틀링깃어

언어

틀링깃어(영어: Tlingit 클링킷, 클링깃[*], 틀링깃어: Lingít 린키트)는 알래스카 동남부와 캐나다 서부원주민틀링깃족의 언어이다. 나데네어족의 한 갈래를 이룬다.

틀링깃어
Lingít
사용 국가 미국, 캐나다
사용 지역 알래스카주, 브리티시컬럼비아주, 유콘주, 워싱턴주
사용 민족 틀링깃족
언어 인구 1360명 (부족 인구의 9%)
미국 1240명 (2009-2013년)[1]
캐나다 120명 (2016년)[2]
문자 로마자
언어 계통 (데네예니세이어족?)
 나데네어족
  틀링깃어
공용어 및 표준
공용어로 쓰는 나라 알래스카주의 기 알래스카주
언어 부호
ISO 639-2 tli
ISO 639-3 tli
글로톨로그 tlin1245[3]
틀링깃어 사용 지역
틀링깃어 사용 지역

음운론편집

자음편집

다음 표에는 틀링깃어의 자음 음소를 일반적인 철자법과 국제 음성 기호로 나타내었다. 지위가 약한 음소는 괄호 안에 넣었다.

양순음 치경음 경구개음 연구개음 구개수음 성문음
중설음 설측음 기본 순음화 기본 순음화 기본 순음화
파열음 무기음 d [t] g [k] gw [kʷ] gh [q] ghw [qʷ] . [ʔ] (.w [ʔʷ])
유기음 t [tʰ] k [kʰ] kw [kʷʰ] kh [qʰ] khw [qʷʰ]
방출음 t' [tʼ] k' [kʼ] k'w [kʷʼ] kh' [qʼ] kh'w [qʷʼ]
파찰음 무기음 dz [ts] dl [tɬ] j [tʃ]
유기음 ts [tsʰ] tl [tɬʰ] ch [tʃʰ]
방출음 ts' [tsʼ] tl' [tɬʼ] ch' [tʃʼ]
마찰음 무성음 s [s] l [ɬ] sh [ʃ] x [x] xw [xʷ] xh [χ] xhw [χʷ] h [h] (hw [hʷ])
방출음 s' [sʼ] l' [ɬʼ] x' [xʼ] x'w [xʷʼ] xh' [χʼ] xh'w [χʷʼ]
비음 (m [m]) n [n]
접근음 (ll [l]) y [j] (ÿ [ɰ]) w [w]

각주편집

  1. Bureau, US Census. “Detailed Languages Spoken at Home and Ability to Speak English”. 《www.census.gov》 (영어). 2017년 11월 1일에 확인함. 
  2. “Census in Brief: The Aboriginal languages of First Nations people, Métis and Inuit”. 《www12.statcan.gc.ca》 (영어). Statistics Canada. 2017년 11월 1일에 확인함. 
  3. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, 편집. (2019). 〈Tlingit〉. 《Glottolog 4.1》. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 

참고문헌편집

  • Beck, David. (2001). "Conventionality and lexical classes", pp. 19–26 in Proceedings of WSCLA 5: The Workshop on Structure and Constituency in Languages of the Americas, Gessner, Suzanne; Oh, Sunyoung; & Shiobara, Kayono (eds.). Volume 5 of Working Papers in Linguistics. University of British Columbia: Vancouver, British Columbia.
  • Bird, Sonya. (2001). "What is a word? Evidence from a computational approach to Navajo verbal morphology", pp. 27–35 in Proceedings of WSCLA 5: The Workshop on Structure and Constituency in Languages of the Americas, Gessner, Suzanne; Oh, Sunyoung; & Shiobara, Kayono (eds.). Volume 5 of Working Papers in Linguistics. University of British Columbia: Vancouver, British Columbia.
  • Boas, Franz. (1917). Grammatical notes on the language of the Tlingit Indians. University of Pennsylvania Museum anthropological publications.
  • Cable, Seth. (2004). A metrical analysis of syncope in Tlingit. Manuscript. [1]
  • Dauenhauer, Nora M.; & Dauenhauer, Richard (Eds.). (1987). Haa Shuká, Our Ancestors. Number 1 in Classics of Tlingit Oral Literature. University of Washington & Sealaska Heritage Foundation: Seattle, Washington.
  • ——— (1990). Haa Tuwunáagu Yís, For Healing Our Spirit. Number 2 in Classics of Tlingit Oral Literature. University of Washington & Sealaska Heritage Foundation: Seattle, Washington.
  • ——— (Eds.). (1994). Haa K̲usteeyí, Our Culture: Tlingit life stories. Number 3 in Classics of Tlingit Oral Literature. University of Washington & Sealaska Heritage Foundation: Seattle, Washington.
  • ——— (Eds.). (1995). "A Tlingit ceremonial speech by Willie Marks", pp. 239–244 in Dürr, M; Renner, E.; & Oleschinski, W. (Eds.), Language and Culture in Native North America: Studies in honor of Heinz-Jürgen Pinnow. Number 2 in LINCOM Studies in Native American Linguistics. LINCOM: Munich, Germany. ISBN 3-89586-004-2.
  • ——— (2000). Beginning Tlingit, 4th ed. Sealaska Heritage Foundation Press: Juneau, Alaska. ISBN 0-9679311-1-8. First edition 1994.
  • ——— (2002). Lingít X̲'éinax̲ Sá! Say it in Tlingit: A Tlingit phrase book. Sealaska Heritage Institute: Juneau, Alaska. ISBN 0-9679311-1-8.
  • ——— (2002). Intermediate Tlingit (draft). Manuscript.
  • Dauenhauer, Richard. (1974). Text and context of Tlingit oral tradition. PhD dissertation. University of Wisconsin: Madison, Wisconsin.
  • Dryer, Matthew. (1985). "Tlingit: An object-initial language?", Canadian Journal of Linguistics 30:1–13.
  • Goddard, Pliny Earle. (1920). "Has Tlingit a genetic relationship to Athapascan", International Journal of American Linguistics 1:266–279.
  • Leer, Jeffery A. (1979). Proto-Athabaskan Verb Stem Variation, Part One: Phonology. Volume 1 in Alaska Native Language Center Research Papers. Alaska Native Language Center: Fairbanks, Alaska.
  • ——— (1990). Tlingit: A portmanteau language family? In P. Baldi (Ed.), Linguistics change and reconstruction methodology (pp. 73–98). Mouton de Gruyter: Berlin, Germany.
  • ——— (1991). The Schetic Categories of the Tlingit verb. PhD dissertation. University of Chicago Department of Linguistics: Chicago, Illinois.
  • ——— (2000). "The negative/irrealis category in Athabaskan–Eyak–Tlingit", ch. 6 pp. 101–138 in The Athabaskan Languages: Perspectives on a Native American Language Family, Fernald, Theodore B. & Platero, Paul R. (eds.). Volume 24 in Oxford Studies in Anthropological Linguistics. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England. ISBN 0-19-511947-9.
  • Leer, Jeff; Hitch, David; & Ritter, John. (2001). Interior Tlingit Noun Dictionary: The dialects spoken by Tlingit elders of Carcross and Teslin, Yukon, and Atlin, British Columbia. Yukon Native Language Center: Whitehorse, Yukon. ISBN 1-55242-227-5.
  • Maddieson, Ian; Smith, Caroline L.; & Bessell, Nicola. (2001). Aspects of the phonetics of Tlingit. Anthropological Linguistics 43(2): 135–176.
  • Naish, Constance M. (1966). A syntactic study of Tlingit. Master's dissertation. University of North Dakota.
  • Naish, Constance M.; & Story, Gillian L. (1973). Tlingit verb dictionary. Summer Institute of Linguistics: College, Alaska. ISBN 0-933769-25-3
  • ——— (1996). The English-Tlingit dictionary: Nouns (3rd ed.; H. Davis & J. Leer, Eds.). Sheldon Jackson College: Sitka, Alaska. (Revision of the Naish-Story dictionary of 1963.)
  • Pinnow, Heinz-Jürgen. (1962). "Two problems of the historical phonology of Na-Dene languages". International Journal of American Linguistics, 28:162–166.
  • ——— (1966). Grundzüge einer historischen Lautlehre des Tlingit: ein Versuch. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
  • ——— (1976). Geschichte der Na-Dene-Forschung. (Indiana : Beihefte ; 5). Berlin: Mann. ISBN 3-7861-3027-2
  • Swanton, John. (1911). "Tlingit", pp. 159–204 in Handbook of American Indian Languages. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.
  • Swanton, John Reed (1909). 《Tlingit myths and texts》. Govt. Printing Office. 2012년 8월 26일에 확인함. 

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