사용자:Mar del Este/2010~2011년 중동 및 북아프리카 시위

The Arab Spring is a revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests that has been taking place in the Arab world since 18 December 2010. Prior to this period, Sudan was the only Arab country to have successfully toppled dictatorial regimes, in 1964 and again in 1985. To date, there have been revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt; a civil war in Libya; civil uprisings in Bahrain, Syria, and Yemen; major protests in Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Morocco, and Oman; and minor protests in Djibouti, Kuwait, Lebanon, Mauritania, Saudi Arabia, and Sudan.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] The protests have shared techniques of civil resistance in sustained campaigns involving strikes, demonstrations, marches and rallies, as well as the use of social media, such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube, to organize, communicate, and raise awareness in the face of state attempts at repression and internet censorship.[12] The slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world has been "The people want to bring down the regime" (틀:Lang-ar).[13]

Overview편집

The series of protests and demonstrations across the Middle east and North Africa has become known as the "Arab Spring",[14][15][16][17][18][19] and sometimes as the "Arab Spring and Winter",[20] or "Arab Awakening" [21] even though several affected countries are not strictly part of the Arab world. It was sparked by the first protests that occurred in Tunisia on 18 December 2010 following Mohamed Bouazizi's self-immolation in protest of police corruption and ill treatment.[22][23] With the success of the protests in Tunisia, a wave of unrest struck Algeria, Jordan, Egypt, and Yemen,[24] then spread to other countries, with the largest, most organised demonstrations often occurring on a "day of rage", usually Friday after noon prayers.[25][26][27] The protests have also triggered similar unrest outside the region.

As of May 2011, demonstrations have resulted in the overthrow of two heads of state: Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali fled to Saudi Arabia on 14 January following the Tunisian revolution protests, and in Egypt, President Hosni Mubarak resigned on 11 February 2011, after 18 days of massive protests, ending his 30-year presidency. During this period of regional unrest, several leaders announced their intentions to step down at the end of their current terms. Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir announced that he would not seek re-election in 2015,[28] as did Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, whose term ends in 2014,[29] although there have been increasingly violent demonstrations demanding his immediate resignation.[30] Protests in Jordan have also caused the resignation of the government[31] resulting in former Prime Minister and Ambassador to Israel Marouf Bakhit being appointed prime minister by King Abdullah and tasked with forming a new government.[32] Another leader, President Ali Abdullah Saleh of Yemen, announced on 23 April that he would step down within 30 days in exchange for immunity,[33] a deal the Yemeni opposition informally accepted on 26 April;[34] Saleh then reneged on the deal, prolonging the Yemeni uprising.[35] Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi has refused to step down, causing a civil war between his loyalists and rebels based in Benghazi.[36]

The volatility of the protests[37] and their geopolitical implications have drawn global attention,[38] including suggestion that some protesters may be nominated for the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize.[39]

Background편집

Motivations편집

Numerous factors have led to the protests, including the 2009 Iranian protests,[40] dictatorship or absolute monarchy, human rights violations, government corruption (demonstrated by Wikileaks diplomatic cables),[41] economic decline, unemployment, extreme poverty, and a number of demographic structural factors,[42] such as a large percentage of educated but dissatisfied youth within the population.[43] The catalysts for the revolts in all Northern African and Persian Gulf countries have been the concentration of wealth in the hands of autocrats in power for decades, insufficient transparency of its redistribution, corruption, and especially the refusal of the youth to accept the status quo.[44] Increasing food prices and global famine rates have also been a significant factor, as they involve threats to food security worldwide and prices that approach levels of the 2007–2008 world food price crisis.[45] Amnesty International singled out Wikileaks release of US diplomatic cables as a catalyst for the revolts.[46]

In recent decades rising living standards and literacy rates, as well as the increased availability of higher education, have resulted in an improved human development index in the affected countries. The tension between rising aspirations and a lack of government reform may have been a contributing factor in all of the protests.[44][47][48] Many of the internet-savvy youth of these countries have studied in the West, where autocrats and absolute monarchies are considered anachronisms. A university professor of Oman, Al-Najma Zidjaly referred to this upheaval as youthquake.[44]

Tunisia and Egypt, the first to witness major uprisings, differ from other North African and Middle Eastern nations such as Algeria and Libya in that they lack significant oil revenue, and were thus unable to make concessions to calm the masses.[44]

Recent history편집

The current wave of protests is not an entirely new phenomenon, resulting in part from the activities of dissident activists as well as members of a variety of social and union organizations who have been active for years in Tunisia, Algeria, Egypt, and other countries in the area, as well as in the territory of Western Sahara.[49]

Tunisia experienced a series of conflicts over the past three years, the most notable occurring in the mining area of Gafsa in 2008, where protests continued for many months. These protest included rallies, sit-ins, and strikes, during which there were two fatalities, an unspecified number of wounded, and dozens of arrests.[49][50][51]

The Egyptian labor movement had been strong for years, with more than 3,000 labor actions since 2004.[52] One important demonstration was an attempted workers' strike on 6 April 2008 at the state-run textile factories of al-Mahalla al-Kabra, just outside Cairo. The idea for this type of demonstration spread throughout the country, promoted by computer-literate working class youths and their supporters among middle-class college students.[52] A Facebook page, set up to promote the strike, attracted tens of thousands of followers. The government mobilized to break the strike through infiltration and riot police, and while the regime was somewhat successful in forestalling a strike, dissidents formed the "April 6 Committee" of youths and labor activists, which became one of the major forces calling for the anti-Mubarak demonstration on 25 January in Tahrir Square.[52]

In Algeria, discontent had been building for years over a number of issues. In February 2008, United States Ambassador Robert Ford wrote in a leaked diplomatic cable that Algeria is 'unhappy' with long-standing political alienation; that social discontent persisted throughout the country, with food strikes occurring almost every week; that there were demonstrations every day somewhere in the country; and that the Algerian government was corrupt and fragile.[53] Some have claimed that during 2010 there were as many as '9,700 riots and unrests' throughout the country.[54] Many protests focused on issues such as education and health care, while others cited rampant corruption.[55]

In Western Sahara, the Gdeim Izik protest camp was erected 12 km south-east of El Aaiún by a group of young Sahrawis, on 9 October 2010. Their intention was to demonstrate against labor discrimination, unemployment, looting of resources, and human rights abuses.[56] The camp contained between 12,000 and 20,000 inhabitants, but on 8 November 2010 it was destroyed and its inhabitants evicted by Moroccan security forces. The security forces faced strong opposition from some young Sahrawi civilians, and rioting soon spread to El Aaiún and other towns within the territory, resulting in an unknown number of injuries and deaths.

The catalyst for the current escalation of protests was the self-immolation of individuals such as Mohamed Bouazizi, which brought together various groups dissatisfied with the existing system, including many unemployed, political and human rights activists, labor, trade unionists, students, professors, lawyers, and others.[49] These groups have become an unprecedented movement that has built sufficient momentum to engender the current scope of events.

Ethnic scope편집

Many analysts, journalists, and involved parties have focused on the protests as being a uniquely Arab phenomenon, and indeed, protests and uprisings have been strongest and most wide-reaching in majority-Arab countries, giving rise to the popular moniker of Arab Spring—a play on the so-called 1968 Prague Spring, a democratic awakening in what was then communist Czechoslovakia—to refer to protests, uprisings, and revolutions in those states.[57][58][59] However, the international media has also noted the role of minority groups in many of these majority-Arab countries in the revolts.

In Tunisia, the country's small Jewish minority was initially divided by protests against Ben Ali and the government, but eventually came to identify with the protesters in opposition to the regime, according to the group's president, who described Jewish Tunisians as "part of the revolution".[60][61] The Coptic minority in Egypt was similarly divided by the protests, with Pope Shenouda III of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria calling for them to end but a number of Coptic Christians choosing to join in demonstrations against the regime with their Muslim compatriots, a fact that did not go unnoticed by reporters and commentators.[62][63][64] During the civil war in Libya, one major theater of combat has been the western Nafusa Mountains, where the indigenous Berbers have taken up arms against the regime while supporting an interim government based in the majority-Arab eastern half of the country.[65][66] Hundreds of non-Arab Darfuris have joined anti-government protests in northern Sudan.[67] In Iraq and Syria, the ethnic Kurdish minority has been involved in protests against the government,[68][69] including the Kurdistan Regional Government in the former's Kurdish-majority north, where at least one attempted self-immolation was reported.[70][71][72]

In other countries편집

The regional unrest has not been limited to countries of the Arab world. The early success of uprisings in North Africa inspired disenchanted people in the Middle Eastern states of Iran[73][74] and Turkey[75] to take to the streets and agitate for reforms. These protests, especially those in Iran,[76] are considered by many commentators to be part of the same wave that began in Tunisia and has gripped the broader Middle Eastern and North African regions, even though those countries are not Arab-majority states and most of the protesters therein are not Arab, as exemplified by the Kurdish protests in Turkey.

In the countries of the neighboring South Caucasus—namely Armenia,[77] Azerbaijan,[78] and Georgia[79]—as well as some countries in Europe, including Albania,[80] Croatia,[81] and Spain;[82] countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including Burkina Faso,[83] Gabon,[84] and Uganda;[85][86] and countries in other parts of Asia, including the Maldives[87] and the People's Republic of China,[88] demonstrators and opposition figures claiming inspiration from the examples of Tunisia and Egypt have staged their own popular protests.

Tunisian Revolution편집

 
Demonstrators in downtown Tunis on 14 January 2011

Following the self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi in Sidi Bouzid, a series of increasingly violent street demonstrations through December 2010 ultimately led to the ouster of longtime President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali on 14 January 2011. The demonstrations were precipitated by high unemployment, food inflation, corruption,[89] lack of freedom of speech and other forms of political freedom,[90] and poor living conditions. The protests constituted the most dramatic wave of social and political unrest in Tunisia in three decades,[91][92] and have resulted in scores of deaths and injuries, most of which were the result of action by police and security forces against demonstrators. Ben Ali fled into exile in Saudi Arabia, ending his 23 years in power.[93][94]

Following Ben Ali's departure, a state of emergency was declared and a caretaker coalition government was created, which included members of Ben Ali's party, the Constitutional Democratic Rally (RCD), as well as opposition figures from other ministries. However, the five newly appointed non-RCD ministers resigned almost immediately.[95][96] As a result of continued daily protests, on 27 January Prime Minister Mohamed Ghannouchi reshuffled the government, removing all former RCD members other than himself, and on 6 February the former ruling party was suspended;[97] later, on 9 March, it was dissolved.[98] Following further public protests, Ghannouchi himself resigned on 27 February, and Beji Caid el Sebsi became Prime Minister.

Egyptian Revolution편집

 
Celebrations in Tahrir Square after Omar Suleiman's statement concerning Hosni Mubarak's resignation

Following the uprising in Tunisia and prior to his entry as a central figure in Egyptian politics, potential presidential candidate Mohamed ElBaradei warned of a 'Tunisia-style explosion' in Egypt.[99]

Protests in Egypt began on 25 January and ran for 18 days. Beginning around midnight on 28 January, the Egyptian government attempted, somewhat successfully, to eliminate the nation's internet access, in order to inhibit the protesters' ability to organize through social media.[100] Later that day, as tens of thousands protested on the streets of Egypt's major cities, President Mubarak dismissed his government, later appointing a new cabinet. Mubarak also appointed the first Vice President in almost 30 years.[출처 필요] On 2 February, pro-Mubarak activists led a counter-protest that turned violent.[출처 필요] Many international journalists complained of harassment and one local journalist was killed in the protests.[출처 필요]

On 10 February, Mubarak ceded all Presidential power to Vice President Omar Suleiman, but soon thereafter announced that he would remain as President until the end of his term.[101] However, protests continued the next day, and Suleiman quickly announced that Mubarak had resigned from the presidency and transferred power to the Armed Forces of Egypt.[102] The military immediately dissolved the Egyptian Parliament, suspended the Constitution of Egypt, and promised to lift the nation's thirty-year 'emergency laws'. It further promised to hold free, open elections within the next six months, or by the end of the year at the latest.[출처 필요]

Various states, along with Egyptian citizens scattered throughout the world, expressed either caution or solidarity with the protests. A few states in the region continued to support Mubarak.[출처 필요]

On 21 February, David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, became the first world leader to visit Egypt since Mubarak's ouster 10 days prior. A media blackout was lifted as the prime minister landed in Cairo for a brief five-hour stopover, hastily added at the start of a planned tour of the Middle East.[103]

Libyan Civil War편집

 
Egyptian youth at a Benghazi rally supporting the Libyan protests in February 2011

Anti-government protests began in Libya on 15 February 2011. By 18 February, the opposition controlled most of Benghazi, the country's second-largest city. The government dispatched elite troops and mercenaries in an attempt to recapture it, but they were repelled. It was estimated that at least 6,000 had been killed to that point.

By 20 February, protests had spread to the capital Tripoli, leading to a television address by Seif al-Islam Gaddafi, who warned the protestors that their country could descend into civil war. The rising death toll, which currently numbers in the thousands, was drawing international condemnation, resulting in the resignation of several Libyan diplomats and their call for the regime's dismantlement.

On 26 February 2011, amidst ongoing efforts by demonstrators and rebel forces to wrest control of Tripoli from the jamahiriya, the opposition set up an interim government in Benghazi to oppose Colonel Muammar al-Gaddafi's rule.[104][105] However, despite initial opposition success, government forces subsequently took back much of the Mediterranean coast.

On 17 March, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 was adopted, authorising a no-fly zone over Libya, and "all necessary measures" to protect civilians. Two days later, France, the United States and the United Kingdom intervened in Libya with a bombing campaign against pro-Gaddafi forces. A coalition of 27 states from Europe and the Middle East soon joined the intervention. The forces were driven back from the outskirts of Benghazi, and the rebels mounted an offensive, capturing scores of towns across the coast of Libya. The offensive stalled however, and a counter-offensive by the government retook most of the towns, until a stalemate was formed between Brega and Ajdabiya, the former being held by the government and the latter in the hands of the rebels.

Focus then shifted to the west of the country, where bitter fighting continued. After a three-month-long battle, Misrata, the third largest city in Libya, fell to the rebels on 15 May, due in large part to coalition air strikes. During the Battle of Wazzin, Libyan government forces repeatedly crossed the border into Tunisia, attempting to outflank the rebels. This culminated in a clash with the Tunisian Army on 29 April, after which the Libyan Army withdrew across the border.

Syrian Uprising편집

Protests in Syria started on 26 January, when one case of self-immolation was reported. Protesters have been calling for political reforms and the reinstatement of civil rights, as well as an end to the state of emergency which has been in place since 1963.[106] A "day of rage" was set for 4–5 February, but it was uneventful.[107][108]

Thousands of protestors gathered in Damascus, Aleppo, al-Hasakah, Daraa, Deir ez-Zor, and Hama on 15 March.,[109][110][111][112] with recently released politician Suhair Atassi becoming an unofficial spokesperson for the 'Syrian revolution.'[113][114][115][116] The next day there were reports of approximately 3000 arrests and a few 'martyrs', but there are no official figures on the number of deaths.[117]

On 16 March, a mix of activists and jurists, writers, journalists, young academics and detainee family members[118][119][120] held a demonstration in front of the Syrian Interior Ministry. Syrian authorities forcibly dispersed them and reportedly arrested 25[121] or 32[122] people, including recently released activists Suhair Atassi and Kamal Cheikho.[123][124][125] A spokesman for the Syrian Interior authority said that the demonstrations either did not exist,[126] or were actually in support of President Bashar al-Assad.[127]

On 18 March, thousands of protesters in several Syrian cities set to streets after the Friday prayers and chanted 'God, Syria, Freedom, that's enough', challenging the classical pro-regime slogan 'God, Syria, Bashar that is enough'. In Damascus, security forces broke into the Omayyad Mosque and attacked protesters violently, injuring several and arresting others. In Daraa, people chanted against Rami Makhlouf, the cousin of the Syrian president. The regime replied by sending helicopters and water cannons. At least three people were killed by security forces.[128]

The Governor of Daraa was fired on 22 March,[129] but this did not mollify the protesters. Demonstrations increased, and on 24 March, it was reported that hundreds had been killed[130] in marches at Daraa that exceeded 20,000.

On 29 March, the entire Syrian cabinet resigned as a concession to protesters.[131]

On 1 April, thousands of protesters took to the streets in the "Friday of Martyrs". The government responded by appointing a new Prime Minister and offering concessions.[132][133] On 8 April, the largest protests took place in the "Friday of Resistance", with thousands of protesters marching in the streets of many cities, including major ones like Homs and Damascus.[134][135] Security forces fired on protesters, reportedly killing 37 people on that day.[136]

Protests for and against Assad occurred in the Golan Heights on 2 and 16 April respectively.[137][138]

On 15 April, tens of thousands of protesters turned up, with reportedly 50,000 trying to get into Damascus alone.[139] Al-Assad responded by saying that emergency law will be lifted, an action that was officially completed on 21 April.[140][141]

Lifting the emergency law failed to quell the protesters, as on 22 April, Syria experienced its biggest and bloodiest uprising, with tens of thousands taking to the streets, and reportedly 100 people killed.[142][143] On 23 April, funerals for the fallen protesters were held throughout Syria, but snipers were reported killing people at the funeral processions.[144][145] Later that night, security forces raided homes and arrested activists, with more than 200 people reportedly arrested over the following two days.[146]

On 25 April, tanks, soldiers and snipers were deployed to Daraa, reportedly killing 25 people.[147] Water, power and phone lines were cut, and the border with Jordan was closed.[148]

On 6 May, protestors launched a "day of defiance", with demonstrations across six Syrian cities. Government forces cracked down, firing on protestors and reportedly killing 26 demonstrators in total, with the worst violence occurring in Homs.[149]

The government continued its crackdown on May 8, arrested hundreds of protest organizers and activists. The raids mostly took place in Homs, Daraa, Banias, and suburbs of Damascus and included such figures as Firas Khaddam, nephew of the former vice president Abdul-Halim Khaddam. The state-run media claimed that the crackdown in Banias was against armed terrorists, not demonstrators.[150]

Yemeni Uprising편집

 
Protesters in Sana'a on 3 February.

Protests occurred in many towns in both the north and south of Yemen starting in mid-January. Demonstrators initially protested against governmental proposals to modify the constitution of Yemen, unemployment and economic conditions,[151] and corruption,[152] but their demands soon included a call for the resignation of President Ali Abdullah Saleh,[153][152][154] who had been facing internal opposition from his closest advisors since 2009.[155] A major demonstration of over 16,000 protestors took place in Sana'a on 27 January,[156] and soon thereafter human rights activist and politician Tawakel Karman called for a 'Day of Rage' on 3 February.[157] According to Xinhua News, organizers were calling for a million protesters.[158] In response to the planned protest, Ali Abdullah Saleh stated that he would not seek another presidential term in 2013.[159]

On 3 February, 20,000 protesters demonstrated against the government in Sana'a,[160][161] others participated in a 'Day of Rage in Aden[162] that was called for by Tawakel Karman,[157] while soldiers, armed members of the General People's Congress, and many protestors held a pro-government rally in Sana'a.[163] Concurrent with the resignation of Egyptian president Mubarak, Yemenis again took to the streets protesting President Saleh on 11 February, in what has been dubbed a 'Friday of Rage'.[164] The protests continued in the days following despite clashes with government advocates.[165]

In a 'Friday of Anger' held on 18 February, tens of thousands of Yemenis took part in anti-government demonstrations in the cities of Sana'a, Taiz and Aden. In the capital, Sana'a, the crowd marched towards the Presidential Palace, chanting anti-government slogans, despite the attempts of riot police to stop them. Three people were killed in the demonstrations, one of whom was killed by a hand grenade in Taiz. There were also reports of gunfire in Aden during a rally, and as the riots continued overnight protesters set fire to a local government building. Security forces killed one demonstrator.

On 19 February, Yemeni riot police shot and killed one protester and injured at least five others, as thousands of protesters gathered in Sana'a for a ninth day of protests.[166]

On 8 March, Army troops joined protesters.[167] Approximately one million people staged a protest in southern Yemen, as forces loyal to President Ali Abdullah Saleh killed one boy and injured several others.[168]

On 11 March, on the so-called 'Friday of no return', protestors in Sana'a called for the removal of President Ali Abdullah Saleh; three people were killed during the demonstrations. More protests were held in other cities, including Al Mukalla, where one person was killed.

A number of important figures in the General People's Congress and in the President's Cabinet have resigned in protest against President Ali Abdullah Saleh.

In response, on 23 March, the General People's Congress declared a state of emergency and suspended the constitution, foreshadowing continued strife.

On 23 April, Saleh agreed to accept a Gulf Cooperation Council-brokered plan that allows him to cede power in exchange for immunity.[169] However, later, Saleh decided not to sign the deal, and the opposition had rejected a proposal under which top officials of his party would sign it as a proxy, leaving the deal in limbo.[170]

Concurrent incidents편집

Concurrent with the events in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Syria, but not necessarily influenced by them, violent protests flared up in other parts of the region, resulting in various political changes.

Algeria편집

On 29 December, protests began in Algiers over the lack of housing, quickly escalating to violent confrontations with the police. At least 53 people were reported injured and another 29 arrested.[171] Over the course of the Algerian protests, three demonstrators were killed, over 800 were injured, and at least 1,100 were arrested. [출처 필요]

 
7 January protests in Algeria.

From 12–19 January, a wave of self-immolation attempts swept the country, beginning with Mohamed Aouichia, who set himself on fire in Bordj Menaiel in protest at his family's housing. On 13 January, Mohsen Bouterfif set himself on fire after a meeting with the mayor of Boukhadra in Tebessa, who had been unable to offer Bouterfif a job and a house. Bouterfif reportedly died a few days later, and about 100 youths protested his death, resulting in the mayor's dismissal by the provincial governor. At least ten other self-immolation attempts were reported that week. [출처 필요]

On 22 January the RCD party organised a demonstration for democracy in Algiers, and though illegal under the State of Emergency enacted in 1992, it was attended by about 300 people. The demonstration was suppressed by police, with 42 reported injuries. On 29 January, at least ten thousand people marched in the northeastern city of Béjaïa.[172]

In an apparent bid to stave off unrest, President Abdelaziz Bouteflika announced on 3 February that the 19-year state of emergency would be lifted,[173] a promise fulfilled on 22 February when Algeria's cabinet adopted an order to lift the state of emergency.[174][175]

On 5 February, protesters scheduled a major 'illegal' march for the 12th of the month.[176] On 11 February, nearly 2000 pro-democracy protesters clashed with police forces at the central May 1 square. The government had imposed a ban on all opposition rallies, but protesters were nonetheless determined to take to the streets. Reports claimed that the police blocked all entry points into the capital and were arresting activists.

Some feel that Algeria could be the next country after Egypt to see change, but analysts believe the government will silence the protests with its oil and gas wealth.[177][178]

Algeria's President said on April 15 that he would seek revisions to the country's constitution as part of a broad push for democratic reforms, the leader's latest bid to soothe lingering tensions and demonstrations in the North African nation.[179]

Bahrain편집

파일:Pearl Monument Leveled.jpg
On the morning of 18 March 2011, after dispersing all protesters with the help of the Saudi military, the government tore down the Pearl Monument, the rallying point for protests against it.

The 2011 protests in Bahrain were initially aimed at achieving greater political freedom and respect for human rights, and were not intended to threaten the monarchy.[180] Lingering frustration among the Shiite majority with being ruled by the Sunni government was a major root cause, but the protests in Tunisia and Egypt are cited as the inspiration for the demonstrations.[181][182] The protests began in Bahrain on 14 February[180] and were largely peaceful, until a raid by police on the night of 17 February against protestors sleeping at the Pearl Roundabout in Manama, in which police killed three protestors.[183][184] Following the deadly raid, the protestors' aims expanded to a call for the end of the monarchy.[185]

2011년 2월 18일 (2011-02-18) 기준, six people have been killed and hundreds injured.[184] The death toll rose as Bahraini police and military attempted to disperse protesting crowds using tear gas, and rubber bullets. Bahraini army tanks moved in to block the Pearl roundabout (apart from entries and exits into Manama), which protesters had planned to convert into Bahrain's Tahrir Square. The hospital where the dead protesters and mourners were gathering, was still untouched (2011년 2월 18일 (2011-02-18) 기준).[186][187]

After the violent crackdown, protesters began calling for the overthrow of the Bahraini King as well as the Prime Minister.[188] On 18 February, government forces opened fire on protesters, mourners, and news journalists.[189] On 19 February, protesters occupied Pearl Square after the government ordered troops and police to withdraw.[190][191][192] On 22 February, an estimated one hundred thousand people, one fifth of the nation's population, marched. On 14 March, at the request of the Crown Prince, GCC Saudi Arabian troops entered the country,[193] and opened fire on the protesters, several of whom were killed.[194][195] Later thousands of Shia protesters arose in Iraq and Qatif in opposition to the Saudi-led intervention in Bahrain.[196][197][198]

Iraq편집

In an effort to prevent unrest, Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki announced that he would not run for a third term in 2014.[199] Nevertheless, hundreds of protesters gathered in several major urban areas (notably Baghdad and Karbala) on 12 February, demanding a more effective approach to national security, to the investigation of federal corruption cases, as well as increased government involvement in making public services fair and accessible.[200][201][202] In response, the government promised to subsidize electricity costs.[203]

Israel's Haaretz reported that a 31-year-old man in Mosul died from self-immolation, while protesting high unemployment. Haaretz also reported a planned 'Revolution of Iraqi Rage' to be held on 25 February near the Green Zone.[204]

On 16 February, up to 2,000 protesters took over a provincial council building in the city of Kut. The protesters demanded that the provincial governor resign because of the lack of basic services such as electricity and water. As many as three people were killed and 30 injured.[출처 필요] On 24 February, Hawijah, Mosul, and Baghdad featured violent protests.[205]

Jordan편집

On 14 January, protests commenced in the capital Amman, as well as at Ma'an, Al Karak, Salt and Irbid, and others. The protests, led by trade unionists and leftist parties, occurred after Friday prayers, and called for the government of Prime Minister Samir Rifai to step down. Protesters chanted anti-government slogans and called Rifai a coward. One banner in the protest read 'Jordan is not only for the rich. Bread is a red line. Beware of our starvation and fury.' Protesters chanted 'Down with Rifai's government. Unify yourselves because the government wants to eat your flesh. Raise fuel prices to fill your pocket with millions.'

Tawfiq al-Batoush, a former head of the Karak municipality, said: 'We are protesting the policies of the government, high prices and repeated taxation that made the Jordanian people revolt.'[206] The Muslim Brotherhood and 14 trade unions said that they would hold a sit-down protest outside parliament the next day to 'denounce government economic policies'. In some ways the demonstration was parallel to the Tunisian protests.[207]

Following the protest, the government reversed a rise in fuel prices.[208] According to Al Jazeera the protests are expected to continue for several weeks due to increasing food prices.[208]

On 21 January, 5,000 people in Amman took part in the largest protest to date.[209]

On 1 February, the Royal Palace announced that King Abdullah had dismissed the government on account of the street protests, and had asked Marouf al-Bakhit, a former army general, to form a new Cabinet.[210] King Abdullah charged Bakhit to 'take quick, concrete and practical steps to launch a genuine political reform process'. The monarch added that the reforms should put Jordan on the path 'to strengthen democracy', and provide Jordanians with the 'dignified life they deserve'.[211]

On 25 February, between 6,000 and 10,000 protestors took to the streets of Amman to demand greater participation in the political process as well as more economic change. Protesters also requested lower prices, new elections, and changes to the constitution, which currently gives King Abdullah absolute power.[212]

In the first week of March anti-government protesters continued where opposition groups demanded such greater political freedoms as a constitutional monarchy.

On 24 March, Al-Jazeera English reported that around 500 protesters, mainly university students and politically unaffiliated unemployed graduates have set up a protest camp in a main square in the capital to press demands for the ouster of the prime minister, seen as insufficiently reformist, as well as wider public freedoms. Other demands include dissolving the parliament, which is seen as too docile, dismantling the intelligence department and giving greater powers to the people, including a new, more proportional, election law. Jordan's opposition also want to strip the king of some of his powers, specifically in appointing the prime minister, as they want the premier to be elected by a popular vote.

On 25 March, clashes occurred between supporters of the king and more than 2000 protesters camped in Gamal Abdel Nasser Circle. Some witnesses said the police stood by as government supporters moved in to the square and began throwing stones.[10] As many as 100 people were reported injured, most with head wounds, while two people are said to have been killed. However, the next day in a press conference, the commandant of public security, Lieutenant General Hussein Al-Majali confirmed that there was one death only, with 62 injured civilians, and 58 injured policemen (including a Brigadier General and a Lieutenant Colonel). Forensic medicine report confirmed that there were no signs of any injury, and that the patient actually died of circulatory collapse secondary to chronic ischemic heart disease.In the same press conference, Al-Majali also confirmed that 8 civilians and 17 policemen were still receiving hospital treatment at the time of the conference, and also stressed that policemen were completely unarmed and they interfered just to save the lives of people whatever their political view is. On the same day of clashes, thousands gathered in Al-Hussein Gardens west of Amman to express loyalty and allegiance to the king, dancing to national songs and waving large Jordanian flags and pictures of the monarch.

On 1 April, nearly 400 policemen were deployed to separated hundreds of government supporters and pro-reform activists holding rival rallies outside municipal offices in Amman.

On 15 April, more than 2,000 Jordanians took to the streets throughout the country demanding greater political representation, with half of them demonstrating in Amman, immediately after prayers. Also, a crowd of a few hundred Islamists clashed with a somewhat smaller group of monarchy loyalists in Zarqa. Eight civilians and 83 policemen were wounded, including 4 in critical condition.

Morocco편집

Inspired by events in Tunisia and Egypt, at least four Moroccans set themselves on fire on 30 January 2011 at a protest gathering in Tangier.[213] According to a media report, Moroccan authorities approved the anti-government protest that was planned through the popular social networking site Facebook. The same report said that the government had welcomed the plan by several Moroccan youth movements to organize an Egypt-style anti-government protest on 20 February.[214][215]

On 20 February, at least 37,000 of Moroccans rallied in the capital, Rabat, to demand that King Mohammed relinquish some of his power.[216] The protests were not aimed at overthrowing the king, however, as he remains revered by Moroccans[217] Everything calmed down for about a week following the demonstration, but on 26 February about 1000 demonstrators gathered in Casablanca to demand political reform.[218]

On 9 March, in a live televised address, King Mohammed VI announced that he would begin a comprehensive constitutional reform aimed at improving democracy and the rule of law. He promised to form a commission to work on constitutional revisions, which would make proposals to him by June, after which a referendum would be held on the draft constitution.[219]

On 20 March, at least 20,000 of people,[220] including many Islamists, participated in peaceful protests in more than 60 cities across the nation. Some of the demonstrators demanded greater political change than what King Mohammed had promised in his 9 March address, while others continued pressuring the government to make the promised reforms.[221] The police did not intervene and no violent acts were reported.

Oman편집

 
Protesters set ablaze Lulu Hypermarket in Sohar, Oman on 28 February 2011

In the Gulf country of Oman, 200 protesters marched on 17 January 2011, demanding salary increases and a lower cost of living. The protest shocked some journalists who generally view Oman as a 'politically stable and sleepy country'.[222]

Renewed protests occurred on 18 February, inspired by the unrest in Bahrain. 350 protesters demanded an end to corruption and better distribution of oil revenue.[223] The protesters also carried signs with slogans of support for the Sultan.[224]

On 26 February, protesters in Sohar called for more jobs.[225] On the following day, tensions escalated with protesters burning shops and cars.[226] The police responded using tear gas to contain and disperse the crowds of protesters.[227] Demonstrations also spread to the region of Salalah, where protesters had reportedly been camping outside the provincial governor's house since 25 February.[227][228]

In Sohar, witnesses claimed that two protesters were killed when police fired rubber bullets to disperse the crowds.[229][230][231][232] Witnesses further reported that protesters burnt a police station as well as the Wali's house (where the representative of the Sultan to Sohar stays).[233]

The Omani protesters insisted that they were not challenging the rule of Sultan Qaboos, who has been in power since 1970, but were merely calling for jobs and reform.[234] The protesters even apologized to the Sultan for allowing violence rattle the city of Sohar on 28 February 2011.[235]

The Sultan continued with his reform campaign by dissolving the Ministry of National Economy, setting up a state audit committee, granting student and unemployment benefits,[236] dismissing scores of ministers, and reshuffling his cabinet three times.[237] In addition, nearly 50,000 jobs are being created in the public sector, including 10,000 new jobs in the Royal Oman Police.[238]) The Omani Ministry of Manpower has furthermore directed various companies (both private and public) to formulate their own employment plans. The Royal Army of Oman has also initiated employment drives by publishing recruitment advertisements in newspapers, etc.[239]

Other countries affected편집

 · 틀:나라자료 Djibouti In Djibouti, protests began on 3 February when three hundred people protested peacefully against President Ismail Omar Guelleh in Djibouti City, urging him to not run for another term; the protesters further asked for more liberty as well as for political and social reform.[240] Protests soon increased, however, as thousands rallied against the president, many vowing to remain at the site until their demands were met. On 18 February, an estimated 30,000 Dijiboutians protested in central Djibouti City against the president, maintaining that the constitutional change of the previous year, which allowed him a third term, was illegal. The demonstration escalated into clashes with the police, and at least two persons were killed and many injured when police used live ammunition and teargas against the protesters.[241] On 19 and 24 February, protest leaders were arrested and after they failed to turn up on the 24th, opposition leader Bourhan Mohammed Ali stated he feared the protests had lost momentum.[241] The last protest was planned for 11 March, but security forces stopped the protest and detained 4 opposition leaders. No protests or planned protests have occurred since.

 · 틀:나라자료 Kuwait In Kuwait, the Emir of Kuwait, Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, gave every citizen [1.12 million people] 'free food rations and a grant of $4,000 [1,000 dinars]'.[242] Officially the grant was in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of Kuwait's liberation from occupying Iraqi forces, as well as of the 50th anniversary of the state's independence.[243] Dozens of stateless Arabs demonstrated in Kuwait on 19 February[244] and opposition groups called for protests on 8 March.[245][246]

 · 틀:나라자료 Lebanon In Lebanon, hundreds rallied in Beirut on 27 February in a march referred to as 'The Laique pride', calling for reform of the nation's political system, known as Confessionalism. At the same time, a peaceful sit-in took place in Saida.[247] On 13 March, tens of thousands of supporters of the March 14 coalition called for the disarmament of Hezbollah in Beirut, rejecting the supremacy of Hezbollah's weapons over political life. They also showed support for the U.N.-backed Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL), in the face of a fierce campaign by the Party of God and its March 8 allies to try to abolish the tribunal.[248]

 · 틀:나라자료 Mauritania In Mauritania, Yacoub Ould Dahoud, a protester, burned himself near the Presidential Palace on 17 January, in opposition to the policies of Mauritanian president Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz.[249][250] The following week, hundreds of people took to the streets of the capital Nouakchott. The mayor of the city of Awjeft, Mohamed El Moctar Ould Ehmeyen Amar, resigned from the ruling party to politically support what he called "the just cause of youngsters".[251] In addition to the capital Noukchott, cities such as Atar, Zouerate, and Aleg also organised sporadic protests.[252] Despite minor economic concessions by the authorities, on 25 April protesters again took to the streets to call for the resignation of the prime-minister, Moulaye Ould Mohamed Laghdaf.[253]

 · 틀:나라자료 Saudi Arabia In Saudi Arabia hundreds of people protested against the poor infrastructure in Jeddah following flooding.[254][255] At the same time, an online campaign began calling for major political and economic changes. On 5 February forty women demonstrated for the release of prisoners held without trial.[256] Several protests of a few hundred demonstrators each took place in late February, and also in early March in the north-east, mostly in Qatif[257] but also in Hofuf, in al-Awamiyah, as well as in Riyadh.[258][259] Security in the north-east was tightened on 5 March,[260] and a 'significant' police presence in Riyadh[261] and Jeddah[262] prevented protests from occurring on 11 March. A day earlier, three protesters were injured by police gunfire in Qatif.[257] Nonetheless, protests calling for the release of prisoners took place outside the Ministry of the Interior in Riyadh on 12 March.[263][264]

Following the crackdown during the 2011 Bahraini uprising, frequent demonstrations of a few hundred to a few thousand[265][266] people occurred in and around Qatif from 15[267] to 25[268][269] March, which demanded the release of prisoners and the withdrawal of the Peninsula Shield Force from Bahrain.[270][271] On 22–23 March, men-only municipal elections to elect half the members of local councils were announced for 22 September 2011.[272][273]

 · 틀:나라자료 Sudan In Sudan, protests took place on 30 January and 1 February, when hundreds called for Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir to step down. On 21 February, President Omar al-Bashir announced that he would not seek to run in the next presidential election (in 2015).[274]

 · 틀:나라자료 United Arab Emirates In the United Arab Emirates, a group of intellectuals petitioned their ruler for comprehensive reform of the Federal National Council, including demands for universal suffrage. About 160 people signed the petition, many of whom were academics and former members of the FNC.[275] On 12 April, Ahmed Mansoor, a prominent blogger and pro-democracy activist, was charged with possession of alcohol. According to his lawyer, two other men, a blogger and a political commentator, were detained a few days earlier, a charge denied by the police.[276] In May, the government started expanding its network of surveillance cameras, as a preventive measure against revolts.[277]

 · 틀:나라자료 Palestine In the Palestinian Territories, Haaretz suggested that an announcement by the Palestinian Authority on 1 February to hold municipal elections in July was a reaction to the anti-government protests in Egypt. On 14 February, amid pan-Arab calls for reform, the Palestinian Authority's Prime Minister, Salam Fayyad, submitted his resignation along with that of his cabinet to President Abbas.[278] After consultations with other factions, institutions, and civil society groups, Abbas asked him to form a new government.[279] The reshuffle had long been demanded by Fayyad as well as members of Abbas's Fatah faction.[279]

 · In Western Sahara, young Sahrawis held a series of minor demonstrations to protest labour discrimination, lack of jobs, looting of resources, and human rights abuses.[56] Although protests through February and March were part of an existing series of Sahrawi demonstrations that originated in October 2010, protesters cited inspiration from the events in other parts of the region. A few academics, notably Noam Chomsky, viewed the October protests as the starting point from which 'the current wave of protests actually began'.[280]

International reactions편집

On 12 February, British Foreign Secretary William Hague called for affected governments to refrain from using force against protesters, and also for greater democratic reforms in the region.[281][282][283] On 21 February, UK Prime Minister David Cameron became the first world leader to visit Egypt after Mubarak's ouster 10 days prior. A news blackout was lifted as the prime minister landed in Cairo for a five-hour stopover that was hastily added at the start of his planned tour of the Middle East.[103]

World economy편집

As many of the world's major oil producing countries are in the Middle East, the unrest has caused a rise in oil prices, causing the 2011 energy crisis. The International Monetary Fund accordingly revised its forecast for 2011 oil prices to reflect a higher price, and also reported that food prices could also increase.[284] Additionally, concerns about Egypt's Suez Canal have raised shipping and oil prices.[285]

Media coverage편집

Al Jazeera won praise for its coverage of the protests, angering several governments.[286] United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton remarked, 'Al Jazeera has been the leader in that they are literally changing people's minds and attitudes. And like it or hate it, it is really effective'. She also stated that 'viewership of Al Jazeera is going up in the United States because it's real news. You may not agree with it, but you feel like you're getting real news around the clock instead of a million commercials...'[287]

The use of social media has been extensive.[288][289] As one Egyptian activist tweeted during the protests, 'We use Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world'.[12] Internet censorship has also been a factor, and entire nation states were taken almost completely offline.[290]

In an attempt to quantify the likelihood of regime change in Arab World countries following the protests, The Economist Intelligence Unit created its 'Shoe-Thrower's index'. The name is derived from shoeing: throwing shoes, showing the sole of one's shoe, or using shoes to insult, all of which are forms of protest primarily associated with the Arab world.[291][292] According to their index, Yemen has the highest likelihood of a revolution, whereas Qatar has the lowest. The index factors in the number of years the current ruler has been in power, the percentage of the population consisting of young people, per capita GDP, democracy index, political corruption, and freedom of the press. BBC News used its own 'Unrest Index' in its analysis of the protests.[293]

Alen Mattich of the Wall Street Journal created the 'Revolting Index' to rate the likelihood of revolts by nation based on 'social unfairness, propensity to revolt, and a trigger'. Mattich readily admits, however, that 'the methodology is crude. There's been no econometric work done'.[294] The index listed a number of African nations towards the top of the list as well as some Asian nations.

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  226. By the CNN Wire Staff. “CNN International - 2 dead as protesters, police clash in Oman, witnesses say”. CNN. 2011년 2월 27일에 확인함. 
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  228. AGI - Agenzia Giornalistica Italia (2011년 2월 27일). “Agi News On - Oman: Tear Gas For Stone-Throwing Protestors”. Agi.it. 2011년 2월 27일에 확인함. 
  229. 인용 오류: <ref> 태그가 잘못되었습니다; google1라는 이름을 가진 주석에 제공한 텍스트가 없습니다
  230. 인용 오류: <ref> 태그가 잘못되었습니다; aljazeera1라는 이름을 가진 주석에 제공한 텍스트가 없습니다
  231. 인용 오류: <ref> 태그가 잘못되었습니다; autogenerated1라는 이름을 가진 주석에 제공한 텍스트가 없습니다
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  236. 2011 Oman protests
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  240. “People in Djibouti protest against President Gelleh”. 《Somalilandpress》. 2011년 2월 3일에 확인함. 
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