작업 기억

(작업기억에서 넘어옴)

작업 기억(作業記憶, Working memory)은 다른 감각 기관으로부터 들어오는 정보를 머리 속에 잠시 잡아 뒀다가 기억하는 것이다.[1] 심리학적으로 작업기억은 경험한 것을 수 초 동안만 머릿속에 받아들이고 저장하고 인출하는 정신 기능이라고 할수있다.[2]

작업기억편집

작업 기억은 정보를 일시적으로 저장할 수있는 제한된 능력을 가진 인지 시스템이다.[3] 작업 기억은 추론과 의사 결정 및 행동 지침에 중요하다.[4][5] 작업 기억은 종종 단기 기억과 동의어로 혼동해서는 안되며 일부 전문가들은 작업 기억이 저장된 정보의 조작을 허용한다고 가정하여 두 가지 형태의 기억을 구별하는 반면 단기 기억은 정보의 단기 저장만을 의미한다고 가정한다.[4][6]작업 기억은 인지 심리학, 신경 심리학(neuropsychology) 및 신경 과학의 중심이 되는 이론적 개념이다.

같이 보기편집

참고편집

  1. 열심히 해도 성적 안오른다면? … ‘작업기억’ 훈련해야 Archived 2013년 11월 10일 - 웨이백 머신13-10-23《조세일보 헬스Q》박정환
  2. 우리말샘- 작업기억등
  3. Miyake, A.; Shah, P., 편집. (1999). 《Models of working memory. Mechanisms of active maintenance and executive control》. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-58325-X. 
  4. Diamond A (2013). “Executive functions”. 《Annu Rev Psychol》 64: 135–168. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750. PMC 4084861. PMID 23020641. WM (holding information in mind and manipulating it) is distinct from short-term memory (just holding information in mind). They cluster onto separate factors in factor analyses of children, adolescents, and adults (Alloway et al. 2004, Gathercole et al. 2004). They are linked to different neural subsystems. WM relies more on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas maintaining information in mind but not manipulating it [as long as the number of items is not huge (suprathreshold)] does not need involvement of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (D’Esposito et al. 1999, Eldreth et al. 2006, Smith & Jonides 1999). Imaging studies show frontal activation only in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex for memory maintenance that is not suprathreshold.

    WM and short-term memory also show different developmental progressions; the latter develops earlier and faster.
     
  5. Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). 〈Chapter 13: Higher Cognitive Function and Behavioral Control〉. Sydor A, Brown RY. 《Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience》 2판. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. 313–321쪽. ISBN 978-0-07-148127-4.  • Executive function, the cognitive control of behavior, depends on the prefrontal cortex, which is highly developed in higher primates and especially humans.
     • Working memory is a short-term, capacity-limited cognitive buffer that stores information and permits its manipulation to guide decision-making and behavior. ...
    working memory may be impaired in ADHD, the most common childhood psychiatric disorder seen in clinical settings ... ADHD can be conceptualized as a disorder of executive function; specifically, ADHD is characterized by reduced ability to exert and maintain cognitive control of behavior. Compared with healthy individuals, those with ADHD have diminished ability to suppress inappropriate prepotent responses to stimuli (impaired response inhibition) and diminished ability to inhibit responses to irrelevant stimuli (impaired interference suppression). ... Early results with structural MRI show thinning of the cerebral cortex in ADHD subjects compared with age-matched controls in prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex, areas involved in working memory and attention.
     
  6. Cowan, Nelson (2008). 《What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?》. 《Prog. Brain Res.》. Progress in Brain Research 169. 323–338쪽. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(07)00020-9. ISBN 978-0-444-53164-3. PMC 2657600. PMID 18394484.