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수박(手搏)이란 한반도 등에서 전래된 맨손 격투기의 명칭으로 한국의 전통 무술이다.

목차

고전편집

고구려의 벽화에 기원을 구한다. 《고려사》, 《동사강목》, 《왕조실록》 등에 기록이 남아 있다. 태껸 (택견), 태권도의 전신이라고도 하는데 각 항목으로 섬세한 검증이 필요하다.

고려사》 정중부전(鄭仲夫傳)에서는 의종이 보현사(普賢寺)에서 무사들의 수박회(수박경기)를 구경하였다고 한다.《고려사》최충헌전(崔忠獻傳)에서는 수박에서 이긴 군사에게 벼슬을 내렸다고 한다.

동사강목》에는 왕이 직접 수박희를 하였다. 의민이 주목으로 기둥을 쳐서 서거래를 움직이고, 두경이 주먹이 벽에 파묻다. 《태종실록》에서 "의흠부에서 군사를 뽑는데 수박희를 시켜 세 사람을 이긴 자를 방패군으로 삽았다"고 한다.

무술인들이 한국의 맨손 격투기의 원형이라고 전하고 있다. 금강역사상(金剛力士像)에서도 관련지은 경우가 있다. 1777년~1880년의 기록인 《재물보》(才物譜)에서는 “卞 手搏爲卞 角力(씨름)卞 若 今之 택견”이라고 쓰여 있는 것을 보면 근세까지 맨손 경기를 세분화하는 인식이 일반적이지 않았었다고 볼 수 있다.

근대편집

무덕관(武德館) 관장인 황기(黄琦)가 1953년 당수도(唐手道)를 시도하고 대한 당수도 협회를 결성했다. 1960년 수박도(手搏道)로 개칭, 무예도보통지 바탕으로 개발하고 있었다. 1960년대부터 해외활동을 개시했다. 황기의 수박도는 수박이라는 명칭을 이용했으나 수박과는 관련이 없다. 그가 참고한 무예도보통지에 실린 권법은 중국 남권이다라는 말도 있지만 정확히는 구보 이전에 존재했던 수박을 편집하고 정리한 것이라는 기록이 있으며 후반 10개 기술들만이 중국 북권인 태조32장권에서 추출 되었다. 또한 수박은 조선상식풍속편의 '권악수지의 진퇴' 기록이나 역사적으로 기록 되어온 '수박은 이러한 이름들로 불리기도 한다'는 기록들의 권법, 권박, 타권 등의 기록들로 주먹을 쓰는 격투기다. 내용을 보태자면 당수도는 현재의 공수도로 중국과 전쟁을 치르던 일본이 중국을 뜻하는 당을 빼고 공수도로 개칭했지만 한국에 전해진 당수도는 명칭을 그대로 쓰고 있었다. 이승만정권에 의해 태권도창립에 반강제 통합된 국내 당수도 문파중 가장 크고 절대 다수였던 무덕관은 당연히 이에 반발했고 생명의 위협을 느낀 황기 관장은 미국으로 망명한다 이후 태권도로 대부분 합병되었고 황기는 무예도보통지를 바탕으로 수박도를 만들었지만 태권도나 수박도나 그 뿌리는 당수도에 있다는 것은 자명한 사실이며 (결국 지분 싸움이라고 보여진다. 물론 황기는 최대 피해자이다.) 한편 한국무술의 대부분은 마케팅전략으로 근대에 만들어놓고 기원을 중세나 고대에 뿌리를 둔다는 것은 염두에 두어야 할 사실이다. 심지어 당수도연맹조차도 태권도의 뿌리라며 민족전통무술을 자처하기도 한다.

Subak = Shoubo편집

Subak is the same as Chinese Shoubo. It is the same 2 Chinese alphabets 手搏 pronounced differently due to dialectal differences. Chinese pronunciation of Subak is Shoubo. It's not explicitly Korean nor Chinese art but for the whole East Asia. Hurrying (Byun) knockdown with strikes (frontal slap, side slap, punch) is Subak/Shoubo; gaming is wrestling. Shoubo moves include frontal punching.[1][2][3] Like other sports such as baseball, volleyball, curling, Subak (means clap in both Korean Baksu & Chinese Shoubo) has a different definition of what it calls clap; the sport has non-clap strikes as well.

 
Chinese Shoubo/Subak Qin Dynasty archaeological picture on a comb
 
2 mustache Kokuryeo Korean Subak frontal slap
 
Kokuryeo Korean frontal slapping halfway to head

Modern Shoubo doesn't have lineage to the older Shoubo, but China still had Shoubo in the older times; Shoubo is Subak. They are the same sports, the same rules, the same word. Older Chinese historical records on older Shoubo apply to Subak as well.

When Shoubo/Subak was spread to China & Korea, the rules & the sport motions spread and overlapped. Chinese historical records on Shoubo can be used for Korean Subak to a great extent cause they overlap with each other. On Chinese Qin Dynasty's comb (archaeological scholarly source), Shoubo's motions were recorded, which is referenced by Chinese Martial Art Encyclopedia page 5 from China (Chinese Martial Art Encyclopedia Editorial Association). The guy on the right used frontal slap (with palm) on the opponent's frontal face (nose) while the guy on the left defended it with 1 arm while slapping the opponent's chest (another frontal slap) with the other arm.

Subak Myths & Facts편집

There are Subak myths today that Subak slaps with palm only or that Subak slaps side (like cheeks, half-frontal by 45 degrees but half-side) only. There are a couple reasons for such myths. 1. Korea has gone through social upheavals during the Japanese occupation of Korea 100 years ago. There have been some disconnections in traditional facts being taught by the scholars from its previous generations. 2. Subak has been extinct for 300 years in Korea. No one learned Subak as a sport or as a history. 3. Subak's name means "clap", which some people claim to suggest palm or side-hitting for the sport. 4. Subak has a cousin-sport named Subyuk which slaps with palms only.

In the real historical records, Subak had punch whether as a real-life application (& also certain game Tagwon application) of palm-Subak or Subak game itself having punches. Even Subyuk had a nickname "fist", which corroborates such records. Also, today's Korean Subak Federation (Daehan-subak-hyeobhoe/대한수박협회) is operated by a North Korean descendant. (North Korea's Songdo still had Subak even until recently although Subak was extinct in the rest of Korea.) They still teach Subak even today; they teach frontal slap (slapping front) & punches in Subak even today. As a corroboration, Subak Dance, Taekkyeon, Subyuk also have frontal slaps. Subak Dance is a valuable historical record that recorded Subak moves as a dance including slapping dance partner's chest. Subak Dance has passed down in Manchuria & North Korea. All those sports & activities corroborate the same details about Subak.

Subak's rules & motions편집

According to "Chosun Common Sense Q & A", which was Namseon Choi's 1937 newspaper column, "Subak & Subyuk were the same, a fight game which became a drinking game, children's game. The method is fist, grab moving front & back. Hand & fingers bend."[4]

In 1964, the ethnologist Gimu Hong representing North Korean Science Center Anthropology & Ethnology Research Institute published this book, "there was a game called Subak. This knocks down opponent with punches. Subak was liked by warriors in that era."[5]

Medieval Chinese book Yongdangsopoom[6] recorded Subak is also called Tagwon in 1621. It also recorded Subak had Subub, techniques. “백타(白打)는 곧 수박으로 겨루는 것이다. 당나라 장종(莊宗)은 수박으로 내기를 하였으며, 장경아(張敬兒)는 수박으로 공을 세웠다. 세속에서는 타권(打拳)이라고도 하며, 소주인이 말하길 사람의 뼈를 부러 뜨려 죽음에 이르게 할 수 있다. 빨리 죽이고 천천히 죽이는 것은 오로지 수법(手法)에 달려 있다.”[7] Translation: "Baekta is competing with Subak. Tang's Jangjong gambled with Subak. Jang Gyunga made accomplishments with Subak. Civilians also call Subak as Takwon. Soju people say it can break human's bones to kill. Killing fast or killing slow depends on the (Subeob) techniques." There are also reputable archaeological Subak wall drawings (including frontal slaps) which represent the real life Subak scenes back in the era.

Medieval Korean Royal Journal also describes the rules & motions of Takwon. “유격이 타권의 기법을 앞에서 보여줬다. 그 법은 뛰면서 몸을 날려 두 손으로 자기 얼굴이나 목, 혹은 등을 치며, 가슴과 배를 번갈아치기도 했다. 볼기와 허벅지를 문지르기도 하며, 손을 쓰는 것이 어찌나 빠르고 민첩한지 사람이 감히 그 앞에 접근할 수 없을 정도였다(선조실록 권99, 31년 4월 경신)".[8] Translation: "Yugyeok showed Tagwon's techniques at the front. The method is leaping the body, with 2 hands, hitting his own face, neck & back, hitting chest & stomach. Also rubbing butt & thighs. His hand strikes were really fast & agile that a person couldn't go near his front." Subak Dance also shows the dance performer slapping his own body as well as slapping an opponent's (dance partner's) body such as slapping his chest (frontal slap to opponent's chest).

Today, Subak is sometimes imagined by some people to be using palms only (or hitting side only) because the name Subak means clapping. There's no logical necessity; there are no counter evidences nor counter logic to Subak having frontal slaps & punch.

Also, Subyukta (which came from Subak according to medieval encyclopedia Jaemulbo) uses palms only cause it's convenient for the gaming, practicing purpose. That doesn't necessarily mean Subak also should be slapping with palm only. Subyuk is a part of Subak; it's not the entire Subak; Subak has frontal slaps like Subyuk which has a nickname Sonbbyukchigi (clap strike); Subak also has punches unlike Subyuk although corroborated by Subyuk's another nickname Ken (fist).[9]

There's no explicit proof that dictates Subak's rules from Subyuk's motions. Explicit proofs outweigh such implicit wishes & imaginations. Sports names do not describe the entire sports; sports jargons don't mean the same as regular words; new games created out of original sports don't necessarily represent the entire original sports. (Subyuk came out of Subak.) Subak & Subyuk are separate games although related; fist can be made with common sense; Subak had punch unlike Subyuk which only had frontal slaps & side slaps. Subyuk had frontal slaps & side slaps; Subak had punches, frontal slaps, side slaps. Also, even Subyuk had nicknames like Clap Strike (Sonbbyukchigi) & Fist (Ken). "SYOU-PYEK-TCHI-KI - HAND-CLAPPING", "It is usually played to the accompaniment of songs, and receives the name of Ken (Chinese, K'un), 'fist.'", "The hands are then clapped, and opened, palms out, to strike those of the other player".[10][11]

Subyuk had straight slaps despite its nicknames "fist" & "hand clapping". Subak had punch. Subak's rules & motions include Subyuk motions & slapping side (cheek). Those are not the entire Subak rules & motions; Subak rules & motions include those but have more such as slapping front & punching (front & side). There is no counter evidence (including Subak's name meaning clap) nor counter logic to such historical records proving Subak's rules & motions. There are explicit historical records on Subak's rules & motions including those but having more rules & motions than such being included. Subak had frontal slaps & punches.

Subak Dance (Subakchoom)편집

Traditional Subak had become a dance; it has passed down in Manchuria. The following Subak moves in the Subak Dance are from Daehansubakhyubhoi (Korean Subak Federation). "기본틀; 수박치기 - 손바닥 치고 손등 치기, 가슴치고 손등치기, 제몸치기(이마, 뺨, 어깨, 옆구리, 허벅, 발바닥), 상대 몸치기, 날개펴기, 무릎 세우기".[12] Translation: "Basic framework; Subak strikes - hit palm then the back of hand, slap chest then back of hand, hit your own body (forehead, cheek, shoulder, waist, thigh, foot), hit opponent's (dance partner's) body, open wings, raise knee". "마무리; 어깨치기에 들어막기로 응수하고 양손 떼밀기하다가 옆구리치기에 무릎 세우기로 방어한다. 가슴치기에 슬쯕대어 피하고 이어서 상대허리를 감아 들고 힘있게 꺽듯이 하다가 엉덩방아를 찧게 한다. 다른 예도 있다."[13] Translation: "Last; slap opponent' shoulder to be corresponded by raising blocking, push opponent with both hands, slap opponent's waist to block by raising knee to defend. Slap opponent's chest to be dodged by swaying. Followed by wrapping opponent's waist with arms, powerfully bend it then let him fall on his ass. There are other cases."

 
Manchuria Korean's Subak Dance (Korean Chinese's Subakchoom)

Subak Dance shows Subak, including slapping a dance partner's chest (frontal slap) as well as dodging it. Subak Dance has moves such as slapping his own body particularly forehead, cheeks, chest, shoulders, thighs, feet (frontal slaps & side slaps), and also slapping the dance partner's body in the same manner. This dance is also popular in North Korea but was extinct in South Korea until recently. There is also the motions of making fists in the dance, consistent with the Subak rules historically corroborated by many authorities of Korean sports history. Manchuria's Subak Dance is the ancient Subak made into a dance. It's a great reference to corroborate what kind of moves were in Subak (including frontal slap, making fist). Subak Dance is passed down by Manchuria Koreans and North Korea today. It's recognized & certified by Chinese government as a traditional culture officially. Subak Dance's authenticity is corroborated by its widespread contents (Manchuria & North Korea) as well as its history (Subak Dance was seen 100 years ago). In Subak Dance, when hitting his own forehead & chest (as well as hitting a dance partner's body), frontal slaps are shown.

"일제강점기의 반도의 舞姬, 최승희여사(1911 ~ 1969. 8. 8)도 手拍舞를 무대에서 공연한 적이 있다하며 그의 저서인 "조선족 무용기본동작(1978)"중에 수박치기가 포함되어 있다."[14] Translation: "During Japanese occupation of Korea, Seungheui Choi (1911 ~ 1969. 8. 8) also has performed Subak Dance in her stage. Her book "Korean Chinese Basic Dance Motions" (1978) includes Subak strikes." Subak Dance also has fist motions although slapping is more convenient for practicing, dancing, gaming. "손동작; 손목 꺽기, 손가락 꼬기, 손목 흔들기, 주먹쥐고 앞, 뒤로 흔들기".[15] Translation: "Hand motions; bending wrist, crossing fingers, shaking wrists, making fist then rocking it front & back".

Subak's name meaning편집

Subak means clap. This is irrelevant from the sport contents like how many sports & activities are named such as volleyball, baseball, curling, horseplay, thunderclap. It's like Gwonbub/kwonbeop [권법/拳法] means "fist way" but also has defense, slaps, kicks, etc. The logic is consistent to Subak; that happens in Subak. However, some people get hung up on Subak's definition, so here's the detail. Subak means hand strike. In Korean language (& also in Chinese), the sport is called "Hand Strike"; clap is also called "Hand Strike". It's not that Korean calls the sport "clap"; it is that Korean calls clap "hand strike" as an expression. There's no single word for clap in Korean; the existing word Baksu/Sonbbyuk is an expression "hand strike" (2 words in expression). Both clap & that sport are "Hand Strike" in Korean language.

Subak having frontal slap편집

Subak has punches as a proven academic fact, logical & verified. On top of that, some people get hung up on Subak having straight slap. There is straight slap in Subyuk (which came from Subak)[16][17], Taekkyeon, Subak Dance, Korean Gwonbeop, etc. Also, ancient Kokuryeo's Subak wall drawings show frontal slaps, which some of them look straight slaps. Kokuryeo had a limited number of sports; those reputable archaeological wall drawings can only be matched with few sports including Subak; Subak has a limited number of motions which can be matched with the pictures by the process of elimination. So, Subak had punches & straight slaps aside from having side slaps like cheek slaps (not that different in motion for an arm-extending swing hitting front). Aside from Subak having straight slaps, some people get hung up on swing-slap hitting front. They claim swing trajectory is banana. Consider half a banana with its tip hitting front & middle. (Whether punch or slap, a swing starts at the side of the body; it doesn't start at the middle of the body, which is why it ends at the middle & front of the body.) Also, curve & circle are not the same; curve doesn't have to be consistent in angle-change. Curve's angle change can be different at a different point of curve, flatter or curvier. There's no such thing as flailing in swing. That's not how a swing is done. Jack Dempsey is a reputable source for arc swing hitting front.[18][19] The swing punching motion starts at Figure 22A (elbow bent, fist loaded at the side of the body), then the swing punching motion ends at Figure 23B (arm fully extended, fist punching front although swing can hit side by choice too). Because swing has both the frontal & lateral vectors, swing can hit either front or side (or even halfway frontal in 45 degrees like cheeks or jaws) by choice.

Subak had a swing slap hitting front or side (can do both by choice, by different curves); Subak had straight slap like Chinese Iron Palm breaking layers of cinder blocks with a straight slap 100 years ago (photographed); Subak had punches. It's arguable whether Subak had all those from the beginning of the sport or evolved in the ancient time eventually, but Subak had them anyway visible already in the ancient & medieval eras. Subak's motions are proven with ancient pictures, medieval writings, Subak Dance (Subakchoom corroborates Subak's moves & rules), Taekkyeon, etc. There are straight slaps in sports (sports can create, add techniques) & also in everyday-life (spanking, swatting). Subak Dance & Taekkyeon have punches, frontal swing slaps, straight slaps, side (cheek) slaps. Subyuk has straight slaps and has a nickname "fist". There are many proofs that Subak had frontal swing slaps, straight slaps, punches.

Even in Subak Dance which represents the old Subak, frontal slap exists. "마무리; 어깨치기에 들어막기로 응수하고 양손 떼밀기하다가 옆구리치기에 무릎 세우기로 방어한다. 가슴치기에 슬쯕대어 피하고 이어서 상대허리를 감아 들고 힘있게 꺽듯이 하다가 엉덩방아를 찧게 한다. 다른 예도 있다."[20] Translation: "Last; slap opponent' shoulder to be corresponded by raising blocking, push opponent with both hands, slap opponent's waist to block by raising knee to defend. Slap opponent's chest to be dodged by swaying. Followed by wrapping opponent's waist with arms, powerfully bend it then let him fall on his ass. There are other cases." Subak Dance shows Subak, including slapping a dance partner's chest (frontal slap) as well as dodging it.

Relationship between Subak, Korean wrestling (Ssireum), Subyukta(Subyukchigi, Sonbbyukchigi)편집

There are people who claim that, because Subak's name means clap, Subak should use palm only or hits side only (like clapping). There are also some people who claim that, because Subyukta uses palm only, Subak also should use palm only. These claims are not logical. Many sports like volleyball, baseball, curling have sports motions not in the sports titles. Even regular words like horseplay or thunderclap mean different things with jargons (like thunder's clap not being hands nor side-hitting), not to mention including things outside the names.

Also, Subyukta (which came from Subak according to medieval encyclopedia Jaemulbo) uses palms only cause it's convenient for the gaming, practicing purpose. That doesn't necessarily mean Subak also should be slapping with palm only. Subyuk is a part of Subak; it's not the entire Subak; Subak has frontal slaps like Subyuk which has a nickname Sonbbyukchigi (clap strike); Subak also has punches unlike Subyuk although corroborated by Subyuk's another nickname Ken (fist).[21] There's no explicit proof that dictates Subak's rules from Subyuk's motions. Explicit proofs outweigh such implicit wishes & imaginations. Sports names do not describe the entire sports; sports jargons don't mean the same as regular words; new games created out of original sports don't necessarily represent the entire original sports. (Subyuk came out of Subak.) Subak & Subyuk are separate games although related; fist can be made with common sense; Subak had punch unlike Subyuk which only had frontal slaps & side slaps. Subyuk had frontal slaps & side slaps; Subak had punches, frontal slaps, side slaps. Also, even Subyuk had nicknames like Clap Strike (Sonbbyukchigi) & Fist (Ken). "SYOU-PYEK-TCHI-KI - HAND-CLAPPING", "It is usually played to the accompaniment of songs, and receives the name of Ken (Chinese, K'un), 'fist.'", "The hands are then clapped, and opened, palms out, to strike those of the other player".[22][23] Subyuk had straight slaps despite its nicknames "fist" & "hand clapping". Subak had punch.

As for the relationship between Korean wrestling (Ssireum) & Subak, the direct interpretation of the traditional record "Byun is Subak, Muheui is wrestling. This is today's Taekkyeon", it directly means "hurrying is Subak (Korean wrestling's goal is takedown & knockdown), gaming is wrestling. This (wrestling) is today's Taekkyeon" in euphemism. Hurrying wrestling's goal with strikes is Subak; Subak became Sibak; Ssireum became Taekkyeon; Taekkyeon has both regular Taekkyeon & Sibak (also Taekkyeon according to medieval encyclopedia Jaemulbo) in Taekkyeon.

Similarity between Subak & Taekkyeon-Yetbub편집

A direct interview with Dukgi Song was recorded in Munyejinheung by Bohyung Lee, published in 1984 by Munyejinheungwon on Volume 11 Number 1 page 67 (이보형, 문예진흥 제 11권 1호, 문예진흥원, 1984.2, p.67, 이보형이 송덕기 옹에게 췌록한 내용). "누상동에는 '장칼'이라는 장사가 있어 키도 크고 힘도 좋고 '복장지르기', '가슴치기'등 택견솜씨가 좋았다." Translation: "Nusangdong had a strongman named Jangkal. He was tall & strong; he was good at Taekyun techniques particularly Bokjangjireugi (Front Stomp Kick), Gaseumchigi (Frontal Chest Slap, slapping chest at front), etc." Dukgi Song testified directly about frontal slap in Taekkyeon. "이보형이 송덕기 옹에게 췌록한 내용". Translation: "the content recorded by Bohyung Lee from direct interview with Dukgi Song."[24][25]

The same interview & the same book (by Munyejinheungwon & Bohyung Lee, 1984, Munyejinheung Volume 11 Number 1 page 67) includes Dukgi Song's direct testimony how Taekyun Yetbub broke jaw with 1 slap to the jaw as well as his testimony how Taekkyeon had frontal chest slap. There are also online Taekkyeon articles on Taekkyeon Yetbub by the official Taekkyeon organizations.[26] As a side note, slapping cheek is often thought as hitting side, but cheek or jaw is actually halfway frontal in about 45 degrees, not 90 degrees at side like ears. Also, hook and swing are two different motions; hook isn't really used for slapping cheek. Furthermore, sports create techniques & motions; they evolve & add motions not from everyday-life (explicit proofs have to check such). Also, whether hitting 45 degrees, 0 degrees or 90 degrees from the front, shoulder-push & Yong stacking speed, power, mass doesn't change for hand strike; the strike techniques are the same. Taekyun & Subak techniques are consistent in authenticity. Subak had swing slaps hitting front (frontal slap), straight slaps, punches already at the ancient time; Taekkyeon also had all those in the medieval times already. Straight slaps are also common in everyday-life anyway such as swatting, spanking. There are authoritative explicit proofs for Taekkyeon, Taekkyeon-Yetbub, Subak moves from the older eras by reputable sources.

Similarity between North Korean Gyeoksul and Subak편집

North Korea has a fight game called Kyuksul. According to historical records referred by Mookas martial art magazine, "the earlier contests were about the same as boxing, but in 1987's 7th contest, it evolved to the level of kickboxing."[27]

Gyuksul was originally from Subak. In the new Gyuksul rules & techniques, Gyuksul also resembles Sibak (Korean street fighting games) & Gwonbeop (Muyedobotongji).[28][29][30]

Those 3 pictures are Gyuksul moves. There are similar moves in Korean Muyedobotongji Gwonbeop, except that Gwonbub's wild swing with shoulder-push uses vertical fist while Gyuksul uses horizontal fist. Those 3 pictures resemble these two 300 years old Korean Gwonbeop pictures.[31]

North Korean Gyuksul started from Subak. Then it evolved to be like Sibak & Gwonbeop by the influence of Byungin Yoon and his art Gwonbeop taught at YMCA, which became a root of Taekwondo. Byungin Yoon's Gwonbeop (different from Karate) is shown by Cheolheui Park's Pasa-Gwonbeop published when he was young. Byungin Yoon's Gwonbeop influenced both Taekwondo & Gyuksul. North Korean Gyeoksul's punch uses horizontal fist swing punch without fist rotation. Gyeoksul doesn't have boxing exclusive motions such as uppercut or hook.

Subak having punch편집

Some people claim that Subak shouldn't have punch cause it is named "clap". There's no explicit logic nor proof that a sport named clap shouldn't have punch. On the other hand, there are many reputable references (mainly scholarship & news organizations) that prove Subak had both frontal slap (including swing slap & straight slap) & punches aside from also having side slap (cheek or jaw slap is halfway frontal in 45 degrees).

Even Korean Subak Federation (대한수박협회, Daehansubakhyeobhoi) says that Subak had frontal slap & punch. They teach Subak even today.[32]

Medieval Chinese book Yongdangsopoom (涌幢小品) recorded Subak is also called Tagwon in 1621. It also recorded Subak had Subub, techniques. “백타(白打)는 곧 수박으로 겨루는 것이다. 당나라 장종(莊宗)은 수박으로 내기를 하였으며, 장경아(張敬兒)는 수박으로 공을 세웠다. 세속에서는 타권(打拳)이라고도 하며, 소주인이 말하길 사람의 뼈를 부러 뜨려 죽음에 이르게 할 수 있다. 빨리 죽이고 천천히 죽이는 것은 오로지 수법(手法)에 달려 있다.”[33]

Translation: "Baekta is competing with Subak. Tang's Jangjong gambled with Subak. Jang Gyunga made accomplishments with Subak. Civilians also call Subak as Takwon. Soju people say it can break human's bones to kill. Killing fast or killing slow depends on the (Subeob) techniques." There are also reputable archaeological Subak wall drawings (including frontal slaps) which represent the real life Subak scenes back in the era.

Medieval Korean Royal Journal also describes the rules & motions of Takwon. “유격이 타권의 기법을 앞에서 보여줬다. 그 법은 뛰면서 몸을 날려 두 손으로 자기 얼굴이나 목, 혹은 등을 치며, 가슴과 배를 번갈아치기도 했다. 볼기와 허벅지를 문지르기도 하며, 손을 쓰는 것이 어찌나 빠르고 민첩한지 사람이 감히 그 앞에 접근할 수 없을 정도였다(선조실록 권99, 31년 4월 경신)".[34]

Translation: "Yugyeok showed Tagwon's techniques at the front. The method is leaping the body, with 2 hands, hitting his own face, neck & back, hitting chest & stomach. Also rubbing butt & thighs. His hand strikes were really fast & agile that a person couldn't go near his front."

"수박과 백타를 막연하게 동일시하고 맨손무예를 의미하는 보통명사들이라는 설(設)이 있으나 적어도 위의 타권인 수박은 고유명사인 것(내용 중에 특징적인 기술체계가 있다). 선조실록(동(同) 시대)에 등장하는 타권과 연장선에서 이해 할 필요가 있다. 백타가 태권도경기라면 수박은 태권도를 말한다. 태권도경기와 태권도를 어떻게 같다 할 수 있겠는가?"[35]

Translation: "There is a theory that Subak & Baekta are ambiguously equal, that they are common nouns for barehand martial arts. However, Tagwon described at above is a proper noun (the contents have a unique system of techniques). It should be understood as the extension of Seonjo era's royal Chosun (Korean) journal's Tagwon. If Baekta is Taekwondo sparring, Subak is Taekwondo itself. How can you say Taekwondo competition and Taekwondo are the same?"

Korean Subak Federation claims that Tagwon & Baekta are different from Subak, and they are a competition method based on Subak. In their claim, Subak would use palms only, but Subak would compete using both punches & slaps for Tagwon & Baekta. However, there are explicit old authentic historical records that Subak itself had punches in the game, not as an extension game of Subak. Like many names of sports & activities such as volleyball, curling, baseball, thunderclap, Subak's name meaning clap has no logical necessity nor proof that it should use palm only nor hit side only. Regardless, Korean Subak Federation agrees that Subak uses punches in Tagwon & Baekta which they claim to be a competition method of Subak. Subak slaps front & side (cheeks), but Subak's application Tagwon punches anyway. Also, there are many reputable & old historical records that Subak itself had punches in the game. In any case, Subak population fought using punches in application of Subak. The only difference is whether Subak itself had punches or Subak's application & competition had punches. The difference is whether Subak used fist in Tagwon only or also in general Subak.

각주편집

  1. “Shoubo wrestling & hand strikes”. 
  2. “French Shoubo Wiki entry”. 
  3. “Shoubo International Organization”. 
  4. “Chosun Common Sense Q & A, 1937's Subak Newspaper Column”. 
  5. “Anthropology & Ethnology Research Institute's 1964 Subak record”. 
  6. 《YongDangsopoom》. 
  7. “1621's Yongdangsopoom Subak record & Chosun Royal Journal Tagwon record”. 
  8. “1621's Yongdangsopoom Subak record & Chosun Royal Journal Tagwon record”. 
  9. “Stewart's Subyuk description”. 
  10. “Stewart's Subyuk description”. 
  11. “Subyuk photo 100 years ago”. 
  12. “Korean Subak Federation's Subak Dance lecture”. 2019년 1월 16일에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 2019년 1월 16일에 확인함. 
  13. “Korean Subak Federation's Subak Dance lecture”. 2019년 1월 16일에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 2019년 1월 16일에 확인함. 
  14. “Korean Subak Federation's Subak Dance lecture”. 2019년 1월 16일에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 2019년 1월 16일에 확인함. 
  15. “Korean Subak Federation's Subak Dance lecture”. 2019년 1월 16일에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 2019년 1월 16일에 확인함. 
  16. “Stewart's Subyuk description”. 
  17. “Subyuk photo 100 years ago”. 
  18. “Jack Dempsey Hooking chapter swing Figure 22A”. 
  19. “Jack Dempsey Hooking chapter swing Figure 23B”. 
  20. “Korean Subak Federation's Subak Dance lecture”. 2019년 1월 16일에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 2019년 1월 16일에 확인함. 
  21. “Stewart's Subyuk description”. 
  22. “Stewart's Subyuk description”. 
  23. “Subyuk photo 100 years ago”. 
  24. “Taekyun-Yetbub has frontal chest slap; the same book also mentions jaw breaking Taekyun-Yetbub slap”. 
  25. “Taekkyeon Gaseumchigi (Frontal Chest Slap) description”. 
  26. “Taekyun-Yetbub article on Mookas News”. 
  27. “Boxing-like origin of Gyuksul”. 
  28. “Gyuksul picture 1”. 
  29. “Gyuksul picture 2”. 
  30. “Gyuksul picture 3”. 
  31. “300 years old Muyedobotongji Gwonbeop pictures resembling Gyuksul”. 
  32. “Korean Subak Federation (Daehansubakhyeobhoi, 대한수박협회)”. 2017년 9월 15일에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 2019년 1월 24일에 확인함. 
  33. “Korean Subak Federation (Daehansubakhyeobhoi, 대한수박협회) talking about Baekta & Tagwon being different from Subak”. 
  34. “Korean Subak Federation (Daehansubakhyeobhoi, 대한수박협회) talking about Baekta & Tagwon being different from Subak”. 
  35. “Korean Subak Federation (Daehansubakhyeobhoi, 대한수박협회) talking about Baekta & Tagwon being different from Subak”. 

외부 링크편집