"바실리데스주의"의 두 판 사이의 차이

잔글
봇: 문단 이름 변경 (주석 → 각주)
잔글 (치환됨: {{1911 -> {{1911브리태니커 using AWB)
잔글 (봇: 문단 이름 변경 (주석 → 각주))
'''바실리데스주의'''(Basilidianism) 또는 '''바실리데스파'''(Basilidians, Basilideans)는 [[알렉산드리아]]의 [[바실리데스]](Basilides: fl. AD 117-138)가 기원후 [[2세기]]에 설립한 [[나스티시즘]](Gnosticism, 영지주의) 분파이다. [[바실리데스]]는 자신의 교의는 [[성 베드로]]의 제자인 [[글라우코스]](Glaucus)로부터 전수받은 것이라고 주장하였다.
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The '''Basilidians''' or '''Basilideans''' were a [[Gnosticism|Gnostic]] [[sect]] founded by [[Basilides]] of [[Alexandria]] in the 2nd century. Basilides claimed to have been taught his doctrines by Glaucus, a disciple of [[Saint Peter|St. Peter]].
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바실리데스파의 수행과 관습 및 교의에 대해서는 다음과 같은 단편적인 사항들 외에는 알려진 바가 없다: (1) [[바실리데스]]는 자신의 제자들에게 [[피타고라스]]처럼 5년간의 침묵을 명했다. (2) 바실리데스파는 [[주의 세례주일|예수가 세례를 받은 날]]을 축일로 지정하여 매년 기념하였으며<ref>알렉산드리아의 클레멘스, 《스트로마타(Stromata)》. i. 21 § 18</ref> 이 날의 전날밤을 경전을 읽으며 보냈다. (3) 바실리데스는 자신의 팔로어들에게 우상들에게 바쳐진 음식들을 먹었다고 해서 양심의 가책을 느낄 필요가 없다고 말하였다. (4) 바실리데스파에는 물질적(material), 멘털적(intellectual), 영적(spiritual) 계위의 세 가지 계위가 있었으며 남성상과 여성상으로 이루어진 두 개의 우화적인 상(像)을 가지고 있었다. (5) 바실리데스파의 교의는 [[오피스파]](Ophites)와 후대의 [[유대교]] [[카발라]](Kabbalism)의 교의와 유사한 부분이 많았다.
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Of the customs of the Basilidians, we know no more than that Basilides enjoined on his followers, like [[Pythagoras]], a silence of five years; that they kept the anniversary of the [[Baptism of the Lord|day of the baptism of Jesus]] as a feast day<ref>Clement, ''[[Stromata]]''. i. 21 § 18<</ref> and spent the eve of it in reading; that their master told them not to scruple eating things offered to idols. The sect had three grades – material, intellectual and spiritual – and possessed two allegorical statues, male and female. The sect's doctrines were often similar to those of the [[Ophites]] and later [[Judaism|Jewish]] [[Kabbalah|Kabbalism]].
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바실리데스파는 기원후 4세기 말까지 존속하였는데 [[에피파니우스]](Epiphanius: c.310/20-403)는 바실리데스파가 [[나일 삼각주]]에서 생존하고 있는 것을 보았다고 보고하였다. 그러나 바실리데스파는 활동 지역의 거의 전적으로 [[이집트]]에 국한되어 있었다. 한편, [[술피키우스 세베루스]](Sulpicius Severus: c.363-c.425)에 따르면 바실리데스파는 이집트 [[멤피스]] 출신의 마크(Mark)라는 인물에 의해 [[스페인]]으로 전해졌다고 한다. [[히에로니무스]](St. Jerome: c. 347-420)는 [[프리스킬리언파]](Priscillianists)가 바실리데스파에 의해 오염된 분파라고 하였다.
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Basilidianism survived until the end of the fourth century as [[Epiphanius of Salamis|Epiphanius]] knew of Basilidians living in the [[Nile]] Delta. It was however almost exclusively limited to [[Egypt]], though according to [[Sulpicius Severus]] it seems to have found an entrance into [[Spain]] through a certain Mark from [[Memphis, Egypt|Memphis]]. [[St. Jerome]] states that the [[Priscillianists]] were infected with it.
== Cosmogony of Hippolytus ==
<!--The fundamental theme of the Basilidian system is the question concerning the origin of evil and how to overcome it.<ref>Epiphanius, ''Haer''. xxiv. 6</ref>--!>
#Part subtle of substance.
#Part coarse of substance.
#Part needing purification.
This was the one origin of all future growths; these future growths did not use pre-existing matter, but rather these future growths came into being out of nothing by the voice of the not-being God. The first part of the Monad burst through and ascended to the not-being God. The second part of the Monad to burst forth could not mount up of itself, but it took to itself as a wing the Holy Spirit, each bearing up the other with mutual benefit. But when it came near the place of the first part of the Monad and the not-being God, it could take the Holy Spirit no further, it not being consubstantial with the Holy Spirit. There the Holy Spirit remained, as a firmament dividing things above the world from the world itself below.<ref>Hippolytus, ''Philosophumena'' vii. 22.</ref>
 
 
==Cosmogony of Irenaeus and Epiphanius==
In briefly sketching this version of Basilidianism, which most likely rests on later or corrupt accounts, our authorities are fundamentally two, [[Irenaeus]] and the lost early treatise of [[Hippolytus of Rome|Hippolytus]]; both having much in common, and both being interwoven together in the report of [[Epiphanius of Salamis|Epiphanius]]. The other relics of the Hippolytean Compendium are the accounts of [[Philaster]] (32), and the supplement to [[Tertullian]] (4).
===Creation===
At the head of this theology stood the Unbegotten, the Only Father. From Him was born or put forth Nûs, and from Nûs Logos, from Logos Phronesis, from Phronesis [[Sophia (wisdom)|Sophia]] and Dynamis, from Sophia and Dynamis principalities, powers, and angels. This first set of angels first made the first heaven, and then gave birth to a second set of angels who made a second heaven, and so on till 365 heavens had been made by 365 generations of angels, each heaven being apparently ruled by an Archon to whom a name was given, and these names being used in magic arts. The angels of the lowest or visible heaven made the earth and man. They were the authors of the prophecies; and the Law in particular was given by their Archon, the God of the Jews. He being more petulant and wilful than the other angels (ἰταμώτερον καὶ αὐθαδέστερον), in his desire to secure empire for his people, provoked the rebellion of the other angels and their respective peoples.
 
==Precepts==
On these doctrines, various precepts are said by the Basilidians' opponents to have been founded.
===Antinomianism===
When [[Philaster]] (doubtless after Hippolytus) tells us in his first sentence about Basilides that "he violated the laws of Christian truth by making an outward show and discourse concerning the Law and the Prophets and the Apostles, but believing otherwise," the reference is probably revealing an antinomian sentiment among the Basilideans. The Basilidians considered themselves to be no longer Jews, and to have become more than Christians. Repudiation of martyrdom was naturally accompanied by indiscriminate use of things offered to idols. And from there the principle of indifference is said to have been carried so far as to sanction promiscuous immorality.
Two misunderstandings have been specially misleading. Abrasax, the chief or Archon of the first set of angels, has been confounded with "the Unbegotten Father," and the God of the Jews, the Archon of the lowest heaven, has been assumed to be the only Archon recognized by the later Basilidians, though Epiphanius<ref>Epiphanius 69 {{small-caps|b.c.}}</ref> distinctly implies that each of the 365 heavens had its Archon. The mere name "Archon" is common to most forms of Gnosticism.
 
So again, because Clement tells us that Righteousness and her daughter Peace abide in substantive being within the Ogdoad, "the Unbegotten Father" and the five grades or forms of creative mind which intervene between Him and the creator-angels are added in to make up an Ogdoad, though none is recorded as acknowledged by the disciples: a combination so arbitrary and so incongruous needs no refutation. On the other hand, those five abstract names have an air of true Basilidian Hellenism, and the two systems possess at least one negative feature in common, the absence of syzygies and of all imagery connected directly with sex. On their ethical side the connexion is discerned with less difficulty.
<!--The nature of the contrast of principle in the theological part of the two creeds suggests how so great a change may have arisen. The system of Basilides was a high-pitched philosophical speculation, entirely unfitted to exercise popular influence, and transporting its adherents to a region remote from the sympathies of men imbued with the old Gnostic phantasies, while it was too artificial a compound to attract heathens or Catholic Christians. The power of mind and character which the remains of his writings disclose might easily gather round him in the first instance a crowd who, though they could enter into portions only of his teaching, might remain detached from other Gnostics, and yet in their theology relapse into "the broad highway of vulgar Gnosticism" (Baur in the Tübingen ''Theol. Jahrb.'' for 1856, pp. 158 f.), and make for themselves out of its elements, whether fortuitously or by the skill of some now forgotten leader, a new mythological combination. In this manner evolution from below might once more give place to emanation from above, Docetism might again sever heaven and earth, and a loose practical dualism (of the profounder speculative dualism of the East there is no trace) might supersede all that Basilides had taught as to the painful processes by which sonship attains its perfection.--!>
 
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== 주석각주 ==
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