사용자:이형주/싱가포르 달러

틀:Contains Chinese text

이형주/싱가포르 달러
사용국 {{{사용국}}}

틀:Infobox Chinese

The Singapore dollar or dollar (sign: $; code: SGD) is the official currency of Singapore. It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively S$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is divided into 100 cents.

The Monetary Authority of Singapore and the Brunei Currency and Monetary Board still maintain the historic exchangeability of their two currencies, the Singaporean dollar and the Brunei dollar, respectively. The dollar is accepted as "customary tender" in Brunei according to the Currency Interchangeability Agreement[1]. Likewise, the Brunei dollar is customarily accepted in Singapore

History편집

Between 1845 and 1939, Singapore used the Straits dollar.[2] This was replaced by the Malayan dollar,[2] and, from 1953, the Malaya and British Borneo dollar, which were issued by the Board of Commissioners of Currency, Malaya and British Borneo.[2]

Singapore continued to use the common currency upon joining Malaysia in 1963,[2] but only two years after Singapore's expulsion and independence from Malaysia in 1965, the monetary union between Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei broke down.[2] Singapore established the Board of Commissioners of Currency, Singapore, on April 7, 1967[3] and issued its first coins and notes.[2] Nevertheless, the Singapore dollar was exchangeable at par with the Malaysian ringgit until 1973,[2] and interchangeability with the Brunei dollar is still maintained.[2]

Initially, the Singapore dollar was pegged to the British pound sterling at a rate of S$60 = £7. This peg lasted until the demise of the Sterling Area in the early 1970s, after which the Singapore dollar was linked to the US dollar for a short time. As Singapore's economy grew and its trade links diversified to many other countries and regions, Singapore moved towards pegging its currency against a fixed and undisclosed trade-weighted basket of currencies from 1973 to 1985.

From 1985 onwards, Singapore adopted a more market-oriented exchange regime, classified as a Monitoring Band, in which the Singapore dollar is allowed to float (within an undisclosed bandwidth of a central parity) but closely monitored by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) against a concealed basket of currencies of Singapore's major trading partners and competitors. This, in theory, allows the Singaporean government to have more control over imported inflation and to ensure that Singapore's exports remain competitive. All issued Singapore dollar currency in circulation is fully backed by international assets to maintain public confidence.[4] The foreign reserves officially stood at over US$230 billion, as of May 2011.

Before 1970, the various monetary functions associated with a central bank were performed by several government departments and agencies. As Singapore progressed, the demands of an increasingly complex banking and monetary environment necessitated streamlining the functions to facilitate the development of a more dynamic and coherent policy on monetary matters. Therefore, parliament passed the Monetary Authority of Singapore Act in 1970, leading to the formation of MAS on 1 January 1971. The MAS Act gave the MAS the authority to regulate all elements of monetary, banking, and financial aspects of Singapore.

On 31 March 2003, the Board of Commissioners of Currency Singapore (BCCS) merged with the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), which took over the responsibility of banknote issuance.[5]

Coins편집

In 1967, the first series of coins was introduced in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 cents and 1 dollar. Except for the bronze 1 cent coin, these coins were struck in cupro-nickel. In 1985, a second series of coins was introduced in the same denominations. The sizes of the coins were reduced (most substantially for the larger denominations) and the 5 cents was struck in aluminium-bronze. In 1987, the 1 dollar coin was further reduced in size and switched to being struck in aluminium-bronze.

First Series ("Marine Series") (1967–1985) [1]
Value Technical parameters Description Date of issue
Diameter Thickness Mass Composition Edge Obverse Reverse
1 cent 17.78 mm 1.118 mm 1.940 g Bronze Plain A high-rise public housing block with a fountain in front and clouds in the background Value and Year June 12, 1967
1 cent 1.744 g Copper-clad steel 1976
5 cents 16.26 mm 1.02 mm 1.410 g Cupro-nickel Milled A snake-bird sitting in its nest and preening its feathers. Value and Year June 12, 1967
5 cents 1.260 g Cupro-nickel clad steel
5 cents (FAO) 21.23 mm 1.27 mm 1.240 g Aluminium A fish and the phrases "INCREASE PRODUCTION" and "MORE FOOD FROM THE SEA." 1971
10 cents 19.41 mm 1.40 mm 2.83 g Cupro-nickel A seahorse with a stylized piece of seaweed. June 12, 1967
20 cents 23.60 mm 1.78 mm 5.66 g A swordfish against a background symbolizing water.
50 cents 27.76 mm 2.03 mm 9.33 g A lionfish from tropical waters.
$1 33.32 mm 2.39 mm 16.85 g A stylized Singapore lion symbol flanked by two stalks of paddy.
틀:Standard coin table notice

The current series of coins feature the Coat of Arms of Singapore on the obverse, and a floral theme on the reverse. This series was designed by Christopher Ironside.

Second Series ("Floral Series") (1985–present) [2]
Value Technical parameters Description Date of issue
Diameter Thickness Mass Composition Edge Obverse Reverse
1 cent 15.90 mm 1.10 mm 1.24 g Copper-plated zinc Plain Coat of Arms, "Singapore" in 4 official languages Value, Vanda 'Miss Joaquim' September 28, 1987
5 cents 16.75 mm 1.22 mm 1.56 g Aluminium bronze Reeded Coat of Arms, "Singapore" in 4 official languages Value, Monstera deliciosa December 2, 1985
10 cents 18.50 mm 1.38 mm 2.60 g Cupronickel Reeded Coat of Arms, "Singapore" in 4 official languages Value, Jasminum multiflorum December 2, 1985
20 cents 21.36 mm 1.72 mm 4.50 g Value, Calliandra surinamensis
50 cents 24.66 mm 2.06 mm 7.29 g Reeded Value, Allamanda cathartica December 2, 1985
50 cents Inscribed "REPUBLIC OF SINGAPORE" and the lion symbol May 28, 1990
$1 22.40 mm 2.40 mm 6.30 g Aluminium bronze Inscribed "REPUBLIC OF SINGAPORE" and the lion symbol Coat of Arms, "Singapore" in 4 official languages Value, Lochnera rosea September 28, 1987
틀:Standard coin table notice

On February 21, 2013, the Monetary Authority of Singapore announced a new series of coins which will be in circulation by mid-2013, featuring Singapore's national icons and landmarks. It will be struck on a multi-ply plated steel planchet used by the Royal Canadian Mint and will come with enhanced features to differentiate from fakes. The coins also feature new designs, the one dollar, now a Bi-Metallic coin will feature the Merlion, the fifty cent coin featuring the Port of Singapore, the twenty cent coin will depict the Changi International Airport, the ten cent coin featuring public housing and the five cent coin featuring the Esplanade.[6][7]

Third Series ("National Icons and Landmarks of Singapore") (2013-present) [3]
Value Technical parameters Description Date of issue
Diameter Thickness Mass Composition Edge Obverse Reverse
5 cents 16.75 mm 1.22 mm 1.70 g Brass plated steel Round and plain Coat of Arms of Singapore, "Singapore" in 4 official languages The Esplanade Mid-2013
10 cents 18.50 mm 1.38 mm 2.36 g Nickel plated steel Round, interrupted and reeded Coat of Arms of Singapore, "Singapore" in 4 official languages Public Housing Mid-2013
20 cents 21 mm 1.72 mm 3.85 g Nickel plated steel Round and reeded Coat of Arms of Singapore, "Singapore" in 4 official languages Changi International Airport Mid-2013
50 cents 23 mm 2.45 mm 6.56 g Nickel plated steel Round and micro scalloped Coat of Arms of Singapore, "Singapore" in 4 official languages Port of Singapore Mid-2013
1 dollar 24.65 mm 2.50 mm 7.62 g Bi-metallic plating consisting of a brass plated ring with a nickel plated center plug Round and reeded Coat of Arms of Singapore, "Singapore" in 4 official languages The Merlion and a laser mark micro engraving of the Vanda Miss Joaquim Mid-2013


Note:

  • 6.71 million 1 cent coins are in circulation as of 1 December 2011, but are no longer issued since 2003.

Banknotes편집

Early series편집

On June 12, 1967, the first series of notes, known as the Orchid series, was introduced in denominations of $1, $5, $10, $50, $100 & $1000. $25 & $500 notes were introduced on August 7, 1972,[5] followed by $10,000 on January 29, 1973.[5] Between 1976 & 1980, the Bird series was introduced, including a $20 note introduced on August 6, 1979. This series did not include a $25 note. The Ship series was introduced between 1985 & 1989 in the same denominations except for the absence of a $20 note. $2 notes were introduced on January 28, 1991.[5]

The latest (portrait) series편집

The current Portrait series was introduced in 1999, with the 1 and 500 dollar denominations omitted. These notes feature the face of Yusof bin Ishak, the first president of the Republic of Singapore, on the obverse, and the reverse depicts a feature of civic virtue. There are both paper and polymer notes in circulation. The designs of the polymer notes are very similar to the corresponding paper note except for the slightly slippery feel and a small transparent window design in the corner of the banknote. Polymer notes are progressively replacing the paper banknotes in circulation. The notes also have Braille patterns at the top right-hand corner of the front design.

4th Series – Portrait Series (1999–present) [4]
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of issue Status Material
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse
$2 $2 $2 126 × 63 mm Purple President Yusof bin Ishak, Money Cowrie Education September 9, 1999 Circulation Paper
$2 $2 January 12, 2006 Polymer
$5 $5 $5 133 × 66 mm Green President Yusof bin Ishak, Gold-Ringed Cowrie Garden City September 9, 1999 Paper
$5 $5 May 18, 2007 Polymer
$10 $10 $10 141 × 69 mm Red President Yusof bin Ishak, Wandering Cowrie Sports September 9, 1999 Paper
$10 $10 May 4, 2004 Polymer
$50 $50 $50 156 × 74 mm Blue President Yusof bin Ishak, Cylindrical Cowrie Arts September 9, 1999 Paper
$100 $100 $100 162 × 77 mm Orange President Yusof bin Ishak, Swallow Cowrie Youth Paper
$1000 $1000 $1000 170 × 83 mm Pink President Yusof bin Ishak, Beautiful Cowrie Government Paper
$10000 $10000 $10,000 180 × 90 mm Gold President Yusof bin Ishak, Onyx Cowrie Economics Paper

The S$10,000 and B$10000 note are the world's most valuable banknotes (that are officially in circulation).[8] As of August 2011, it is worth over seven times as much as the next most valuable, the 1000 Swiss franc note.[9]

Commemorative banknotes편집

Commemorative banknotes are also released, usually in limited quantities. The first commemorative banknote was released on 24 July 1990, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of Singapore's independence. On December 8, 1999, to celebrate the coming 2000 millennium, 3 million $2 millennium notes were circulated. The note is similar to the $2 portrait series, except that the prefix of the serial number is replaced with a Millennium 2000 logo. These millennium notes are printed on paper as polymer notes were not introduced yet then.

On 27 June 2007, to commemorate 40 years of currency agreement with Brunei, a commemorative S$20 note was launched; the back is identical to the Bruneian $20 note launched simultaneously.[10] A circulation version of the $20 note can be exchanged at banks in Singapore beginning July 16, 2007, limited to two pieces per transaction.

Singapore commemorative banknotes [5]
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of issue Material
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse
$20 $20 $20 145 × 69 mm yellow/brown President Yusof bin Ishak,“Dendrobium Puan Noor Aishah” orchid Text reading “BRUNEI DARUSSALAM ∙ SINGAPORE and CURRENCY INTERCHANGEABILITY AGREEMENT 1967 - 2007” and national landmarks of Singapore and Brunei. June 27, 2007 Polymer
틀:Standard banknote table notice
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See also편집

References편집

  1. Monetary Authority of Singapore. “The Currency Interchangeability Agreement”. 2012년 10월 23일에 확인함. 
  2. “The Currency History of Singapore”. Monetary Authority of Singapore. 2007년 4월 9일. 2007년 12월 28일에 확인함. Official Currencies of The Straits Settlements (1826-1939); Currencies of the Board of Commissioners of Currency, Malaya (1939-1951); Currencies of the Board of Commissioners of Currency, Malaya and British Borneo (1952-1957); Currencies of the Independent Malaya (1957 -1963); On 12 June 1967, the currency union which had been operating for 29 years came to an end, and the three participating countries, Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei each issued its own currency. The currencies of the 3 countries were interchangeable at par value under the Interchangeability Agreement until 8 May 1973 when the Malaysian government decided to terminate it. Brunei and Singapore however continue with the Agreement until the present day. 
  3. Low Siang Kok, Director (Quality), Board of Commissioners of Currency, Singapore. 〈Chapter 6: Singapore Electronic Legal Tender (SELT) – A Proposed Concept〉. 《The Future of Money / Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development》 (PDF). France: OECD Publications. 147쪽. ISBN 92-64-19672-2. 2007년 12월 28일에 확인함. The Board of Commissioners of Currency, Singapore (BCCS) was established on 7 April 1967 by the enactment of the Currency Act (Chapter 69). It has the sole right to issue currency notes and coins as legal tender in Singapore. 
  4. International Economics - Historical Exchange Rate Regime of Asian Countries The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Copyright 2000. Retrieved August 15, 2008.
  5. Linzmayer, Owen (2012). 〈Singapore〉. 《The Banknote Book》. San Francisco, CA: www.BanknoteNews.com. 
  6. Singapore 2013 - New coin family World Coin News (worldcoinnews.blogspot.com). February 21, 2013. Retrieved on 2013-02-21.
  7. The new coins of Singapore Monetary Authority of Singapore (www.mas.gov.sg). Retrieved on 2013-02-21.
  8. PARITY DEMOCRACY and MONEY: Annual Meetings Paper 11, COUNCIL for PARITY DEMOCRACY. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
  9. Mega money: valuable bank notes
  10. “Commemorating the 40th Anniversary the Currency Interchangeability Agreement” (보도 자료). Monetary Authority of Singapore. 2007년 6월 27일. 2010년 4월 22일에 확인함. 

External links편집

Images and specifications of the 2013 series of coins in Singapore

Technical outlook of Singapore Dollar

전임:
Malaya and British Borneo dollar
이유: Independence
비율: at par
Singapore, Brunei의 통화
1967 –
공용: Brunei dollar
후임:
현재

틀:Dollar 틀:Currencies of Asia