAGUe, And HYPOactive
- On Occasion Our Trusty Truck Acts Funny. Very Good Vehicle Any How.
- OLd OPTICians OCCasionally Too TRy And Feel AUDrey GLOSSOp's VAGina AcH!
Another to help remember the types of information these nerves carry (sensory, motor, or both) is thus:
- Some Say Money Matters, But My Brother Says Big Brains Matter More.