틀:Pp-pc1 틀:Infobox music genre K-pop (an abbreviation of Korean pop)[1] (틀:Lang-ko kayo)[1] is a musical genre and subculture originating in South Korea which comprises a wide spectrum of musical and visual elements. Although in a bigger scope K-pop may include any genre of South Korean popular music, outside of the country the term is more commonly used for songs sung by systematically trained K-Pop idols signed with management agencies such as SM Entertainment, YG Entertainment and JYP Entertainment.[2] In 1992, dance and rap music was brought into the genre by Seo Taiji & Boys, whose experimentation with a different variety of musical sounds had ushered in the beginning of modern K-pop.[2]

Since the mid-2000s, the Korean Wave has driven a visible spread of K-pop across the Pacific Rim, before subsequently reaching out to the Americas, Eurasia, and North Africa. According to the news agency Reuters, the success of PSY's single "Gangnam Style" has led to other K-pop artists positioning themselves for a similar breakthrough in the U.S. music industry, as Big Bang, G-Dragon and Girls' Generation made their debut on the Billboard 200 albums' chart and 2NE1's performance in New Jersey was selected by The New York Times as one of the "Best Concerts of 2012".[3][4][5][6] By tapping into social media networks, the ability of K-pop to reach a previously inaccessible audience via the Internet is driving a shift in the exposure and popularity of the genre.[7]


Search volume for K-pop since 2008 according to Google Trends

The hallmarks of K-pop are:

  • Diversity of audiovisual content: Although K-pop generally refers to South Korean popular music, some have considered it to be an all-encompassing genre comprising an entire spectrum of musical and visual elements. The French audiovisual organization Institut national de l'audiovisuel defines K-pop as a fusion of synthesized music, sharp dance routines and fashionable, colorful outfits combining bubblegum pop with the musical elements of electro, disco, rock, R&B, and hip-hop.[8]
  • Systematic training of singers: The biggest management agencies offer binding contracts to children starting from age 9 to 10. Trainees live together in a tightly regulated environment and spend many hours a day learning music, choreography, foreign languages as well as communication techniques with fans and journalists. This "robotic" system of training is often criticized by Western media outlets.[9] In 2012, the cost of training a single member from SM Entertainment's nine-member band Girls' Generation averaged US$3 million.[10]
  • Bands with numerous members and sub-units: Most K-pop bands are made up of five to ten members. In some parts of the world, they have become more popular than domestic musicians mainly because of the physical attractiveness of band members, many of whom have undergone cosmetic surgery.[11][12][13] The target audience is usually young women and teenagers.[14]
  • Rapid distribution via the Internet: As the South Korean music industry is comparatively small, songs are released onto national television and simultaneously uploaded onto YouTube to reach out to a worldwide audience.[15] This is often preceded by a series of eagerly anticipated announcements and promotional activities referred to as a "comeback", which altogether generates a significant amount of hype and excitement before the official release of songs and music videos.[16]
  • Dedicated fanbase: Fan activities include translating Korean song lyrics and publishing them in English and other languages. An article by The Wall Street Journal indicated that K-pop’s staying power will be shaped by fans, whose online services have partly evolved into "micro"-businesses and small-scale ventures.[17] It is common for fans to organize flash mobs at prominent public areas via Facebook, performing and dancing to the latest K-pop songs so that a concert would be held.[18] Others have turned to other avenues such as calling the local South Korean consulate or embassy to request a concert.[19]
The Bank of Korea has attributed the rapid surge in cultural exports since 1997 to the increased worldwide popularity of K-pop.[20]
  • Support of government agencies: The South Korean government has acknowledged that an increased interest in South Korean popular culture will benefit the country's export sector.[21] According to government estimates, a US$100 increase in the export of cultural products results in a US$412 increase in the export of other consumer goods.[22] Government initiatives to expand the popularity of K-pop are mostly undertaken by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, which is responsible for the establishment of dozens of Korean Cultural Centers worldwide. Embassies and consulates of South Korea have also participated in the planning and organization of K-pop concerts and related events outside the country.[23]

While the roots of K-pop run all the way back to the 19th century, it was mostly contained within the Korean Peninsula until the 21st century when it became an integral part of the Korean Wave; a newly coined term describing the rise and spread of South Korean culture first across Asia, and then to the West and to other parts of the world.[24] A 2011 survey conducted by the Korean Culture and Information Service revealed that the number of active members of Hallyu fan clubs worldwide totalled 3.3 million, with about 14% of fans originating from Western European countries such as France and the United Kingdom.[25]


The beginnings of Korean popular music편집

The history of Korean popular music can be traced back to 1885 when an American missionary, Henry Appenzeller started teaching American and British folk songs at a school. These songs were called changga in Korean, and they were typically based on a popular Western melody sung with Korean lyrics. The well-known song "Oh My Darling, Clementine" was for example known as "Simcheongga".[note 1] During the Japanese rule (1910–1945) popularity of changga songs rose as Koreans tried to express their feelings against Japanese oppression through music. One of the most popular songs was "Huimangga" (희망가, The Song of Hope). The Japanese confiscated the existing changga collections and published lyrics books of their own.[26]

The first known Korean pop album was "Yi Pungjin Sewol" (This Tumultuous Time) by Park Chae-seon and Lee Ryu-saek from 1925 and contained popular songs translated from Japanese. The first pop song written by a Korean composer is thought to be "Nakhwayusu" (낙화유수, Fallen Blossoms on Running Water) sung by Lee Jeong-suk in 1929.[26] In the mid-1920s, Japanese composer Masao Koga mixed traditional Korean music with Gospel music that American Evangelists introduced in the 1870s. This type of music became known as Enka in Japan, and later in Korea as Trot (틀:Lang-ko).[27][28] These songs became extremely popular.[26]

Later, in the 21st century K-pop singers rediscovered the genre of trot, for example singers like Daesung from Big Bang and several members of Super Junior produced trot singles.[29][30]

1940s—1960s: American influence편집

After the Korean Peninsula was partitioned into North and South following its liberation from Japanese annexation in 1945, Western culture was introduced into South Korea on a small scale with a few Western style bars and clubs playing Western music. After the Korean War, which started on June 25, 1950 and lasted for 3 years, U.S. troops remained in South Korea for protection. With the continued presence of the U.S. military, American and world culture began to infiltrate South Korea. During this time, Western music became more accepted to a wider crowd of young adults.

Marilyn Monroe entertaining American soldiers in Korea in 1954

The United Service Organizations made it possible for several prominent figures of American entertainment, like Marilyn Monroe or Louis Armstrong to visit the soldiers stationed in Korea. These visits prompted attention from the Korean public. In 1957 the American Forces Korea Network radio started its broadcast, spreading the popularity of Western music. American music started influencing Korean music, as pentatony was gradually replaced by heptachords and popular songs started to be modeled after American ones.[31]

Improvements in the recording systems encouraged the production of LP records in the 1960s, which led to the pursuit of diverse voice tones.[32] Many singers sang for the American troops in Korea at the time, usually in dedicated clubs, the number of which rose to 264. They performed various genres like country music, blues, jazz and rock & roll. Popular Korean singers earned a total of 1.2 million dollars a year which almost equaled the country's export income at the time.[31]

In the 1960s, the South Korean economy started blooming and popular music followed the trend. The appearance of the first commercial radio stations played a significant part in spreading popular music, Korean cinema began to develop. Korean musicians and singers formerly only performing at American clubs started opening up to wider audiences. When The Beatles fever reached the shores of Korea, the first local rock bands appeared, the very first is said to be Add4,[note 2] founded in 1962.[31] The first talent contest for rock bands in Seoul was organized in 1968. Besides rock and pop, trot songs remained popular.[31]

Some of the Korean singers managed to gain international popularity. The Kim Sisters, Yoon Bok-hee and Patti Kim were the first singers to debut in such countries as Vietnam and United States. The Kim Sisters became the first Korean group to release an album in the United states, they performed various times in Las Vegas and appeared several times on Ed Sullivan's TV show.[33] Han Myeong Suk's 1961 song titled "The Boy in The Yellow Shirt" was covered by French singer Yvette Giraud and was also popular in Japan.[31]

1970s: Korean hippie folk pop편집

At the end of the 1960s and beginning of the 1970s Korean pop music underwent another transformation. Musicians now tended to be university students or graduates and made music for fun and self entertainment unlike the earlier generations. These young musicians were heavily influenced by American culture and lifestyle, unlike their predecessors who had to experience war and Japanese oppression. This generational conflict was well reflected in the reception of the folk pop music of the ′70s. The audience consisted mostly of students following the American hippie style in fashion and music alike, with guitars and jeans becoming a symbol of youth.[32] These young people opposed the Vietnam war as much as American hippies did which resulted in the Korean government banning songs with more liberal lyrics. In spite of this, hippie folk pop remained popular among the youth so much so that the local television channel MBC organised a music contest for university students in 1977, which consequently led to the foundation of several modern music festivals.[34]

One of the leading figures of the era was Han Dae-soo, raised in the United States, influenced by Bob Dylan, Leonard Cohen and John Lennon. Han's iconic song "Mul jom juso" (물 좀 주소, Give Me Water) became a hymn for young people in Korea, his daring performances and unique singing style often shocked the public and later he was banned from performing in Korea. Han moved to New York and pursued his musical career there, only returning to his home country in the 1990s.[34] Other notable singers of the period include Chang Sik Song, Young Nam Cho and Hee Eun Yang.

In the 1970s, DJs also started to become popular, deeply impacting teenage culture.[32]

1980s: The era of ballads편집

The 1980s saw the rise of ballad singers, the genre became popular after the 1985 release of Lee Gwang-jo's "You’re Too Far Away to Get Close to" (가까이 하기엔 너무 먼 당신, Gakkai Hagien Neomu Meon Dangsin). Lee's album sold more than 300,000 copies. Other popular ballad singers included Lee Moon-se (이문세) and Byun Jin-seob (변진섭), nicknamed the "Prince of Ballads". One of the most sought after ballad composers of the era was Lee Young-hoon (이영훈), whose songs were compiled into a modern musical in 2011 titled Gwanghwamun Yeonga (광화문 연가, Gwanghwamun's Song).[35]

In 1980, the Asia Music Forum was launched. National singers from five different Asian countries competed in the event. Cho Yong-pil won first place and earned a high reputation as a Korean singer in Japan.[32] His first album, Chang bakkui yeoja (창 밖의 여자, The Woman outside the Window) was a hit and he became the first Korean singer to take the stage at the Carnegie Hall in New York. He won nearly all relevant awards at major events, including best composer and best song awards. He was invited to perform in Japan and Hong Kong, among other countries. Cho's musical repertoire included rock, dance, trot and folk pop.[35]

1990s: The turning point편집

DJ DOC, one of the popular hip hop trios of the '90s[36]

In the 1990s, early Korean pop musicians incorporated American popular music styles like rap, rock and techno in their music.[37] In 1992 the emergence of Seo Taiji & Boys brought a true turning point in the history of K-pop.[38] The trio debuted on MBC's talent show with their song "Nan Arayo" (난 알아요, I Know) and got the lowest rating from the jury.[38] However, the song and the album with the same title became so successful that, according to MTV Iggy, "K-pop music would never be the same" again:[39] "Its New Jack Swing-inspired beats, catchy rap lyrics and memorable choruses took Korean audiences by storm".[39] The lyrics of Seo Taiji & Boys dealt with the problems of Korean society, which other entertainers of the era failed to do.[39] Their sound paved the way for the "success format" of K-pop songs,[39] and their footsteps were followed by a wave of successful hip hop and R&B artists like Jinusean, Deux, 1TYM and Drunken Tiger.[38]

In 1995 Korean entrepreneur Lee Soo Man founded South Korea's largest talent agency and record label, SM Entertainment.[40] By the late 1990s, YG Entertainment, DSP Entertainment, JYP Entertainment, and FNC Music had burst onto the scene as well and were producing talent as quickly as the public could consume it.[41]

The success of Seo Taiji & Boys brought a new audience to K-pop: teenagers, which led to the emergence of so-called idol bands: young boy and girl bands.[38] H.O.T. is considered as the first K-pop idol boy band, they debuted in 1995. They were followed by bands like Sechs Kies, S.E.S., Fin.K.L, NRG, Taesaja, Shinhwa or g.o.d.[38] The 1997 Asian financial crisis prompted Korean entertainers to look for new markets: H.O.T. also released a Chinese language album.[38]

The 1990s were also a successful period for underground music clubs, punk rock bands like Pipi Band or Crying Nut managed to gain mainstream popularity.[38]

21st century: The Hallyu wave편집

In the 2000s K-pop, as part of the global Korean wave, started expanding rapidly, mostly in Asia but also reaching the shores of the Americas and Europe. The first Korean singer to top the Oricon in Japan was BoA, whose albums were sold in the million.[42] This was also the time when Rain started to gain popularity and China, he held a concert with 40,000 people in attendance in 2005 in Beijing.[42] The decade saw the emergence of new generation idol bands like TVXQ, SS501, Big Bang, Super Junior, Girls’ Generation, Shinee, 2PM, Wonder Girls,2NE1, KARA and MBLAQ.[42] These bands often collaborate with American and European producers, JYJ for example worked with Kanye West,[43] Wonder Girls worked with Akon,[44] 2NE1 worked with will.i.am,[45] Girls' Generation worked with Snoop Dogg[46] while Big Bang's 2012 Alive Tour was directed by Laurieann Gibson.[47]

In the 21st century the expansion of K-pop is driven by the Internet. As traditional media records are losing popularity among consumers, the significance of digital records have risen. K-pop performers prefer the shorter EP or single formats released more often to full length albums. Artists therefore are forced to capture the audience in a shorter time period, which led to the widespread use of so-called 'hooks'. Hook usually means the easy to memorize, catchy chorus.[42]

In 2012 K-pop made a breakthrough in Western mainstream media through Psy's "Gangnam Style" that went viral on the Internet[48] and within a couple of months became the most viewed video of all time on YouTube.[49]

BoA became the first successful Korean to enter the Japanese market and top the Japanese Oricon Chart since World War II.

According to Mark James Russell from the global politics magazine Foreign Policy, K-Pop has now spread to the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and parts of South America. He acknowledges that Korean popular culture "may not (yet) turn heads in Los Angeles or London" and claims that "the West is actually late to the party".[50] However, according to USA Today this may soon change as K-Pop's influence continues to spread, finding more fans in the West.[51]

Since the late 2000s, several notable milestones have been attained by various K-pop bands and musicians:

  • May 2007: With a solo concert in front of 40,000 fans at the Tokyo Dome, the South Korean entertainer Rain becomes K-pop's first music artist to perform at Japan's biggest concert hall.[52]
  • October 2009: The Wonder Girls enter the American Billboard Hot 100 music charts with their single "Nobody", which was widely noted for its music video's viral spread after having surpassed 50 million views on YouTube.[53] [54]
  • September 2010: SM Town holds its first concert outside the Asian continent with its SMTown Live '10 World Tour in Los Angeles.[55] This precedes two sold-out concerts held a few months later at the Zenith de Paris in France.[56]
  • August 2011: Billboard launches the Korea K-Pop Hot 100 music chart, which only takes into account digital sales.[57]
  • November 2011: BIGBANG faces off competition from the American pop icon Britney Spears and the German singer Lena Meyer-Landrut to clinch the 2011 MTV Europe Music Award for Best Worldwide Act.[58] Shortly after, Google announces that its subsidiary YouTube will launch its own K-pop channel.[59]
  • December 2011: The total number of YouTube views generated by K-Pop videos in 2011 surpasses the 1 billion mark. It had tripled from 800 million in the previous year to more than 2.3 billion, spurred on by huge growths in Europe and the Middle East.[60] In the same month, the United Cube Concert was held in Sao Paolo, Brazil, making it the first K-pop concert in South America.[61]
  • March 2012: After becoming the first K-pop band to enter the American Billboard 200 music charts with their album "Alive", BIGBANG kicks off the Alive Tour in 25 cities worldwide.[62][63]
  • November 2012: PSY's Gangnam Style peaks at the top of more than 30 national music charts and becomes the most viewed YouTube video.[64] It also competed against hit singles by Katy Perry and Lady Gaga to clinch the MTV Europe Music Award for Best Video.[65] According to an article from Kevin Evers published on the Harvard Business Review, Gangnam Style's widespread internet popularity had influenced Billboard's ranking methodology of its music charts. Instead of only taking into account radio airplay and physical purchases, a heavier emphasis was placed on digital sales and online music streams.[66]
  • 21 December 2012: PSY's "Gangnam Style" becomes the first online video to be viewed over a billion times on YouTube. In 2012, the total number of views generated by K-pop videos excluding "Gangnam Style" had doubled from 2.3 billion in the previous year to more than 4 billion,[67] and the K-pop industry continued its double-digit growth by grossing US$3.4 billion in the first half of the year to become one of the top 10 largest digital music markets in the world.[68]


Clockwise from left: K-pop boy bands HITT, MBLAQ, BIGBANG and Exo

According to a Rolling Stone author, "K-Pop... embraces genre fusion with both singing and rap, and emphasizes performance and strong visuals."[69] It is a mix of genres like pop, rock, hip hop, R&B and electronic music.[70]

The BBC describes the K-pop bands Super Junior and the Wonder Girls as "highly produced, sugary boy- and girl-bands with slick dance routines and catchy tunes."[71] Dance is an integral part of K-pop. When combining multiple singers, the singers often switch their positions while singing and dancing by making prompt movements in synchrony. K-pop is also recognized for pretty-boys and girl groups[72] that are young and considered attractive.[73][74]

More than 60 boy and girl bands are produced each year in Korea, making way of labeling K-pop as a "star factory". Many of these bands disappear after a few hits.[70] K-pop is a fast paced and high-competition industry, according to the Korea Times it produces easily consumable and disposable one-time hit songs that the audience downloads and then deletes.[75] The majority of K-pop songs spend only a short time on music charts and it is rare for a hit to lead the charts for several weeks.[76] The basic format is usually built upon a catchy chorus part and a spectacular, easy to master dance to accompany the song - like "Sorry, Sorry" from Super Junior, "Gee" from Girls’ Generation or "Abracadabra" from Brown Eyed Girls. The songs are marketed for one or two months and then are usually forgotten as new ones take their place.[70][75] Singer Insooni complained that "the songs that we sang back in the day are still sung today. But music these days - people perform for three months than [sic!] stop. Fans have lost a sense of responsibility."[77]

Visual experience is an integrated part of K-pop, which comprises the artist's physical appearance and clothing as well as the sophisticated visuals of concerts and music videos. K-pop videos are often vivid, colourful, strident, extravagant and compared to traditional pop videos can even be shocking or incomprehensible.[78][79][80]

K-pop songs are often written by experienced songwriters, some of them born or raised in the USA, like Teddy Park,[81] but European and American songwriters and producers (such as will.i.am or Sean Garrett) also give songs to Korean performers.[82][83] Some of the K-pop idols compose and write songs themselves, for example Rain, Tablo, G-Dragon, the members of CN Blue and Block B.[84]



The promotional activities of a K-pop artist involve the so-called "comeback", called as such even when the musician or group in question did not go on hiatus.[16]

In order to make their new albums known to the public, K-pop artists participate in various promotional activities, such as appearing and performing on national television. Popular television programs in which bands and musicians usually make their comeback include the Music Bank TV series by the Korean Broadcasting System and The Music Trend by the Seoul Broadcasting System. The first performance by a K-Pop artist on a music program specifically for the promotion of their new album or single is also known as the "comeback" stage.[85] In addition to stage performances, Teaser images and video clips are commonly released to the public as part of a "comeback".[86] These are released one after another, often within the space of a few days before the full release.

Rookie artists start out with a "debut stage" and their second promotional cycle will be called a "comeback".


Dance is an integral part of K-pop. When combining multiple singers, the singers often switch their positions while singing and dancing by making prompt movements in synchrony. Since the debut of Seo Taiji & Boys, multiple singers began to switch their positions while singing and dancing, a strategy called "formation changing" (Korean: 자리 바꿈, Jari ba'ggum) and a turning point for the establishment K-pop choreography (Korean: 안무, Anmu).[출처 필요]


K-pop also influences fashion, especially in Asia, where clothes and accessories worn by K-pop stars, as well as their hairstyles and the cosmetic brands they use are sought after by young listeners.[87] Fashion brands release copies of clothing worn by idols.[88] Some K-pop idols including G-Dragon from Big Bang have established themselves as a fashion icon by attracting the attention of Western fashion designers, most notably Jeremy Scott, who expressed his interest in working with singer CL from 2NE1.[89][90][91][92][89][93]

In January 2012 Korean artists held a fashion show in Japan, which was attended by 33,000 people.[94] In Thailand authorities worry over the fashion items popularized by Korean pop, as Thai teenagers are willing to wear items unfit for local weather conditions (e.g. leggings) and also use skin whitening products to look like Korean celebrities.[95] In North Korea, despite strong governmental regulations, South Korean fashion is a topic of interest. K-pop popularized high-heel shoes, sleeveless tops and fashionable accessories, although such attire is forbidden in the country.[96]

K-pop as an industry편집


The three biggest agencies in terms of revenue are S.M. Entertainment, YG Entertainment and JYP Entertainment,[97] often referred to as the "Big Three", whose stocks are traded at the Korea Exchange.[98] In K-pop these record labels also function as agencies for the artists.[97] They started operating as such at the beginning of the 2000s.[97] They are responsible for recruiting, financing, training, marketing and publishing new artists as well as managing their activities and public relations. In terms of market share the biggest agency is S.M. Entertainment.[98] Their artists started the Hallyu wave in K-pop and managed to break into Japan.[98] The "Big Three" occasionally cooperate, for example Se7en, managed by YG Entertainment received a song from JYP Entertainment founder Park Jin-young in 2012[99] and the representatives of the three agencies judged at the SBS reality talent show "K-pop Star".[100] The "Big Three", together with Star J Entertainment, AM Entertainment and Key East founded the United Asia Management (UAM),[101] which aims to spread K-pop globally as well as facilitate the development of better artist recruitment and management processes.[102] UAM auditions are global and not restricted to Korean talents.[102] Besides musicians, UAM also manages actors, directors, stylists, hair and make-up artists.[102] The merge was highly criticised as it might put pressure on content providers as well as further pressurize other Asian countries, like the Chinese market, which is unable to respond to and compete with the mass production of Korean entertainment companies.[102]

Sales and market value편집

The Korean music industry grossed nearly $3.4 billion in the first half of 2012, which amounts to a 27.8% increase from the same period last year, according to Billboard.[103] Before the digital market took hold, the South Korean music industry was nearly destroyed in the early 2000s by the large amount of illegal file sharing, a problem threatening other countries at the time as well. In 2006, however, South Korea's digital music market surpassed the physical market,[104] with more than half of revenue coming from digital sales.[105] K-pop's social media presence on Korean and English websites such as Facebook and Youtube have also had a major impact on the size of its global market.[106]Viki, the video and music streaming website, has influenced global K-pop trends by providing translated subtitles for music videos.[107]

In 2011, 1,100 albums were released in South Korea. The hip-hop genre had the most among them at two-thirds of the total albums.[108] One-third of the albums were from other genres, including rock, modern folk, and crossover.[108] This shows that there is a variety of genres in South Korea outside of what is produced by K-pop idols.[108] Illegal downloads have pushed down prices significantly. In 2012, the average cost of obtaining a K-pop song in South Korea amounted to US$0.10 for a single download, or $0.002 when streamed online.[109]

K-pop (in Korea) global music market rank
Year Physical* Digital
2005 27[110]
2006 27[111]
2007 32[112] 23[105]
2008 24[113]
2009 24[114] 14[105]
2010 21[115]
2011 11[105]
2012 8[116]
* includes albums, singles and DVDs sold

Cultural technology and trainee system편집

Cultural technology, or CT, is a concept popularized by Lee Soo-man, founder of the South Korean music label and talent agency S. M. Entertainment.[117] It is a 3-step process of exporting K-pop overseas as part of the Korean wave and consist of a tightly controlled training system. Joseph L. Flatley from the American news network The Verge described it as one of the most "extreme" systems of pre-packaging K-pop bands,[118] which are owned by a handful of entertainment agencies.[119] According to The Wall Street Journal, South Korean entertainment companies such as S.M. Entertainment have created a process to train singers and dancers in its groups. In many cases, idols enter the system at age nine or ten and live together in a house under tight rules. They attend school during the day and take singing and choreography classes at night.[120] Besides singing and dancing trainees are also taught foreign languages, most notably English, Japanese and Chinese.[121] According to the CEO of Universal Music's Southeast Asian branch, the Korean idol trainee system is unique in the world.[97]

To guarantee the high probability of success of new talent, talent agencies fully subsidize and oversee the professional lives and careers of trainees, often spending in excess of $400,000 to train and launch a new artist.[122]

K-pop culture편집

Basic notions and conventions편집

K-pop uses a set of genre specific expressions.[123] These include traditional Korean honorifics, used by both idols and fans. Besides this traditional social system, K-pop adds its own subculture. As much as age is important, the debut date and popularity of the artist also matters. Younger artists or those who debuted later are called hoobae (후배) and they must greet the older and earlier debuted colleagues (선배, sunbae, "senior") with an insa (인사), the traditional deep bow. Failing to do this have met with strong criticism from the industry and the fans alike, for example in the case of girl group T-ara.[124][125]

Boy and girl groups in Korea are referred to as idols or idol bands.[126] Idol bands have a strict hierarchy. Every band has a leader, chosen by either the members or the managing company based on age, personality and leadership qualities. The leader is a representative of the band as well as responsible for group harmony.[127] The youngest band member is called maknae (막내), which is a special position as it is traditionally regarded that the cuter the maknae the more potential a band has in terms of popularity.[128] Idols are recruited and trained in a trainee system regarded as exceptional in the pop industry.[129]

The Korean pop industry involves the so-called fan service, which is largely based on bromance of a non-sexual nature between band members of male idol groups. Fans pair their favourites into "OTPs" (one true pairing), who in turn reinforce the pairs by acting cute and brotherly with each other on television. The names of such bromantic pairs are contracted from the original stage names of the members, for example the G-DragonSeungri OTP is commonly referred to as "GRi". OTP pairs are called "ships", from the English term "relationship", and fans of these "ships" are called "shippers".[130][131]

Frequently used expressions편집

Addressing others
Korean Romanized Explanation
오빠 oppa woman's elder brother; Korean women call older male family members and friends as well as their lovers this way. Fans commonly refer to male idols as "oppa".[132]
hyung man's elder brother; Korean men call older male family members and friends this way. Younger members of idol groups call the older members "hyung" as well. Failing to do this is regarded rude and impolite.[133]
언니 unni woman's elder sister; Korean women call older female family members and friends this way. Younger girl group members also refer to older members as "unni".[134]
누나 noona man's elder sister; Korean men refer to older women in their family as well as their friend circles this way.[134]
동생 dongsaeng younger sibling; regardless of sex, people in close relationship with the speaker are referred to as dongsaengs.[123]
선배 sunbae senior, someone with more experience in the respective field, regardless of age[125][135]
후배 hoobae junior; someone with less experience in the respective field, regardless of age.[125]
Other frequent expressions
Korean Romanized Explanation
화이팅 hwaiting Originated from the English "fighting", this expression is widely used for encouragement and support.[136]
대상 Daesang At music awards several artists receive Bonsangs for their outstanding achievement in music, then one of the Bonsang winners is awarded with a Daesang, the "Grand Prize".[137]
본상 Bonsang
Expression Explanation
All-Kill (AK)
Perfect All-Kill (PK)
They refer to chart positions. "AK" means that the song reached #1 on the charts of the seven biggest online music portals of South Korea the same day. "PK" songs also led the ringtone download charts.[138]
mini album A mini album in K-pop means that the record (physical or digital) contains no more than two or three songs and their remixes. It is usually longer than a single but shorter than an EP.[123]
title track Title track in K-pop means the leading track of the album, which has a music video released and is promoted on music shows like Inkigayo by live performances.[123]
repackaged album Repackaged album means that after the first promotions of the album are finished, the album is re-released with new design, containing one or two new tracks, out of which one is a "title track" with a new music video.[123]
promotion Promotion in K-pop refers to promoting the "title track" in several televised music shows like Inkigayo. Promotion on TV shows usually last one month, with a "debut stage" for newcomers, a "comeback stage" for regulars and a "goodbye stage" at the end of the cycle.[123]

Appeal and fan base편집

Big Bang fans (VIPs) hold crown shaped light sticks during a concert: this is the symbol of the fan club
Fan rice towers from Super Junior fans, in Germany as a gift to Eunhyuk

According to some opinions, the music itself is not the decisive factor in the popularity of K-pop. A publication in New York Magazine calls K-pop "catchy but derivative" and states that Girls' Generation fans admit to liking the group for its members' looks and their personality, radiating what the magazine calls "humility" and friendliness to each and one of the fans. A fan stated to the magazine that when Girls' Generation performs on stage, you get the illusion of the girls sometimes looking right at you and interacting with you personally.[139]

Many K-pop fans travel overseas to get the chance to see Korean bands. Tours from Japan and China bring fans to see K-pop concerts.[140] A K-pop group tour from Japan had more than 7000 fans fly to Seoul to meet boy band JYJ.[141] During JYJ's concert in Barcelona, fans from many parts of the world camped overnight to gain entrance.[142]

Korean fan clubs play an essential role in K-pop, their structure and operation is different from Western fan clubs.[143] Each club has its own name and color, for example Girls’ Generation fans are called "SONEs" and their official color is "pastel rose pink",[144] while Super Junior's fan club is called "E.L.F." and they use the color "Pearl sapphire blue".[143] Colors play an important role in fandoms, as fans express their unity and loyalty this way, especially in concerts where other artists also perform: fans from a certain fan club create their own sectors with the represented colors, usually with light sticks or official balloons and create a "Kpop Ocean".[143][145] If a color is already taken, fanclubs of new artists cannot choose them unless the color they want is taken by a soloist or a group of a different gender.[143] As colors are limited some artists do not have an official color, Big Bang fans for example hold crown shaped yellow light sticks, while Se7en's fans are represented by the number 7.[144]

Official fan clubs have subscription "waves"[143] when fans need to register, usually after paying the club fee and then the fan receives a membership cards and other items such as light sticks and official balloons for an idol. Clubs are well organized, united in nature and frequently participate in charity events to support their idols.[143] They purchase bags of fan rice as gifts to their favourite bands in order to show their love and support. According to Time Magazine, for BIGBANG's first show in months, 12.7 tons of rice were donated from 50 fan clubs around the world and stacks of rice bags were lined up like shrines to the K-pop idols. There are businesses dedicated to shipping the rice from farmers to the venues.[146] The rice bags are then donated to people in need.[147] Another way for fan clubs to show devotion is sending lunch to the stars, and there are special catering companies in South Korea for this purpose. The trend started when fans picked up complaints that the stars do not eat properly due to their busy schedules.[148]

A unique feature of K-pop fan clubs is the so-called organized "fan chant" during live performances when fans chant parts of the song lyrics or the names of the idols (in order of birth) at parts of the performance previously decided and organized by the club.[123][149] There are various websites and video tutorials for fan chants of K-pop songs.


There is a recognized concern of K-pop fans turning to obsession and compulsive behaviors such as stalking and invasion of privacy. These fans are called sasaeng, or "private" fans. These fans are usually young females.[150] Some sasaeng fans hire taxis to follow their idols. There are taxi services catering specifically for these fans that are willing to speed after the vans transporting idols. Korean public officials recognize this as a unique but serious concern.[150][151]

During a press conference, the boy band JYJ confirmed they were victims of invasion of privacy and stalking. There were instances of breaking into their private households, where fans would take pictures of them in sleep or steal items.[152] Junsu from JYJ told reporters that obsessive fans have even installed GPS trackers under his car to monitor his every move.[153] Fans also resort to harassing artists by acquiring their phone numbers, hitting them or touching their private parts.[154] Some sasaengs go as far as engaging in prostitution to earn the money necessary for following their idol's every step.[151] Some sasaeng fans have installed CCTV surveillance cameras near Park Yoochun’s home.[155] In another incident, as KBS reports TVXQ member Yunho drank a beverage containing super glue given to him by an anti-fan and had to receive medical attention.[156][157]

Many celebrities have expressed their concern over the sasaeng activities, in 2012 a member of JYJ, which has the most sasaeng fans among all K-pop idols,[150] was accused of resorting to violation and shouting when confronted by stalking fans on the street.[158] Super Junior member Kim Heechul and popular singer-actor Jang Keun-suk have also reacted angrily at sasaeng moves.[150]

Celebrity fans편집

Music artists and celebrities who are fans of K-pop include:

  • Grimes: According to Grimes, K-pop has influenced her musical style "more visually than anything else".[159] The Canadian singer is also known to be an admirer of G-Dragon.[160][159]
  • Nelly Furtado: During an interview with the German newspaper Der Tagesspiegel, Furtado pointed out that there has been a "big K-Pop explosion" and that she has been closely following the development of K-pop over the past few years.[161] She expressed an interest to collaborate with Big Bang's member T.O.P, and also admitted to being "obsessed" with the K-pop genre.[162]

Popularity and impact편집

K-pop being played during the 2011 Internationale Funkausstellung Berlin in Germany

South Korea is emerging in the 21st century as a major exporter of popular culture.[165] K-pop has been embraced by the South Korean government as a tool for soft power abroad, particularly towards youth.[166] K-pop has come from humble beginnings to gain a huge fan base not just in Asia but also other parts of the world,[167] and is considered by some to be South Korea’s greatest export because of its popularity and growing influence.[140] As South Korea continues to develop its IT infrastructure, K-pop music is being shared over the internet and through mobile devices more rapidly than ever.[168] One of the biggest examples of the globalization of KPOP is the emergence of PSY's "Gangnam Style" on the market. In October 2012, Psy became the first South Korean artist to hit the number 1 spot on top UK charts.[169]

US President Barack Obama has noted the rapid surge and spread of Korean pop culture. During an official visit to South Korea in March 2012, he praised South Korea’s youth for their tech-savviness and optimism, and remarked[170]:

It’s no wonder so many people around the world have caught the Korean Wave -- hallyu

Prior to the rise of social media networks, K-pop concerts and related events outside East and Southeast Asia were mostly unheard of. However, with the growing acceptance of Youtube during the late-2000s as a popular music sharing plattform, K-pop has since become increasingly well known in many parts of the world, including the West.[171] According to The New York Times, "attempts by K-pop stars to break into Western markets had largely failed prior to the proliferation of global social networks." However, K-pop artists are now gaining more international exposure through social media networks such as YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter, making it easier for them to reach a wider audience.[172]

In 2011, Billboard launched the Korea K-Pop Hot 100 chart[173] and YouTube created an official K-pop channel.[174][175] K-pop music videos were viewed more than 2 billion times during 2011, almost three times the 800 million views in 2010.[176]

In 2012, Super Junior, Girls' Generation, Wonder Girls and Big Bang have been nominated for "World's Best Group" at the 2012 World Music Awards.[177]


2NE1 at a concert in Clarke Quay, Singapore

According to the Korea Foundation for International Culture Exchange, K-pop has been a successful export of Korean culture in Asia. On its "Korean Wave" index, the top country in 2010 was Japan, in a list that also included Taiwan, China, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, Malaysia and the Philippines.[178]

Following the lifting of import/export restrictions between South Korea and Japan which were in place since World War 2, the album Listen to My Heart by BoA was the first album by a Korean artist to debut at the top of the Japanese Oricon charts and become an RIAJ-certified million-seller in Japan.[179] On January 16, 2008, TVXQ (known as Tohoshinki in Japan) reached the top of the Oricon charts, with their sixteenth Japanese single "Purple Line". This made them the first foreign and Korean male group to have a number-one single in Japan.[180][181] Afterwards, the Japanese music market has seen the influx of Korean pop acts including SHINee,[182] Super Junior,[183] Big Bang,[184] KARA, Girls' Generation, After School, 2PM, and Brown Eyed Girls.[185] In 2011, it has been reported that the total sales for K-pop artists' has increased 22.3% during 2010-2011 in Japan. Some artists have been in the top 10 selling artists of 2011 in Japan.[186]

K-pop has yet to make a major impact in China but there has been considerable success. In 2005 Rain held a concert in Beijing with 40,000 people in attendance.[42] The Wonder Girls won an award in the 5th annual China Mobile Wireless Music Award for having the highest digital sales for a foreign artist with five million digital downloads in 2010.[187] Super Junior and their sub-group Super Junior M have had successful results on the Kuang Nan Record, CCR and Hit Fm Taiwan music charts.[188]


In the Indian state of Manipur, where separatists have banned Bollywood movies, consumers have turned to Korean popular culture for their entertainment needs. The BBC's correspondent Sanjoy Majumder reported that Korean entertainment products are comprised mostly of pirated copies smuggled in from neighbouring Burma, and is generally well received by the local population.[189][190]

This has led to the Korean language becoming more popular among young people, with phrases such as "Annyeong-haseyo" (안녕하세요) and "Kamsahamnida" (감사합니다) now commonly heard in everyday speech.[190] In response to the growing Korean cultural influence, Professor Amar Yumnam from Manipur University proposed setting up Korean language classes for students, after a meeting between university officials and diplomats from the Korean Embassy in New Delhi was held in 2011.[191]

In order to capitalize on the popularity of K-pop in Manipur, many hairdressing salons have offered "Korean-style" cuts based on the hairstyles of K-pop boy bands.[192][189] This wave of Korean popular culture is currently spreading from Manipur to the neighbouring state of Nagaland,[193] and to Nepal.[194]

United States and Canada편집

Xiah Junsu on stage at the Hollywood Palladium in Los Angeles, 2012

One of the first significant K-pop events to be held in the United States were Rain's 2006 sold-out concerts in New York City and in Las Vegas 6 months later. In 2009, the Wonder Girls became the first K-pop artist to debut on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart.[195] They also joined the Jonas Brothers in the Jonas Brothers World Tour 2009. In 2010 they toured 20 cities in the United States and Canada, and were named House of Blues "Artist of the Month" for June.[196]

In 2010 SM Entertainment organized SMTown Live '10 World Tour, touring in Los Angeles, Paris, Tokyo and New York. In May 2012, SM Town returned to California again with the SMTown Live World Tour III in Anaheim.

In 2010, during the 8th Annual Korean Music Festival, K-pop artists made their first appearances at the Hollywood Bowl.[197] Notable K-pop concerts in the United States in 2011 include the 2011 KBS Concert at the New York Korea Festival, the 2011 K-Pop Masters Concert in Las Vegas, and the Korean Music Wave in Google, the latter held at Google's headquarters in Mountain View, California.[198]

At the start of 2012, Girls' Generation performed the English version of "The Boys" on the late night talk show Late Show with David Letterman and on the daytime talk show Live! with Kelly, becoming the first Korean musical act to perform on each show, and the first Korean act to perform on syndicated television in the United States.[199] In the same year, the group formed their first sub-unit, entitled Girls' Generation-TTS, or simply "TaeTiSeo", composed of members Taeyeon, Tiffany, and Seohyun. The subgroup's debut EP, Twinkle, peaked at #126 on the Billboard 200, becoming the highest charting K-Pop album on the chart.[200]

In December 2011 2NE1 won MTV Iggy's Best New Band award.[201] In August 2012, as part of their New Evolution Global Tour, 2NE1 held their first American concert in the New York Metropolitan Area at the Prudential Center of Newark, New Jersey.[202]

In November 2012, as part of their Alive Tour, Big Bang held their first solo concert in America going to the Honda Center in Los Angeles, California and the Prudential Center in Newark, New Jersey. The tickets sold out in only a few hours, thus additional dates were added.[203]

On November 13, 2012, the American singer-songwriter Madonna and a few of her backup dancers performed "Gangnam Style" alongside PSY during a concert at Madison Square Garden in New York City. PSY later told reporters that his gig with Madonna had "topped his list of accomplishments".[204]

Latin America편집

In the first Latin America K-pop Competition in 2010, 92 teams from 10 countries participated. In 2011 they were joined by more countries for the second Latin America K-pop Competition.[205]

In 2011, the United Cube Concert was held in São Paulo, Brazil.

In March 2012, the boyband JYJ performed in both Chile and Peru. When JYJ arrived at the Jorge Chávez International Airport in Peru for the JYJ World Tour Concert, the band was escorted by airport security officials through a private exit due to safety reasons concerning the large number of fans.[206] At the Explanada Sur del Estadio Monumental in Lima, some fans camped out for days in to see JYJ.[207]

In Colombia, Caracol TV and Arirang TV made a K-pop reality show in April 2012.[208]

In September 2012, Junsu became the first K-pop idol to perform in Mexico and Brazil, the concerts sold out well in advance.[209] Since 2009, about 260 fan clubs with a total of over 20,000 and 8,000 active members have been formed in Chile and Peru respectively.[210][211]


Beast performing at the Beautiful Show in Berlin

In London, Beast and 4minute performed during the United Cube Concert. The MBC Korean Culture Festival was also held in London.[212] When SHINee arrived at the London Heathrow Airport for a concert at the Odeon West End, part of the airport became temporarily overrun by frenzied fans. The reservation system of Odeon West End crashed for the first time one minute after ticket sales began as the concert drew an unexpectedly large response.[213] In 2011, the Korean boyband Big Bang flew to Belfast and won the Best Worldwide Act during the 2011 MTV Europe Music Awards in Northern Ireland.[167]

In May 2011, Rain became the first K-pop artist to perform in Germany during the Dresden Music Festival.[214] later followed by JYJ performed in Berlin and Barcelona. In February 2012, the boyband BEAST held the Beautiful Show in Berlin. A fan commented that although he does not understand the lyrics of K-pop, "their (Beast's) music is good and thats what counts."[215][216] The Berliner Zeitung also adds that fans who attended the Beautiful Show came not just from Germany, but also bordering countries.[217]

K-pop fans in Warsaw holding a S.Korean-Polish flag as well as banners of various boy bands

The SMTown Live '10 World Tour was held in Paris, followed by the Super Junior Super Show 4 Tour, also in Paris. In February 2012, the Music Bank World Tour drew more than 10,000 fans to the Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy[218]

In 2012, Big Bang won the Best Fan category in the Italian TRL Awards.[219]

K-pop is becoming increasingly popular in Poland. In 2011, the K-pop Star Exhibition was held in the Warsaw Korean Culture Center, as well as a K-pop party which attracted fans all across Poland. Fans told The Warsaw Voice; "we want to express our admiration for Korean music and our hope that some day they will perform in Poland.”[220] There have also been K-pop flash mobs in other European cities including Prague, and Warsaw.[221][222]

The Russian music TV channel Muz-TV has recently indicated an interest in adding K-pop to its programme. High school and college students who fell in love with K-pop through the Internet and YouTube have been making calls or sending letters asking to air K-pop-related content.[223]

During the 2011 K-pop Cover Dance Festival, 57 Russian dance teams took part to win a trip to South Korea.[224] During the second round of the competition, the boyband SHINee flew to Moscow as judges of the competition and they also performed in front of the Russian fans and participated in a flash mob.[225]

Middle East and Africa편집

In Turkey, Korean culture is catching on quickly and Internet-savvy generation of Turks are using their computers and phones to explore cultures around the world and a large chunk of the pre-teen demographic is flocking to South Korean culture.[226] In 2012, the total number of active members in K-Pop fan clubs across Turkey surpassed 100,000 members.[227]

The boyband ZE:A appeared for a meet and greet session for fans in Dubai[228] and a concert in Abu Dhabi.[229] In Israel, local K-pop fans met South Korea's Ambassador to Israel Ma Young-sam in July 2011. Israeli fans traveled to Paris for the SMTown Live '10 World Tour in Europe.[230] In Cairo, hundreds of K-pop fans came to Maadi Library’s stage theater to see the final round of the K-POP Korean Song Festival, organized by the Korean Embassy. Fans drew banners in Korean and many were screaming along to the Korean songs.[231]


Concerts in Australia include the 2011 K-Pop Music Festival, at the ANZ Stadium in Sydney,[232] featuring Girls' Generation, TVXQ, B2ST, SHINee, 4minute, miss A, 2AM, and MBLAQ. While, in New Zealand, a K-pop Festival is planned to take someplace sometime during the summer of 2012/2013, starring Girls' Generation, 2PM and Kara and the South Korean Embassy will be backing New Zealand's first national K-pop competition.[233] NU'EST visited Sydney in August 2012 at Sydney Harbour and at the University of New South Wales, as they were judges of a major K-pop concert that was being held there.[234] Psy toured Australia in October 2012, after his single 'Gangnam Style' reached number one in Australia on the ARIA charts.[235]

YouTube views편집

Psy, whose music video for "Gangnam Style" became the first video to reach more than a billion YouTube views worldwide.[236]

Of the 2.28 billion worldwide K-pop YouTube views in 2011, 240 million came from the United States, which was more than double that of 2010 (94 million).[176]

List of most viewed K-pop music videos on YouTube
Rank Artist(s) Title Year Notes Views
1 PSY "Gangnam Style" 2012 1,338
2 PSY feat. Hyuna "Oppa Is Just My Style" 2012 284
3 Girls' Generation "Gee" 2009 97
4 Girls' Generation "Mr. Taxi" (Dance Ver.) 2011 Japanese version 72
5 Girls' Generation "The Boys" 2011 68
6 2NE1 "I Am the Best" 2011 64
7 BIGBANG "Fantastic Baby" 2012 63
8 Girls' Generation "Oh!" 2010 63
9 Wonder Girls "Nobody" performance 2008 Live on M! Countdown 59
10 Super Junior "Mr. Simple" 2011 59
* rounded to the nearest million
Last update: February 20, 2013


In 2002, Time reported that television producers were arrested for "accepting under-the-table payments guaranteeing TV appearances to aspiring singers and musicians. According to Seoul District Prosecutor Kim Kyu Hun, the arrests of Hwang Yong Woo and Kim Jong Jin were just the first in a wide-ranging investigation into systemic corruption in South Korea's music business". Companies investigated included SidusHQ, SM Entertainment and others.[41]

K-pop companies are also criticized for taking advantage of their "idols" through overworking and restrictive contracts that were described as "slave contracts" in a BBC report.[237] In July 2009, SM Entertainment was taken to court by TVXQ and a Super Junior member alleging that working conditions had caused adverse health effects and other problems.[238][239] Court decision in the TVXQ lawsuit determined their contract void and as a result the fair trade commission released contract templates to regulate conditions.[237]

The Korean entertainment industry has also been struggling with sexual harassment cases of trainees and artists, some of whom have committed suicide.[240][241] In April 2012 the CEO of Open World Entertainment was arrested for sexually harassing several trainees and allegedly forcing members of various male idol groups to do the same. Jang must sentenced to 6 years in prison.[242][243]However in February 22, 2013. Jang on seen original sentence of 6 years in prison upheld was rejected by the court.[244]

Regarding the quality of music, K-pop has been criticized for its heavily manufactured character, which involves the "pre-packaging" of idol bands and songs produced for fast consumption. The genre is also labeled to have copied Western patterns, lacking originality and lyrics were noted to be shallow. Repeated song patterns and formats as well as the use of Autotune is also sometimes considered to be a negative aspect of K-pop. It has also been regarded as "artificial", where visuals matter over singing ability.[70][75][245][246][247]

K-pop has been criticized for overtly relying on American sound and being "copycats" of Western music patterns. Some Korean artists have even been involved in accusations of plagiarism.[245][248] New York magazine calls K-pop songs "catchy but derivative".[139] The genre is often called bubblegum pop.[39][70] Lyrics have been criticized for being shallow and lifeless and for containing meaningless or non-existing English words.[246]

Despite its growing popularity, some commentators have remained doubtful of K-pop's ability to break into Western music markets. CNN published an article written by freelance journalist Esther Oh, who wrote that big music markets "simply don't care".[249] The New Yorker's staff writer John Seabrook described Girls’ Generation as being a dominant girl group positioned to "conquer the West", but also added that some analysts in the music industry consider K-pop's idol groups too robotic to become mainstream.[250]

List of K-pop artists편집

See also편집


  1. Not to be confused with the pansori story of the same name.
  2. “ADD4 & KOREAN PSYCH-ROCK & FOLK-POP reissues : ADD 4”. psychemusic.org. 2012년 2월 27일에 확인함. 


  1. Holden, Todd Joseph Miles; Scrase, Timothy J. (2006). 《Medi@sia: global media/tion in and out of context》. Taylor & Francis. 144쪽. ISBN 978-0-415-37155-1. 2011년 12월 5일에 확인함. Since the 1990s, the term “K-pop” has become popularized to refer to Korean popular music, being widely used throughout East and Southeast Asia. 
  2. “K-Pop”. 《Doosan Encyclopedia》. Naver. 2012년 3월 11일에 확인함. 
  3. “The Best Concerts of 2012, as Seen by Times Critics”. The New York Times. 2013년 1월 6일에 확인함. This was the year K-pop arrived — not in the form of “Gangnam Style,” which was everywhere and yet completely evanescent — but in these arena shows, which were full of thousands of young, paying fans eager to see the girls of 2NE1 and the boys of BigBang, groups with zero American hits between them, but rabid American followings all the same. 
  4. “Korean pop rides "Gangnam Style" into U.S. music scene”. Reuters. 2012년 12월 2일에 확인함. 
  5. Benjamin, Jeff. “Girls' Generation Splinter Group Enters Billboard 200”. BIllboard. 2013년 1월 6일에 확인함. 
  6. “G-Dragon Album & Song Chart History”. Billboard. 2013년 1월 6일에 확인함. 
  7. Yoon, Lina. (2010-08-26) K-Pop Online: Korean Stars Go Global with Social Media. TIME. Retrieved on 2011-02-20.
  8. ROUSSE-MARQUET, Jennifer. “K-pop : the story of the well-oiled industry of standardized catchy tunes”. Institut national de l'audiovisuel. 2013년 1월 25일에 확인함. K-pop is a fusion of synthesized music, sharp dance routines and fashionable and colorful outfits. 
  9. “NYT Draws Attention to K-Pop Idol-Making Factories”. Chosun Ilbo. 2012년 12월 28일에 확인함. 
  10. Yang, Jeff. [blogs.wsj.com/speakeasy/2012/02/06/can-girls-generation-break-through-in-america/ “Can Girls’ Generation Break Through in America?”] |url= 값 확인 필요 (도움말). The Wall Street Journal. 2013년 1월 25일에 확인함. The management firms pay for everything; leading talent house SM Entertainment has pegged the cost of rearing a single idol at around $3 million, which for Girls’ Generation would be multiplied by nine. 
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  15. Chace, Zoe. “Gangnam Style: Three Reasons K-Pop Is Taking Over The World”. National Public Radio. 2012년 12월 26일에 확인함. 
  16. Ramstad, Evan. “Korea Counts Down Not Just To New Year, But to New Girls’ Album”. The Wall Street Journal. 2013년 1월 5일에 확인함. One of the unique things about album releases by K-pop artists is that they are routinely called 'comebacks' even when there's been no evidence that the musician or group went away or, in the conventional sports usage of the term, experienced a setback or loss. 
  17. Ramstad, Evan. “Behind K-pop’s Pop: The Work of Fans”. The Wall Street Journal. 2013년 1월 26일에 확인함. Others handle things like publishing lyrics, translations of lyrics or spreading news about K-pop groups and stars. To get a feel for this micro-business, we asked the operators of a K-pop lyrics translation site called pop!gasa.com to provide a glimpse of their role in the Korean Wave. Our takeaway: it’s as competitive as any business. 
  18. “Extra K-pop concert in Paris sells out in 10 minutes”. Korea Times. 2012년 12월 6일에 확인함. 
  19. Porter, Ryan. “Toronto catching up to K-Pop”. Toronto Star. 2013년 1월 26일에 확인함. Some fans have called HyeJeong Ahm, consul for cultural affairs at the Korean Consulate, but booking concerts isn’t the consulate’s primary focus. “If a Korean entertainment company wants to have a concert (in Toronto), we can support it,” Ahm said. “But they have to find their own sponsors and local promoting company.” 
  20. “K-Pop Leads Record Earnings from Cultural Exports”. The Chosun Ilbo. 2013년 1월 26일에 확인함. A BOK official said the increase “is related to a surge in exports of cultural products amid the rising popularity of K-pop in Europe and the U.S. as well as in Asia." 
  21. ROUSSE-MARQUET, Jennifer. “K-pop : the story of the well-oiled industry of standardized catchy tunes”. Institut national de l'audiovisuel. 2013년 1월 25일에 확인함. The government then identified the cultural industry as the next growth driver. Numerous state research agencies were created and some projects were subsided in an attempt to boost the nation’s cultural industry. 
  22. “Korean Wave Gives Exports a Boost”. The Chosun Ilbo. 2013년 1월 26일에 확인함. But for every $100 increase in exports of cultural products themselves, outbound shipments of processed food, clothes, cosmetics and IT products also grew $412 on average. 
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  24. James Russell, Mark. “The Gangnam Phenom”. Foreign Policy. 2012년 12월 28일에 확인함. First taking off in China and Southeast Asia in the late 1990s, but really spiking after 2002, Korean TV dramas and pop music have since moved to the Middle East and Eastern Europe, and now even parts of South America. 
  25. Mukasa, Edwina. “Bored by Cowell pop? Try K-pop”. The Guardian. 2013년 1월 25일에 확인함. The result, according to a survey conducted by the Korean Culture and Information Service, is that there are an estimated 460,000 Korean-wave fans across Europe, concentrated in Britain and France, with 182 hallyu fan clubs worldwide boasting a total of 3.3m members. 
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  156. “TVXQ Member Recovers from Poisoning”. KBS. 2012년 12월 19일에 확인함. 
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  • Hartong, Jan Laurens (2006). 《Musical Terms Worldwide: A Companion for the Musical Explorer》. Semar Publishers. ISBN 978-88-7778-090-4. 
  • Holden, Todd Joseph Miles; Scrase, Timothy J. (2006). 《Medi@sia: Global Media/tion In and Out of Context》. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-37155-1. 
  • Jung, Sun (2011). 《Korean Masculinities and Transcultural Consumption: Yonsama, Rain, Oldboy, K-Pop Idols》. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 978-988-8028-66-5. 
  • Kim, Myung Oak; Jaffe, Sam (2010). 《The New Korea: An Inside Look at South Korea's Economic Rise》. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn. ISBN 978-0-8144-1489-7. 

External links편집

틀:Korea topics 틀:Popmusic