사용자:배우는사람/문서:Flood myth

"The Deluge", frontispiece to Gustave Doré's illustrated edition of the Bible. Based on the story of Noah's Ark, this shows humans and a tiger doomed by the flood futilely attempting to save their children and cubs.

A flood myth or deluge myth is a symbolic narrative in which a great flood is sent by a deity, or deities, to destroy civilization in an act of divine retribution (응징). Parallels are often drawn between the flood waters of these myths and the primeval waters found in certain creation myths, as the flood waters are described as a measure for the cleansing of humanity, in preparation for rebirth. Most flood myths also contain a culture hero, who strives to ensure this rebirth.[1] The flood myth motif is widespread among many cultures as seen in the Mesopotamian flood stories, the Puranas, Deucalion in Greek mythology, the Genesis flood narrative, and in the lore of the K'iche' and Maya peoples of Central America, and the Muisca people in South America.



"The Deluge", by John Martin, 1834. Oil on canvas. Yale University

The Mesopotamian flood stories concern the epics of Ziusudra, Gilgamesh, and Atrahasis. In the Sumerian King List, it relies on the flood motif to divide its history into preflood and postflood periods. The preflood kings had enormous lifespans, whereas postflood lifespans were much reduced. The Sumerian flood myth found in the Deluge tablet was the epic of Ziusudra, who heard the Divine Counsel to destroy humanity, in which he constructed a vessel that delivered him from great waters.[2] In the Atrahasis version, the flood is a river flood.[3]

Assyriologist George Smith translated the Babylonian account of the Great Flood in the 19th Century. Further discoveries produced several versions of the Mesopotamian flood myth, with the account that is closest to that in Genesis 6–9 found in a 700 BC Babylonian copy of the Epic of Gilgamesh. In this work, the hero, Gilgamesh, meets the immortal man, Utnapishtim, and the latter describes how the god, Ea, instructed him to build a huge vessel in anticipation of a deity-created flood that would destroy the world; the vessel was not only intended for Utnapishtim, but was built to also protect his family, his friends and animals.[4]

In Hindu mythology, texts such as the Satapatha Brahmana mention the puranic story of a great flood,[5] wherein the Matsya Avatar of Vishnu warns the first man, Manu, of the impending flood, and also advises him to build a giant boat.[6][7][8]

In the Genesis flood narrative, Yahweh decides to flood the earth because of the depth of the sinful state of mankind. Righteous Noah is given instructions to build an ark. When the ark is completed, Noah, his family, and representatives of all the animals of the earth are called upon to enter the ark. When the destructive flood begins, all life outside of the ark perishes. After the waters recede, all those aboard the ark disembark and have God's promise that He will never judge the earth with a flood again. He gives the rainbow as the sign of this promise.[9]

List of flood myths편집

A Flood myth or deluge myth is a mythical story of a great flood usually sent by a deity or deities to destroy civilization as an act of divine retribution. Flood myths are common across a wide range of cultures.

West Asia and Europe편집

Ancient Near East편집

Sumerian creation myth and flood myth: Zi-ud-sura편집

The earliest record of the Sumerian creation myth and flood myth is found on a single fragmentary tablet excavated in Nippur, sometimes called the Eridu Genesis. It is written in the Sumerian language and dated to around 1600 BC during the first Babylonian dynasty, where the language of writing and administration was still Sumerian. Other Sumerian creation myths from around this date are called the Barton Cylinder, the Debate between sheep and grain and the Debate between Winter and Summer, also found at Nippur.[10]


Where the tablet picks up, the gods An, Enlil, Enki and Ninhursanga create the black-headed people and create comfortable conditions for the animals to live and procreate. Then kingship descends from heaven and the first cities are founded: Eridu, Bad-tibira, Larsa, Sippar, and Shuruppak.

After a missing section in the tablet, we learn that the gods have decided not to save mankind from an impending flood. Zi-ud-sura, the king and gudug priest, learns of this. In the later Akkadian version, Ea, or Enki in Sumerian, the god of the waters, warns the hero (Atra-hasis in this case) and gives him instructions for the ark. This is missing in the Sumerian fragment, but a mention of Enki taking counsel with himself (자기 혼자서 생각하다, 신중히 생각하다) suggests that this is Enki's role in the Sumerian version as well.

When the tablet resumes it is describing the flood. A terrible storm rocks (요동시키다) the huge boat for seven days and seven nights, then Utu (the Sun god) appears and Zi-ud-sura creates an opening in the boat, prostrates himself, and sacrifices oxen and sheep.

After another break the text resumes: the flood is apparently over, the animals disembark and Zi-ud-sura prostrates himself before An (sky-god) and Enlil (chief of the gods), who give him eternal life and take him to dwell in Dilmun for "preserving the animals and the seed of mankind". The remainder of the poem is lost.[11]


Two flood myths with many similarities to the Sumerian story are the Utnapishtim episode in the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Genesis flood narrative found in the Bible. The ancient Greeks have two very similar floods legends they are the Deucalion and The great Flood in Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid.

Ziusudra and Xisuthros

Zi-ud-sura is known to us from the following sources:

  • From the Sumerian Flood myth discussed above.
  • In reference to his immortality in some versions of The Death of Gilgamesh[12]
  • Again in reference to his immortality in The Poem of Early Rulers[13]
  • As Xisuthros (or Xisouthros, Ξίσουθρος) in Berossus' Hellenistic account of the Ancient Near East Flood myth, preserved in later excerpts.
Xisuthros was also included in Berossus' king list, also preserved in later excerpts.
  • As Ziusudra in the WB-62 recension of the Sumerian king list. This text diverges from all other extant king lists by listing the city of Shuruppak as a king, and including Ziusudra as "Shuruppak's" successor.[14]
  • A later version of a document known as The Instructions of Shuruppak[15] refers to Ziusudra.[16]

In both of the late-dated king lists cited above, the name Zi-ud-sura was inserted immediately before a flood event included in all versions of the Sumerian king list, apparently creating a connection between the ancient Flood myth and a historic flood mentioned in the king list. However, no other king list mentions Zi-ud-sura.

See also


External links

Flood story from the Akkadian Epic of Atrahasis편집

Atra-Hasis ("exceedingly wise") is the protagonist of an 18th century BCE Akkadian epic recorded in various versions on clay tablets. The Atra-Hasis tablets include both a creation myth and a flood account, which is one of three surviving Babylonian deluge stories. The name "Atra-Hasis" also appears on one of the Sumerian king lists as king of Shuruppak in the times before a flood.

The oldest known copy of the epic tradition concerning Atrahasis[17] can be dated by colophon (scribal identification) to the reign of Hammurabi’s great-grandson, Ammi-Saduqa (1646–1626 BCE), but various Old Babylonian fragments exist; it continued to be copied into the first millennium BCE. The Atrahasis story also exists in a later fragmentary Assyrian version, having been first rediscovered in the library of Ashurbanipal, but, because of the fragmentary condition of the tablets and ambiguous words, translations had been uncertain. Its fragments were assembled and translated first by George Smith as The Chaldean Account of Genesis; the name of its hero was corrected to Atra-Hasis by Heinrich Zimmern in 1899.

In 1965 W. G. Lambert and A. R. Millard[18] published many additional texts belonging to the epic, including an Old Babylonian copy (written around 1650 BCE) which is our most complete surviving recension of the tale. These new texts greatly increased knowledge of the epic and were the basis for Lambert and Millard’s first English translation of the Atrahasis epic in something approaching entirety.[19] A further fragment has been recovered in Ugarit. Walter Burkert[20] traces the model drawn from Atrahasis to a corresponding passage, the division by lots of the air, underworld and sea among Zeus, Hades and Poseidon in the Iliad, in which “a resetting through which the foreign framework still shows”.

In its most complete surviving version, the Atrahasis epic is written on three tablets in Akkadian, the language of ancient Babylon.[21]


틀:Refimprove section

Cuneiform tablet with the Atra-Hasis Epic in the British Museum

Tablet I contains a creation myth about the Sumerian gods Anu, Enlil, and Enki, gods of sky, wind, and water, “when gods were in the ways of men” according to its incipit. Following the Cleromancy (casting of lots), sky is ruled by Anu, earth by Enlil, and the freshwater sea by Enki. Enlil assigned junior divines[22] to do farm labor and maintain the rivers and canals, but after forty years the lesser gods or dingirs rebelled and refused to do strenuous labor. Instead of punishing the rebels, Enki, who is also the kind, wise counselor of the gods, suggested that humans be created to do the work. The mother goddess Mami is assigned the task of creating humans by shaping clay figurines mixed with the flesh and blood of the slain god Geshtu-E, “a god who had intelligence” (his name means “ear” or “wisdom”).[23] All the gods in turn spit upon the clay. After ten months, a specially made womb breaks open and humans are born. Tablet I continues with legends about overpopulation and plagues. Atrahasis is mentioned at the end of Tablet I.

Tablet II begins with more overpopulation of humans and the god Enlil sending first famine and drought at formulaic intervals of 1200 years to reduce the population. In this epic Enlil is depicted as a nasty capricious god while Enki is depicted as a kind helpful god, perhaps because priests of Enki were writing and copying the story. Tablet II is mostly damaged, but ends with Enlil's decision to destroy humankind with a flood and Enki bound by an oath to keep the plan secret.

Tablet III of the Atrahasis Epic contains the flood story. This is the part that was adapted in the Epic of Gilgamesh, tablet XI. Tablet III of Atrahasis tells how the god Enki warns the hero Atrahasis (“Extremely Wise”) of Shuruppak, speaking through a reed wall (suggestive of an oracle) to dismantle his house (perhaps to provide a construction site) and build a boat to escape the flood planned by the god Enlil to destroy humankind. The boat is to have a roof “like Apsu” (a subterranean, fresh water realm presided over by the god Enki), upper and lower decks, and to be sealed with bitumen. Atrahasis boards the boat with his family and animals and seals the door. The storm and flood begin. Even the gods are afraid. After seven days the flood ends and Atrahasis offers sacrifices to the gods. Enlil is furious with Enki for violating his oath. But Enki denies violating his oath and argues: “I made sure life was preserved.” Enki and Enlil agree on other means for controlling the human population.

Atrahasis in History

A few general histories can be attributed to the Mesopotamian Atrahasis by ancient sources; these should generally be considered mythology but they do give an insight into the possible origins of the character. The Epic of Gilgamesh labels Atrahasis as the son of Ubara-Tutu, king of Shuruppak, on tablet XI, ‘Gilgamesh spoke to Utnapishtim (Atrahasis), the Faraway… O man of Shuruppak, son of Ubara-Tutu’.[24] The Instructions of Shuruppak instead label Atrahasis (under the name Ziusudra) as the son of the eponymous Shuruppak, who himself is labelled as the son of Ubara-Tutu.[25] At this point we are left with two possible fathers: Ubara-Tutu or Shuruppak. Many available tablets comprising The Sumerian King Lists support The Epic of Gilgamesh by omitting Shuruppak as a ruler of Shuruppak. These lists imply an immediate flood after or during the rule of Ubara-Tutu. These lists also make no mention of Atrahasis under any name.[26] However WB-62 lists a different and rather interesting chronology – here Atrahasis is listed as a ruler of Shuruppak and gudug priest, preceded by his father Shuruppak who is in turn preceded by his father Ubara-Tutu. WB-62 would therefore lend support to The Instructions of Shuruppak and is peculiar in that it mentions both Shuruppak and Atrahasis. In any event it seems that Atrahasis was of royal blood; whether he himself ruled and in what way this would affect the chronology is debatable.

Literary inheritance

The Epic of Atrahasis provides additional information on the flood and flood hero that is omitted in Gilgamesh XI and other versions of the Ancient Near East flood story. According to Atrahasis III ii.40–47 the flood hero was at a banquet when the storm and flood began: “He invited his people…to a banquet… He sent his family on board. They ate and they drank. But he (Atrahasis) was in and out. He could not sit, could not crouch, for his heart was broken and he was vomiting gall.”

The flood story in the standard edition of the Epic of Gilgamesh, Chapter XI may have been paraphrased or copied verbatim from a non-extant, intermediate version the Epic of Atrahasis.[27] But editorial changes were made, some of which had long-term consequences. The sentence quoted above from Atrahasis III iv, lines 6–7: “Like dragonflies they have filled the river.” was changed in Gilgamesh XI line 123 to: “Like the spawn of fishes, they fill the sea.” However, see comments above.

Other editorial changes were made to the Atrahasis text. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, anthropomorphic descriptions of the gods are weakened. For example, Atrahasis OB III, 30–31 “The Anunnaki (the senior gods) [were sitt]ing in thirst and hunger.” was changed in Gilgamesh XI, 113 to “The gods feared the deluge.” Sentences in Atrahasis III iv were omitted in Gilgamesh, e.g. “She was surfeited with grief and thirsted for beer” and “From hunger they were suffering cramp.”[28]

See also


  • W. G. Lambert and A. R. Millard, Atrahasis: The Babylonian Story of the Flood, Eisenbrauns, 1999, ISBN 1-57506-039-6.
  • Q. Laessoe, “The Atrahasis Epic, A Babylonian History of Mankind”, Biblioteca Orientalis 13 [1956] 90–102.
  • Jeffrey H. Tigay, The Evolution of the Gilgamesh Epic, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1982, ISBN 0-8122-7805-4.

External links

Babylonian (Epic of Gilgamesh) - Gilgamesh flood myth: Utnapishtim편집
Gilgamesh tablet XI
British Museum Flood Tablet.jpg
Flood tablet in Akkadian
SizeWidth: 15.24 cm (6.00 in)
Breadth: 13.33 cm (5.25 in)
Depth: 3.17 cm (1.25 in)
Created7th century BC
Present locationRoom 55, British Museum, London

The Gilgamesh flood myth is a flood myth in the Epic of Gilgamesh. Many scholars believe that the flood myth was added to Tablet XI in the "standard version" of the Gilgamesh Epic by an editor who utilized the flood story from the Epic of Atrahasis.[29] A short reference to the flood myth is also present in the much older Sumerian Gilgamesh poems, from which the later Babylonian versions drew much of their inspiration and subject matter.


Gilgamesh’s supposed historical reign is believed to have been approximately 2700 BCE,[30] shortly before the earliest known written stories. The discovery of artifacts associated with Aga and Enmebaragesi of Kish, two other kings named in the stories, has lent credibility to the historical existence of Gilgamesh.[31]

The earliest Sumerian Gilgamesh poems date from as early as the Third dynasty of Ur (2100–2000 BC).[32] One of these poems mentions Gilgamesh’s journey to meet the flood hero, as well as a short version of the flood story.[33] The earliest Akkadian versions of the unified epic are dated to ca. 2000–1500 BC.[34] Due to the fragmentary nature of these Old Babylonian versions, it is unclear whether they included an expanded account of the flood myth; although one fragment definitely includes the story of Gilgamesh’s journey to meet Utnapishtim. The “standard” Akkadian version included a long version of the flood story and was edited by Sin-liqe-unninni sometime between 1300 and 1000 BC.[35]

Tablet eleven (XI), the flood tablet, about Utnapishtim

The Gilgamesh flood tablet XI contains additional story material besides the flood. The flood story was included because in it the flood hero Utnapishtim is granted immortality by the gods and that fits the immortality theme of the Epic. The main point seems to be that Utnapishtim was granted eternal life in unique, never to be repeated circumstances. As if to demonstrate this point, Utnapishtim challenges Gilgamesh to stay awake for six days and seven nights. However, as soon as Utnapishtim finishes speaking Gilgamesh falls asleep. Utnapishtim instructs his wife to bake a loaf of bread for every day he is asleep so that Gilgamesh cannot deny his failure. Gilgamesh, who wants to overcome death, cannot even conquer sleep.

As Gilgamesh is leaving, Utnapishtim's wife asks her husband to offer a parting gift. Utnapishtim tells Gilgamesh of a boxthorn-like plant at the very bottom of the ocean that will make him young again. Gilgamesh obtains the plant by binding stones to his feet so he can walk on the bottom of the sea. He recovers the plant and plans to test it on an old man when he returns to Uruk. Unfortunately, when Gilgamesh stops to bathe it is stolen by a serpent that sheds its skin as it departs, apparently reborn. Gilgamesh, having failed both chances, returns to Uruk, where the sight of its massive walls provokes him to praise this enduring work of mortal men. The implication may be that mortals can achieve immortality through lasting works of civilization and culture.

Flood myth section, (first 2/3 of Tablet XI)

Lines 1-203, Tablet XI [36] (note: with supplemental sub-titles and line numbers added for clarity)

The god Ea leaks the secret plan

  1. Utnapishtim tells Gilgamesh a secret story that begins in the old city of Shuruppak on the banks of the Euphrates River.
  2. The "great gods" Anu, Enlil, Ninurta, Ennugi, and Ea were sworn to secrecy about their plan to cause the flood.
  3. But the god Ea (Sumerian god Enki) repeated the plan to Utnapishtim through a reed wall in a reed house.
  4. Ea commanded Utnapishtim to demolish his house and build a boat, regardless of the cost, to keep living beings alive.
  5. The boat must have equal dimensions with corresponding width and length and be covered over like Apsu boats.
  6. Utnapishtim promised to do what Ea commanded.
  7. He asked Ea what he should say to the city elders and the population.
  8. Ea tells him to say that Enlil has rejected him and he can no longer reside in the city or set foot in Enlil's territory.
  9. He should also say that he will go down to the Apsu "to live with my lord Ea".
  10. Note: 'Apsu' can refer to a fresh water marsh near the temple of Ea/Enki at the city of Eridu.[37]
  11. Ea will provide abundant rain, a profusion of fowl and fish, and a wealthy harvest of wheat and bread.

Building and launching the boat

  1. Carpenters, reed workers, and other people assembled one morning.
  2. [missing lines]
  3. Five days later, Utnapishtim laid out the exterior walls of the boat of 120 cubits.
  4. The sides of the superstructure had equal lengths of 120 cubits. He also made a drawing of the interior structure.
  5. The boat had six decks [?] divided into seven and nine compartments.
  6. Water plugs were driven into the middle part.
  7. Punting poles and other necessary things were laid in.
  8. Three times 3,600 units of raw bitumen were melted in a kiln and three times 3,600 units of oil were used in addition to two times 3,600 units of oil that were stored in the boat.
  9. Oxen and sheep were slaughtered and ale, beer, oil, and wine were distributed to the workmen, like at a new year's festival.
  10. When the boat was finished, the launching was very difficult. A runway of poles was used to slide the boat into the water.
  11. Two-thirds of the boat was in the water.
  12. Utnapishtim loaded his silver and gold into the boat.
  13. He loaded "all the living beings that I had."
  14. His relatives and craftsmen, and "all the beasts and animals of the field" boarded the boat.
  15. The time arrived, as stated by the god Shamash, to seal the entry door.

The storm

  1. Early in the morning at dawn a black cloud arose from the horizon.
  2. The weather was frightful.
  3. Utnapishtim boarded the boat and entrusted the boat and its contents to his boatmaster Puzurammurri who sealed the entry.
  4. The thunder god Adad rumbled in the cloud and storm gods Shullar and Hanish went over mountains and land.
  5. Erragal pulled out the mooring poles and the dikes overflowed.
  6. The Annunnaki gods lit up the land with their lightning.
  7. There was stunned shock at Adad's deeds which turned everything to blackness. The land was shattered like a pot.
  8. All day long the south wind blew rapidly and the water overwhelmed the people like an attack.
  9. No one could see his fellows. They could not recognize each other in the torrent.
  10. The gods were frightened by the flood, and retreated up to the Anu heaven. They cowered like dogs lying by the outer wall.
  11. Ishtar shrieked like a woman in childbirth.
  12. The Mistress of the Gods wailed that the old days had turned to clay because "I said evil things in the Assembly of the Gods, ordering a catastrophe to destroy my people who fill the sea like fish."
  13. The other gods were weeping with her and sat sobbing with grief, their lips burning, parched with thirst.
  14. The flood and wind lasted six days and six nights, flattening the land.
  15. On the seventh day, the storm was pounding [intermittently?] like a woman in labor.

Calm after the storm

  1. The sea calmed and the whirlwind and flood stopped. All day long there was quiet. All humans had turned to clay.
  2. The terrain was as flat as a roof top. Utnapishtim opened a window and felt fresh air on his face.
  3. He fell to his knees and sat weeping, tears streaming down his face. He looked for coastlines at the horizon and saw a region of land.
  4. The boat lodged firmly on mount Nimush which held the boat for several days, allowing no swaying.
  5. On the seventh day he released a dove which flew away, but came back to him. He released a swallow, but it also came back to him.
  6. He released a raven which was able to eat and scratch, and did not circle back to the boat.
  7. He then sent his livestock out in various directions.

The sacrifice

  1. He sacrificed a sheep and offered incense at a mountainous ziggurat where he placed 14 sacrificial vessels and poured reeds, cedar, and myrtle into the fire.
  2. The gods smelled the sweet odor of the sacrificial animal and gathered like flies over the sacrifice.
  3. Then the great goddess arrived, lifted up her flies (beads), and said
  4. "Ye gods, as surely as I shall not forget this lapis lazuli [amulet] around my neck, I shall be mindful of these days and never forget them! The gods may come to the sacrificial offering. But Enlil may not come, because he brought about the flood and annihilated my people without considering [the consequences]."
  5. When Enlil arrived, he saw the boat and became furious at the Igigi gods. He said "Where did a living being escape? No man was to survive the annihilation!"
  6. Ninurta spoke to Enlil saying "Who else but Ea could do such a thing? It is Ea who knew all of our plans."
  7. Ea spoke to Enlil saying "It was you, the Sage of the Gods. How could you bring about a flood without consideration?"
  8. Ea then accuses Enlil of sending a disproportionate punishment, and reminds him of the need for compassion.
  9. Ea denies leaking the god's secret plan to Atrahasis (= Utnapishtim), admitting only sending him a dream and deflecting Enlil's attention to the flood hero.

The flood hero and his wife are granted immortality and are transported far away

  1. He then boards a boat and grasping Utnapishtim's hand, helps him and his wife aboard where they kneel. Standing between Utnapishtim and his wife, he touches their foreheads and blesses them. "Formerly Utnapishtim was a human being, but now he and his wife have become gods like us. Let Utnapishtim reside far away, at the mouth of the rivers."
  2. Utnapishtim and his wife are transported and settled at the "mouth of the rivers".

Last third of Tablet XI-Outline

In addition to the flood story material, (lines 1–203), tablet XI contains the following flood story elements:

List of titled subparts, Tablet XI-(by Kovacs):[38]

The Story of the Flood–(1-203)
A Chance at Immortality–(204-240)
Home Empty-Handed–(241-265)
A Second Chance at Life–(266-309)

Comparison between Atrahasis and Gilgamesh

These are some of the sentences copied more or less directly from the Atrahasis version to the Gilgamesh epic:[39]

Atrahasis Epic Gilgamesh Epic, tablet XI
"Wall, listen to me." Atrahasis III,i,20 "Wall, pay attention" Gilgamesh XI,22
"Like the apsu you shall roof it" Atrahasis III,i,29 "Like the apsu you shall roof it" Gilgamesh XI,31
"I cannot live in [your city]" Atrahasis III,i,47 "I cannot live in your city" Gilgamesh XI,40
"Ninurta went forth making the dikes [overflow]" Atrahasis U rev,14 "Ninurta went forth making the dikes overflow" Gilgamesh XI,102
"One person could [not] see another" Atrahasis III,iii,13 "One person could not see another" Gilgamesh XI,111
"For seven days and seven nights came the storm" Atrahasis III,iv,24 "Six days and seven nights the wind and storm flood" Gilgamesh XI,127
"He offered [a sacrifice]" Atrahasis III,v,31 "And offered a sacrifice" Gilgamesh XI,155
"the lapis around my neck" Atrahasis III,vi,2 "the lapis lazuli on my neck" Gilgamesh XI,164
"How did man survive the destruction?" Atrahasis III,vi,10 "No man was to survive the destruction" Gilgamesh XI,173

Material altered or omitted

The Epic of Atrahasis provides additional information on the flood and flood hero that is omitted in Gilgamesh XI and other versions of the Ancient Near East flood myth. According to Atrahasis III ii, lines 40–47 the flood hero was at a banquet when the storm and flood began: "He invited his people ... to a banquet ... He sent his family on board. They ate and they drank. But he (Atrahasis) was in and out. He could not sit, could not crouch, for his heart was broken and he was vomiting gall."[40]

According to Tigay, Atrahasis tablet III iv, lines 6–9 clearly identify the flood as a local river flood: "Like dragonflies they [dead bodies] have filled the river. Like a raft they have moved in to the edge [of the boat]. Like a raft they have moved in to the riverbank." The sentence "Like dragonflies they have filled the river." was changed in Gilgamesh XI line 123 to "Like the spawn of fishes, they fill the sea."[41] Tigay holds that we can see the mythmaker's hand at work here, changing a local river flood into an ocean deluge.

Most other authorities interpret the Atrahasis flood as universal. A. R. George, and Lambert and Millard make it clear that the gods' intention in Atrahasis is to "wipe out mankind".[42] The flood destroys "all of the earth".[43] The use of a comparable metaphor in the Gilgamesh epic suggests that the reference to "dragonflies [filling] the river" is simply an evocative image of death rather than a literal description of the flood[44] However, the local river flood in Atrahasis could accomplish destruction of all "mankind" and "all of the earth" if the scope of "mankind" is limited to all of the people living on "all of the land" of the flood plains in the lower river valley known to the Atrahasis writer.

Other editorial changes were made to the Atrahasis text in Gilgamesh to lessen the suggestion that the gods may have experienced human needs. For example, Atrahasis OB III, 30–31 "The Anunnaki, the great gods [were sitt]ing in thirst and hunger" was changed in Gilgamesh XI, line 113 to "The gods feared the deluge." Sentences in Atrahasis III iv were omitted in Gilgamesh, e.g. "She was surfeited with grief and thirsted for beer" and "From hunger they were suffering cramp."[45]

These and other editorial changes to Atrahasis are documented and described in the book by Prof. Tigay (see below) who is associate professor of Hebrew and Semitic Languages and Literature in the University of Pennsylvania. Prof. Tigay comments: "The dropping of individual lines between others which are preserved, but are not synonymous with them, appears to be a more deliberate editorial act. These lines share a common theme, the hunger and thirst of the gods during the flood."[45]

Although the 18th century BC copy of the Atrahasis (Atra-Hasis) epic post-dates the early Gilgamesh epic, we do not know whether the Old-Akkadian Gilgamesh tablets included the flood story, because of the fragmentary nature of surviving tablets. Some scholars argue that they did not.[46] Tigay, for example, maintains that three major additions to the Gilgamesh epic, namely the prologue, the flood story (tablet XI), and tablet XII, were added by an editor or editors, possibly by Sin-leqi-unninni, to whom the entire epic was later attributed. According to this view, the flood story in tablet XI was based on a late version of the Atrahasis story.[47]

Alternative translations

As with most translations, especially from an ancient, dead language, scholars differ on the meaning of ambiguous sentences.

For example, line 57 in Gilgamesh XI is usually translated (with reference to the boat) "ten rods the height of her sides",[48] or "its walls were each 10 times 12 cubits in height".[49] A rod was a dozen cubits, and a Sumerian cubit was about 20 inches. Hence these translations imply that the boat was about 200 feet high, which would be impractical[50] with the technology in Gilgamesh's time (about 2700 BC).[51] There is no Akkadian word for "height" in line 57. The sentence literally reads "Ten dozen-cubits each I-raised its-walls."[52] A similar example from an unrelated house building tablet reads: "he shall build the wall [of the house] and raise it four ninda and two cubits." This measurement (about 83 feet) means wall length not height.[53]

Line 142 in Gilgamesh XI is usually translated "Mount Niṣir held the boat, allowing no motion." Niṣir is often spelled Nimush.[54] The Akkadian words translated "Mount Niṣir" are "KUR-ú KUR ni-ṣir".[55] The word KUR is capitalized because it was a Sumerian word and could mean hill or country.[56] The first KUR is followed by a phonetic complement which indicates that KUR-ú is to be read in Akkadian as šadú (hill) and not as mātu (country). Since šadú (hill) could also be translated as mountain in Akkadian and scholars knew the Biblical expression Mount Ararat, it has become customary to translate šadú as mountain or mount. The flood hero was Sumerian, according to the WB-62 Sumerian King List,[57] and in Sumerian the word KUR meant hill or country, not mountain. The second KUR lacks a phonetic complement and is therefore read in Akkadian as mātu (country). Hence, the entire clause reads "The hill/mound country niṣir held the boat".

Lines 146-147 in Gilgamesh XI are usually translated "I ... made sacrifice, incense I placed on the peak of the mountain."[58] Similarly "I poured out a libation on the peak of the mountain."[59] But Kovacs[60] provides this translation of line 156: "I offered incense in front of the mountain-ziggurat." Parpola provides the original Akkadian for this sentence: "áš-kun sur-qin-nu ina UGU ziq-qur-rat KUR-i"[61] Áš-kun means I-placed; sur-qin-nu means offering; ina-(the preposition) means on-(upon); UGU means top-of; ziq-qur-rat means temple tower; and KUR-i means hilly. Parpola's glossary (page 145) defines ziq-qur-rat as "temple tower, ziggurat" and refers to line 157 so he translates ziq-qur-rat as temple tower in this context. The sentence literally reads "I placed an offering on top of a hilly ziggurat." A ziggurat was an elevated platform or temple tower where priests made offerings to the temple god. Most translators of line 157 disregard ziq-qur-rat as a redundant metaphor for peak. There is no authority for this other than previous translations of line 157.[62] Kovacs' translation retains the word ziggurat on page 102.

One of the Sumerian cities with a ziggurat was Eridu located on the southern branch of the Euphrates River next to a large swampy low-lying depression known as the apsû.[63] The only ziggurat at Eridu was at the temple of the god Ea (Enki), known as the apsû-house.[64] In Gilgamesh XI, line 42 the flood hero said "I will go down [the river] to the apsû to live with Ea, my Lord."[65]

Lines 189–192 (lines 198–201) in Gilgamesh XI are usually translated "Then godEnlil came aboard the boat. He took hold of my hand and brought me on board. He brought aboard my wife and made her kneel at my side. Standing between us, he touched our foreheads to bless us."[66] In the first sentence "Then dingir-kabtu came aboard the boat" the Akkadian determinative dingir is usually translated as "god", but can also mean "priest"[67] Dingir-kabtu literally means "divine important-person".[68] Translating this as Enlil is the translator's conjecture.

See also


  • Tigay, Jeffrey H. (1982), 《The Evolution of the Gilgamesh Epic》, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, ISBN 0-8122-7805-4 
  • W. G. Lambert and A. R. Millard, Atrahasis: The Babylonian Story of the Flood, Eisenbrauns, 1999, ISBN 1-57506-039-6.
  • George, Andrew R., trans. & edit. (1999 (reprinted with corrections 2003), 《The Epic of Gilgamesh》, Penguin Books, ISBN 0-14-044919-1 
  • Kovacs, Maureen Gallery, transl. with intro. (1985,1989), 《The Epic of Gilgamesh》, Stanford University Press: Stanford, California, ISBN 0-8047-1711-7  Glossary, Appendices, Appendix (Chapter XII=Tablet XII). A line-by-line translation (Chapters I-XI).
  • Parpola, Simo, with Mikko Luuko, and Kalle Fabritius (1997), 《The Standard Babylonian, Epic of Gilgamesh》, The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, ISBN 951-45-7760-4  (Volume 1) in the original Akkadian cuneiform and transliteration. Commentary and glossary are in English
  • Heidel, Alexander (1946), 《The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels》, University of Chicago, ISBN 0-226-32398-6 
  • Bailey, Lloyd R. (1989), 《Noah, the Person and the Story》, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press, ISBN 0-87249-637-6 

External links

15: Early writing tablet
A History of the World in 100 Objects
Object 16
17: en:Rhind Mathematical Papyrus

Utnapishtim (or Utanapishtim) is a character in Gilgamesh epic who is asked by Enki, (Ea) to abandon his world possessions and create a giant ship to be called The Preserver of Life. He was also tasked with bringing his wife, family, and relatives along with the craftsmen of his village, baby animals and grains.[69] The oncoming flood would wipe out all animals and humans that were not on the ship, similar to that of the later Noah's Ark story. After twelve days on the water, Utanapishtim opened the hatch of his ship to look around and saw the slopes of Mount Nisir, where he rested his ship for seven days. On the seventh day, he sent a dove out to see if the water had receded, and the dove could find nothing but water, so it returned. Then he sent out a swallow, and just as before, it returned, having found nothing. Finally, Utanapishtim sent out a raven, and the raven saw that the waters had receded, so it circled around, but did not return. Utanapishtim then set all the animals free, and made a sacrifice to the gods. The gods came, and because he had preserved the seed of man while remaining loyal and trusting of his gods, Utanapishtim and his wife were given immortality, as well as a place among the heavenly gods.

Role in the epic

In the Epic, overcome with the death of his friend Enkidu, the hero Gilgamesh sets out on a series of journeys to search for his ancestor Utanapishtim (xisouthros) who lives at the mouth of the rivers and has been given eternal life. Utnapishtim counsels Gilgamesh to abandon his search for immortality but tells him about a plant that can make him young again. Gilgamesh obtains the plant from the bottom of a river but a snake steals it, and Gilgamesh returns home to the city of Uruk having abandoned hope of either immortality or renewed youth.

See also

Classical Antiquity편집

Ancient Greek flood myths편집

Greek mythology describes three floods, the flood of Ogyges, the flood of Deucalion, and the flood of Dardanus. Two of the Greek Ages of Man concluded with a flood: The Ogygian Deluge ended the Silver Age, and the flood of Deucalion ended the First Bronze Age (Heroic age). In addition to these floods, Greek mythology says the world was also periodically destroyed by fire. See Phaëton.

Flood of Ogyges편집
"Many great deluges have taken place during the nine thousand years, for that is the number of years which have elapsed since the time of which I am speaking; and during all of this time and through so many changes, there has never been any considerable accumulation of the soil coming down from the mountains, as in other places, but the earth has fallen away all round and sunk out of sight. The consequence is, that in comparison of what then was, there are remaining only the bones of the wasted body, as they may be called, as in the case of small islands, all the richer and softer parts of the soil having fallen away, and the mere skeleton of the land being left."
Plato’s Critias (111b)[70]

The Ogygian flood is so called because it occurred in the time of Ogyges,[71] a mythical king of Attica. The name "Ogyges" and "Ogygian" is synonymous with "primeval", "primal" and "earliest dawn". Others say he was the founder and king of Thebes. In many traditions the Ogygian flood is said to have covered the whole world and was so devastating that Attica remained without kings until the reign of Cecrops.[72]

Plato in his Laws, Book III,[73] argues that this flood had occurred ten thousand years[74] before his time, as opposed to only "one or two thousand years that have elapsed" since the discovery of music, and other inventions. Also in Timaeus (22) and in Critias (111-112) he describes the "great deluge of all" as having been preceded by 9,000 years of history before the time of his contemporary Solon, during the 10th millennium BCE. In addition, the texts report that "many great deluges have taken place during the nine thousand years" since Athens and Atlantis were preeminent.[75]

Flood of Deucalion편집

The Deucalion legend as told by the Bibliotheca has some similarity to other deluge myths such as the Epic of Gilgamesh and the story of Noah's Ark. The titan Prometheus advised his son Deucalion to build a chest. All other men perished except for a few who escaped to high mountains. The mountains in Thessaly were parted, and all the world beyond the Isthmus and Peloponnese was overwhelmed. Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha, after floating in the chest for nine days and nights, landed on Parnassus. An older version of the story told by Hellanicus has Deucalion's "ark" landing on Mount Othrys in Thessaly. Another account has him landing on a peak, probably Phouka, in Argolis, later called Nemea. When the rains ceased, he sacrificed to Zeus. Then, at the bidding of Zeus, he threw stones behind him, and they became men, and the stones Pyrrha threw became women. The Bibliotheca gives this as an etymology for Greek Laos "people" as derived from laas "stone".[76] The Megarians told that Megarus, son of Zeus and a Sithnid nymph, escaped Deucalion's flood by swimming to the top of Mount Gerania, guided by the cries of cranes.[77]

Flood of Deucalion from The Theogony of the Bibliotheca'

According to the Theogony of the Bibliotheca, Prometheus moulded men out of water and earth and gave them fire which, unknown to Zeus, he had hidden in a stalk of fennel. When Zeus learned of it, he ordered Hephaestus to nail Prometheus to Mount Caucasus, a Scythian mountain. Prometheus was nailed to the mountain and kept bound for many years. Every day an eagle swooped on him and devoured the lobes of his liver, which grew by night. That was the penalty that Prometheus paid for the theft of fire until Hercules afterwards released him.

Prometheus had a son Deucalion. He reigning in the regions about Phthia, married Pyrrha, the daughter of Epimetheus and Pandora, the first woman fashioned by the gods. And when Zeus would destroy the men of the Bronze Age, Deucalion by the advice of Prometheus constructed a chest, and having stored it with provisions he embarked in it with Pyrrha. But Zeus by pouring heavy rain from heaven flooded the greater part of Greece, so that all men were destroyed, except a few who fled to the high mountains in the neighbourhood and Peloponnesus was overwhelmed. But Deucalion, floating in the chest over the sea for nine days and as many nights, drifted to Parnassus, and there, when the rain ceased, he landed and sacrificed to Zeus, the god of Escape. And Zeus sent Hermes to him and allowed him to choose what he would, and he chose to get men.

At the bidding of Zeus he took up stones and threw them over his head, and the stones Deucalion threw became men, and the stones Pyrrha threw became women. Hence people were called metaphorically people (Laos) from laas, "a stone." And Deucalion had children by Pyrrha, first Hellen, whose father some say was Zeus, and second Amphictyon, who reigned over Attica after Cranaus, and third a daughter Protogonia, who became the mother of Aethlius by Zeus. Hellen had Dorus, Xuthus, and Aeolus by a nymph Orseis. Those who were called Greeks he named Hellenes after himself, and divided the country among his sons. Xuthus received Peloponnese and begat Achaeus and Ion by Creusa, daughter of Erechtheus, and from Achaeus and Ion the Achaeans and lonians derive their names. Dorus received the country over against Peloponnese and called the settlers Dorians after himself.

Aeolus reigned over the regions about Thessaly and named the inhabitants Aeolians. He married Enarete, daughter of Deimachus, and begat seven sons, Cretheus, Sisyphus, Athamas, Salmoneus, Deion, Magnes, Perieres, and five daughters, Canace, Alcyone, Pisidice, Calyce, Perimede. Perimede had Hippodamas and Orestes by Achelous; and Pisidice had Antiphus and Actor by Myrmidon. Alcyone was married by Ceyx, son of Lucifer. These perished by reason of their pride, for he said that his wife was Hera, and she said that her husband was Zeus. But Zeus turned them into birds; her he made a kingfisher (alcyon) and him a gannet (ceyx).

Flood of Dardanus편집

This one has the same basic story line. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Dardanus left Pheneus in Arcadia to colonize a land in the North-East Aegean Sea. When the Dardanus' deluge occurred, the land was flooded and the mountain where he and his family survived formed the island of Samothrace. He left Samothrace on an inflated skin to the opposite shores of Asia Minor and settled on Mount Ida. Due to the fear of another flood, they refrained from building a city and lived in the open for fifty years. His grandson Tros eventually moved from the highlands down to a large plain, on a hill that had many rivers flowing down from Ida above. There he built a city, which was named Troy after him.[78]

Medieval Europe편집

Germanic: The Louse and the Flea편집

The Louse and the Flea or Little Louse and Little Flea is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, number 30.[79]

It is Aarne-Thompson type 2022, An Animal Mourns the Death of a Spouse,[80] and takes the form of a chain tale, sometimes known as a cumulative tale.


A louse and a flea are married until the louse drowns while brewing. The flea mourns, inspiring a door to ask why and start creaking, which inspires a broom to ask why and start sweeping -- through a sequence of objects until a spring overflows at the news and drowns them all.

External links

Irish: Lebor Gabála Érenn - Cessair편집


This book, according to Macalister's scheme, constitutes the first interpolation in the Liber Occupationis. Cessair is the granddaughter of the Biblical Noah, who advises her and her father, Bith, to flee to the western edge of the world on account of the impending Flood. They set out in three ships, but when they arrive in Ireland two of the ships are lost. The only survivors are Cessair, forty-nine other women, and three men (Cessair's husband Fintán mac Bóchra, her father Bith, and the pilot Ladra). The women are divided among the men, Fintán taking Cessair and sixteen women, Bith taking Cessair's companion Bairrfhind and sixteen women, and Ladra taking the remaining sixteen women. Ladra, however, soon dies (the first man to be buried on Irish soil). Forty days later the Flood ensues. Fintán alone survives by spending a year under the waters in a cave called "Fintán's Grave". Afterwards known as "The White Ancient", he lives for 5500 years after the Deluge and witnesses the later settlements of the island in the guises of a salmon, an eagle and a hawk.

Tower of Hercules (A Coruña, Galicia) rebuilt 2nd and 18th centuries: according to the Lebor Gabála Érenn, Breogán was the father of Ith, the leader of an expedition to Ireland from the Iberian Peninsula; from Breogán's Tower Ith first saw Ireland, 900 kilometres north

Lebor Gabála Érenn (The Book of the Taking of Ireland) is the Middle Irish title of a loose collection of poems and prose narratives recounting the mythical origins and history of the Irish from the creation of the world down to the Middle Ages. An important record of the folkloric history of Ireland, it was compiled and edited by an anonymous scholar in the 11th century, and might be described as a mélange of mythology, legend, history, folklore and Christian historiography. It is usually known in English as The Book of Invasions or The Book of Conquests, and in Modern Irish as Leabhar Gabhála Éireann or Leabhar Gabhála na hÉireann.


Purporting to be a literal and accurate account of the history of the Irish, Lebor Gabála Érenn (hereinafter abbreviated as LGE) may be seen as an attempt to provide the Irish with a written history comparable to that which the Israelites provided for themselves in the Old Testament. Drawing upon the pagan myths of Celtic Ireland — both Gaelic and pre-Gaelic — but reinterpreting them in the light of Judaeo-Christian theology and historiography, it describes how the island was subjected to a succession of invasions, each one adding a new chapter to the nation's history. Biblical paradigms provided the mythologers with ready-made stories which could be adapted to their purpose. Thus we find the ancestors of the Irish enslaved in a foreign land, or fleeing into exile, or wandering in the wilderness, or sighting the "Promised Land" from afar.

Four Christian works in particular seem to have had a significant bearing on the formation of LGE:

The pre-Christian elements, however, were never entirely effaced. One of the poems in LGE, for instance, recounts how goddesses from among the Tuatha Dé Danann took Gaelic husbands when the Gael invaded and colonised Ireland. Furthermore, the pattern of successive invasions which LGE preserves is curiously reminiscent of Timagenes of Alexandria's account of the origins of another Celtic people, the Gauls of continental Europe. Cited by the 4th-century historian Ammianus Marcellinus, Timagenes (1st century BC) describes how the ancestors of the Gauls were driven from their native lands in eastern Europe by a succession of wars and floods.[81]

Numerous fragments of Irish pseudohistory are scattered throughout the 7th and 8th centuries, but the earliest extant account is to be found in the Historia Brittonum or "History of the Britons," considered by some to have been written by the Welsh priest Nennius in 829-830. This text gives two separate accounts of early Irish history. The first consists of a series of successive colonisations from Iberia by the pre-Gaelic races of Ireland, all of which found their way into LGE. The second recounts the origins of the Gael themselves, and tells how they in turn came to be the masters of the country and the ancestors of all the Irish.

These two stories continued to be enriched and elaborated upon by Irish bards throughout the 9th century. In the 10th and 11th centuries, several long historical poems were written that were later incorporated into the scheme of LGE. However, most of the poems on which the original version of LGE was based were written by the following four poets:

It was late in the 11th century that a single anonymous scholar appears to have brought together these and numerous other poems and fitted them into an elaborate prose framework - partly of his own composition and partly drawn from older, no longer extant sources - which paraphrased and enlarged upon the verse. The result was the earliest version of LGE. It was written in Middle Irish, a form of Irish Gaelic used between 900 and 1200.

Textual variants and sources

From the beginning, LGE proved to be an enormously popular and influential document, quickly acquiring canonical status. Older texts were altered to bring their narratives into closer accord with its version of history, and numerous new poems were written and inserted into it. Within a century of its compilation there existed a plethora of copies and revisions, with as many as 136 poems between them. Five recensions of LGE are now extant, surviving in more than a dozen medieval manuscripts:

  • Míniugud (Min): this recension is closely related to the Second Redaction. It is probably older than the surviving MSS of that redaction, though not older than the now lost exemplar on which those MSS were based. The surviving sources are suffixed to copies of the Second Redaction.
  • Second Redaction (R²): survives in no less than seven separate texts, the best known of which is The Great Book of Lecan (1418).
  • O'Clery's Redaction (K): written in 1631 by Mícheál Ó Cléirigh, a Franciscan scribe and one of the Four Masters. Unlike the earlier versions of LGE, this redaction is in Early Modern Irish but was admitted as an independent redaction by Macalister because there are indications that the author had access to sources which are no longer extant and which were not used by the compilers of the other four redactions. The work was compiled in the convent of Lisgool, near Enniskillen. O'Clery was assisted by Gillapatrick O'Luinin and Peregrine O'Clery (Michael O Clery's third cousin once removed, and one of the Four Masters).

The following table summarizes the extant manuscripts that contain versions of LGE. Most of the abbreviations used are taken from R. A. S. Macalister's critical edition of the work (see references for details):

Sigla Manuscript Location Redactions Notes
A Stowe A.2.4 Royal Irish Academy A direct and poor copy of D
B The Book of Ballymote Royal Irish Academy B lost one folio after β, β¹ and β² were derived from it
β H.2.4 Trinity College, Dublin A transcript of B made in 1728 by Richard Tipper
β¹ H.1.15 Trinity College, Dublin A copy, made around 1745 by Tadgh Ó Neachtáin, of a lost transcript of B
β² Stowe D.3.2 Royal Irish Academy An anonymous copy of the same lost transcript of B
D Stowe D.4.3 Royal Irish Academy
E E.3.5. no. 2 Trinity College, Dublin
The Book of Fermoy Royal Irish Academy and are parts of one dismembered MS, F
Stowe D.3.1 Royal Irish Academy
H H.2.15. no. 1 Trinity College, Dublin
L The Book of Leinster Trinity College, Dublin
Λ The Book of Lecan Royal Irish Academy , Min First text of LGE in The Book of Lecan
M The Book of Lecan Royal Irish Academy Second text of LGE in The Book of Lecan
P P.10266 National Library of Ireland
R Rawl.B.512 Bodleian Library , Min Only the prose text is written out in full: the poems are truncated
Stowe D.5.1 Royal Irish Academy , Min , and are parts of one dismembered MS, V
Stowe D.4.1 Royal Irish Academy , Min
Stowe D.1.3 Royal Irish Academy , Min
23 K 32 Royal Irish Academy K Fair copy of the author Michael O Clery's autograph
  • K is contained in several paper manuscripts, but , the "authoritative autograph", takes precedence.[82]

Modern criticism

For many centuries LGE was accepted without question as an accurate and reliable account of the history of Ireland. As late as the 17th century, Geoffrey Keating drew on it while writing his history of Ireland, Foras Feasa ar Éirinn, and it was also used extensively by the authors of the Annals of the Four Masters. In 1905 Charles Squire defended the antiquity of these legends with this statement: "The scribes of the earlier Gaelic manuscripts very often found, in the documents from which they themselves were copying, words so archaic as to be unintelligible to the readers of their own period. To render them comprehensible, they were obliged to insert marginal notes which explained these obsolete words by reference to other manuscripts more ancient still".[83] Recently, however, the work has been subjected to greater critical scrutiny. One contemporary scholar has placed it in "the tradition of historical fabrication or pseudohistory";[84] another has written of its "generally spurious character" and has drawn attention to its many "fictions", while acknowledging that it "embodies some popular traditions.[85] The Irish archaeologist R. A. Stewart Macalister, who translated the work into English, was particularly dismissive of it: "There is not a single element of genuine historical detail, in the strict sense of the word, anywhere in the whole compilation".[86]

While scholars are still highly critical of the work, there is a general consensus that LGE does contain an account of the early history of Ireland, albeit a distorted one. The most contested claim in the work is the assertion that the Gaelic conquest took place in the remote past—around 1500 BC—and that all the inhabitants of Christian Ireland were descendants of these early Gaelic invaders. O'Rahilly, however, believed that the Gaelic conquest - depicted in LGE as the Milesian settlement - was the latest of the Celtic occupations of Ireland, taking place probably after 150 BC, and that many of Ireland's pre-Gaelic peoples continued to flourish for centuries after it.[87]

The British poet and mythologist Robert Graves may be cited as one of the relatively few modern scholars who did not share the scepticism of Macalister and O'Rahilly. In his seminal work The White Goddess (1948), Graves argued that ancient knowledge was transmitted orally from generation to generation by the druids of pre-literate Ireland. Taking issue with Macalister, with whom he corresponded on this and other matters, he declared some of LGE's traditions "archaeologically plausible".[88] The White Goddess itself has been the subject of critical and skeptical comment; nevertheless, it must be acknowledged that Graves did find some striking links between Celtic and Near Eastern mythology that are difficult to explain unless one is willing to accept that myths brought to Ireland centuries before the introduction of writing were preserved and transmitted accurately by word of mouth before being written down in the Christian Era.[89]

LGE was translated into French in 1884. The first complete English translation was made by R. A. Stewart Macalister between 1937 and 1942. It was accompanied by an apparatus criticus, Macalister's own notes and an introduction, in which he made clear his own view that LGE was a conflation of two originally independent works: a History of the Gaedil, modelled after the history of the Israelites as set forth in the Old Testament, and an account of several pre-Gaelic settlements of Ireland (to the historicity of which Macalister gave very little credence). The latter was then inserted into the middle of the other work, interrupting it at a crucial point of the narrative. Macalister theorized that the quasi-Biblical text had been a scholarly Latin work entitled Liber Occupationis Hiberniae ("The Book of the Taking of Ireland"), thus explaining why the Middle Irish title of LGE refers to only one "taking", while the text recounts more than half a dozen.


There now follows a brief outline of the text of LGE. The work can be divided into ten "books":


A retelling of the familiar Judaeo-Christian story of the creation, the fall of Man and the early history of the world. In addition to Genesis, the author draws upon several recondite works for many of his details (e.g. the Syriac Cave of Treasures), as well as the four Christian works mentioned earlier (i.e. The City of God, etc.).

Early history of the Gaels

A pseudo-Biblical account of the origin of the Gaels as the descendants of the Scythian prince Fénius Farsaid, one of seventy-two chieftains who built the Tower of Babel. His grandson Goídel Glas, whose mother is Scota, daughter of a Pharaoh of Egypt, creates the Irish language from the original seventy-two languages that arose at the time of the dispersal of the nations. His descendants, the Gaels, undergo a series of trials and tribulations that are clearly modelled on those with which the Israelites are tried in the Old Testament. They flourish in Egypt at the time of Moses and leave during the Exodus; they wander the world for four hundred and forty years before eventually settling in the Iberian Peninsula. There, Goídel's descendant Breogán founds a city called Brigantia, and builds a tower from the top of which his son Íth glimpses Ireland. Brigantia can probably be identified with Corunna, north-west Galicia, known as Brigantium in Roman times;[90] A Roman lighthouse there known as the Tower of Hercules has been claimed to have been built on the site of Breogán's tower.[91]


This book, according to Macalister's scheme, constitutes the first interpolation in the Liber Occupationis. Cessair is the granddaughter of the Biblical Noah, who advises her and her father, Bith, to flee to the western edge of the world on account of the impending Flood. They set out in three ships, but when they arrive in Ireland two of the ships are lost. The only survivors are Cessair, forty-nine other women, and three men (Cessair's husband Fintán mac Bóchra, her father Bith, and the pilot Ladra). The women are divided among the men, Fintán taking Cessair and sixteen women, Bith taking Cessair's companion Bairrfhind and sixteen women, and Ladra taking the remaining sixteen women. Ladra, however, soon dies (the first man to be buried on Irish soil). Forty days later the Flood ensues. Fintán alone survives by spending a year under the waters in a cave called "Fintán's Grave". Afterwards known as "The White Ancient", he lives for 5500 years after the Deluge and witnesses the later settlements of the island in the guises of a salmon, an eagle and a hawk.


Three hundred years after the Flood, Partholón, who, like the Gaels, is a descendant of Noah's son Japheth, settles in Ireland with his three sons and their people. After ten years of peace, war breaks out with the Fomorians, a race of evil seafarers led by Cichol Gricenchos. The Partholonians are victorious, but their victory is short-lived. In a single week, they are wiped out by a plague — five thousand men and four thousand women — and are buried on the Plain of Elta to the southwest of Dublin, in an area that is still called Tallaght, which means "plague grave". A single man survives the plague, Tuan mac Cairill, who (like Fintán mac Bóchra) survives for centuries and undergoes a succession of metamorphoses, so that he can act as a witness of later Irish history. This book also includes the story of Delgnat, Partholón's wife, who commits adultery with a henchman.


Thirty years after the extinction of the Partholonians, Ireland is settled by the people of Nemed, whose great-grandfather was a brother of Partholón's. During their occupation, the land is once again ravaged by the Fomorians and a lengthy war ensues. Nemed wins three great battles against the Fomorians, but after his death his people are subjugated by two Fomorian leaders, Morc and Conand. Eventually, however, they rise up and assault Conand's Tower on Tory Island. They are victorious, but an ensuing sea battle against Morc results in the destruction of both armies. A flood covers Ireland, wiping out most of the Nemedians. A handful of survivors are scattered to the four corners of the world.

Fir Bolg

One group of the seed of Nemed settled in Greece, where they were enslaved. Two hundred and thirty years after Nemed they flee and return to Ireland. There they separate into three nations: the Fir Bolg, Fir Domnann and the Fir Gálioin. They hold Ireland for just thirty-seven years before the invasion of the Tuatha Dé Danann.

Tuatha Dé Danann

The Tuatha Dé Danann are descendants of another group of the scattered seed of Nemed. They return to Ireland from the far north, where they have learned the arts of pagan magic and druidry, on or about May 1. They contest the ownership of Ireland with the Fir Bolg and their allies in the First Battle of Moytura (or Mag Tuired). The Tuatha Dé are victorious and drive the Fir Bolg into exile among the neighbouring islands. But Nuada, the king of the Tuatha Dé, loses his right arm in the battle and is forced to renounce his crown. For seven unhappy years the kingship is held by the half-Fomorian Bres before Nuada's physician Dian Cécht fashions for him a silver arm, and he is restored. War with the Fomorians breaks out and a decisive battle is fought: the Second Battle of Moytura. Nuada falls to Balor of the Evil Eye, but Balor's grandson, Lugh of the Long Arm, kills him and becomes king. The Tuatha Dé Danann enjoy one hundred and fifty years of unbroken rule.


The story of the Gaels, which was interrupted at the end of Book 2, is now resumed. Íth, who has spied Ireland from the top of Breogán's Tower, journeys to Ireland to investigate his discovery. There he is welcomed by the rulers, but jealous nobles kill him and his men return to Iberia with his body. The Milesians, or sons of his uncle Míl Espáine, set out to avenge his death and conquer the island. When they arrive in Ireland, they advance to Tara, the royal seat, to demand the kingship. On the way they are greeted in turn by three women, Banba, Fodla and Ériu, who are the queens of the three co-regents of the land. Each woman welcomes the Milesians and tells them that her name is the name by which the land is known, and asks that it remain so if the Milesians are victorious in battle. One of the Milesians, the poet Amergin, promises that it shall be so. At Tara they are greeted by the three kings of the Tuatha Dé Danann, who defend their claim to the joint kingship of the land. It is decided that the Milesians must return to their ships and sail out to sea to a distance of nine waves from the shore, so that the Tuatha Dé Danann may have a chance to mobilise their forces. But when the Milesians are "beyond nine waves", the druids of the Tuatha Dé Danann conjure up a ferocious storm. The Milesian fleet is driven out to sea but Amergin dispels the wind with his poetry. Of the surviving ships those of Éber land at Inber Scéine (the Shannon estuary) in the west of the country, while those of Érimón land at Inber Colptha (the mouth of the Boyne). In two ensuing battles at Sliabh Mis and Tailtiu, the Tuatha Dé Danann are defeated. They are eventually driven out and the lordship of Ireland is divided between Éber and Éremón.

Roll of the pagan kings of Ireland

Modelled on the Biblical Books of Kings, this book recounts the deeds of various kings of Ireland, most of them legendary or semi-legendary, from the time of Éber and Érimón to the early 5th century of the Christian era.

Roll of the Christian kings of Ireland

A continuation of the previous book. This book is the most accurate part of LGE, being concerned with historical kings of Ireland whose deeds and dates are preserved in contemporary written records.

O'Rahilly's interpretation

The manner in which Celtic-speaking peoples came to be in possession of the island of Ireland is still a matter of conjecture. However, four separate invasions or migrations were distinguished by the Celtic scholar T. F. O'Rahilly (see O'Rahilly's historical model; the dates given below are highly doubtful):

  • Pretanic - Between about 700 and 500 BC P-Celtic-speaking people colonised Britain and Ireland from the continent. There is no real evidence of an organised military invasion, but by the 6th century ancient Greek geographers knew these islands as "the Pretanic Isles". In Britain they were absorbed by later invaders, except in the extreme north, where they were known to the Romans as Picti, or "painted peoples." In Ireland their descendants — wherever they managed to preserve some measure of cultural, if not political, independence — were known as the Cruthin, a Gaelic or Q-Celtic form of Priteni, which is believed to be their original name for themselves. The name "Britain" is thought to be derived from Priteni.
  • Bolgic or Ernean - The Builg or Érainn were various names of another P-Celtic-speaking people who invaded Ireland around 500 BC. They might be linked with the continental Belgae, and of the same stock as the Britons. According to their own traditions, they came to Ireland via Britain. In Irish pseudohistory they appear as the Fir Bolg, a name which was variously interpreted as meaning "men of bags" (Latin viri bulgarum) or "belly men", though "men of the thunderbolt" would probably be more accurate.
  • Laginian - Around 300 BC three closely related tribes arrived in Ireland, known as the Laigin, the Domnainn and the Gálioin. They are speculated to have been P-Celtic-speaking tribes from Armorica (Brittany). In Ireland they conquered the southeastern quarter of the country — which became known as Laighean, or Leinster, after them — and the west (Connacht). The Érainn, however, would have remained in control of the north and south. This is perhaps how Ireland first came to be divided into four provinces. Some of these tribes also settled in Britain (possibly from Ireland). In the southwest the Domnainn (Latin: Dumnonii) gave their name to Devon, while in the northwest they founded Dumbarton and the Kingdom of Strathclyde.
  • Goidelic or Gaelic - Around 100 BC a Q-Celtic-speaking people invaded Ireland, traditionally said to be people from north-western Iberia where Gallaecian was spoken although O'Rahilly favoured Aquitania, in southwest Gaul. They arrived in two separate contingents: the Connachta, who landed at the mouth of the Boyne and carved out a fifth province for themselves (later known as Meath) around Tara between Ulster and Leinster; and the Eoganachta, who insinuated themselves into Munster and gradually became the dominant force in the south of the country. Goidel — or Gael — may have originated as a P-Celtic name that the native population gave to these invaders, but in any event they themselves adopted the name.

So how is this reconstruction of the history reflected in LGE? To begin with, if the Cruthin had an invasion myth, no trace of it remains in LGE, which supports the belief that their colonisation of the country was a lengthy process of gradual migration. And the first two "takings" of Ireland — those of Cessair and Partholón — seem to be wholly fanciful, with no direct historical value at all.

The next taking, however, that of the Nemedians, may well have been a mythologised version of the historical Bolgic invasion of the 5th or 6th century BC. This belief is supported by many details in the text of LGE, a discussion of which is beyond the scope of this article.

The next two takings would also seem to have a historical basis. We can identify the Fir Bolg and their allies with the Érainn again, invading the country for a second time because their ancestors the Nemedians were portrayed as having abandoned the country (which the historical Érainn probably never did). The Tuatha Dé Danann might be a wholly mythical people who have been substituted for the historical Lagin, Domnainn and Gálioin. It has been suggested that this confused state of affairs arose because the Laginian invasion was not a true taking, since the Laginians only conquered about half the country. Nevertheless, the First Battle of Moytura probably does reflect an historical victory of the Lagin over the Érainn in County Sligo (the location of two townlands known as West and East Moytirra), by virtue of which the Lagin conquered the western province. The Second Battle of Moytura, however, would then have been entirely fictional, as most likely were the Fomorians.

The Milesian invasion is clearly a semi-legendary version of the historical Goidelic invasion. Éber and Éremón (whose names mean simply "Irishman" and "Ireland", respectively) have replaced the historical leaders of the Eoganachta and Connachta respectively. In the case of Éber, the allusion may be to Iberia, an ancient name for the Iberian Peninsula, whence doubtless warriors of Celtiberian stock originated and emigrated to Ireland. The name of their father Míl Espáne is similarly derived from the Latin Miles Hispaniae, "a soldier of Hispania."[92] O'Rahilly, however, believed that the Goidelic invaders of Ireland came from south-western Gaul and not Iberia. See O'Rahilly (1946) for further discussion.

The Roll of the Kings before the Introduction of Christianity contains much that is of interest to historians, but a lot of it is confused and bowdlerised. For example, the story of Túathal Techtmar, who is depicted as a High King of Ireland in the early 2nd century of the Christian era, is thought to be another version of the Goidelic invasion, Túathal Techtmar being in reality the historical antecedent of Éremón. Éber's real antecedent, Mug Nuadat, would then be similarly displaced. There are also doublets of the Bolgic and Laginian invasions in the stories of two other kings, Lugaid mac Dáire and Labraid Loingsech. These bowdlerisations may have been politically motivated: by providing the pre-Gaelic peoples of the island with pedigrees going back to Míl, the Gaels hoped to deny them any prior claim to the country, and so justify the Gaelic conquest.

As mentioned earlier, The Roll of the Kings after the Introduction of Christianity is the most accurate part of LGE. For the most part, these kings are familiar to us from other sources. It should also be pointed out that whereas the first eight books of LGE are usually regarded as part of the Early Mythological Cycle, the last two books are properly assigned to the Historical Cycle.

See also



  • Lebor Gabála Érenn, original text edited and translated by R A Stewart Macalister, D. Litt


  • O'Rahilly, T.F. Early Irish History and Mythology. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1946.
  • Scowcroft, R.M. "Leabhar Gabhála Part I: The growth of the text’, Ériu 36 (1987). 79–140.
  • Scowcroft, R.M. "Leabhar Gabhála Part II: The growth of the tradition." Ériu 39 (1988). 1–66.

Further reading

  • Carey, John. "Lebor Gabála and the Legendary History of Ireland." In Medieval Celtic Literature and Society, ed. Helen Fulton. Dublin: Four Courts, 2005. pp. 32–48.
  • Carey, John. A new introduction to Lebor Gabála Érenn. The Book of the taking of Ireland, edited and translated by R.A. Stewart Macalister. Dublin: Irish Texts Society, 1993.
  • Carey, John. The Irish National Origin-Legend: Synthetic Pseudohistory. Quiggin Pamphlets on the Sources of Mediaeval Gaelic History. 1994.
  • Ó Buachalla, Liam. "The Lebor Gabala or book of invasions of Ireland." Journal of the Cork Historical & Archaeological Society 67 (1962): 70-9.
  • Ó Concheanainn, Tomás. "Lebor Gabála in the Book of Lecan." In A Miracle of Learning. Studies in Manuscripts and Irish Learning. Essays in Honour of William O'Sullivan, ed. Toby Barnard et al. Aldershot and Bookfield: Ashgate, 1998. 40-51.

External links

The Mythological Cycle [93][94] is a somewhat outdated coined term[95] still used to refer collectively to an ancient literary tradition that concerns the godlike peoples who allegedly arrived in five migratory invasions into Ireland and principally recounts the doings of the Tuatha Dé Danann.[96]

It comprises one of the four major cycles of early Irish literary tradition, the others being the Ulster cycle, the Fenian Cycle and the Cycle of the Kings.[97]

The topic is also surveyed under Irish mythology, Mythological cycle. A list of literature belonging to the cycle is given below.


The characters appearing in the cycle are essentially gods from the pre-Christian pagan past in Ireland. Commentators exercising caution, however, qualify them as representing only "godlike" beings, and not gods. This is because the Christian scribes who composed the writings were generally (though not always) careful not to refer to the Tuatha Dé Danann and other beings explicitly as deities. The disguises are thinly veiled nonetheless, and these writings contain discernable vestiges of early Irish polytheistic cosmology (World view).[98]

Examples of works from the cycle include numerous prose tales, verse texts, as well as pseudo-historical chronicles (primarily the Lebor Gabála Érenn (LGE), commonly called The Book of Invasions) found in medieval vellum manuscripts or later copies. Some of the romances are of later composition and found only in paper manuscripts dating to near-modern times (Cath Maige Tuired and The Fate of the Children of Tuireann).

Near-modern histories such as the Annals of the Four Masters and Geoffrey Keating's History of Ireland (=Seathrún Céitinn, Foras Feasa ar Éirinn) are also sometimes considered viable sources, since they may offer additional insights with their annotated and interpolated reworkings of LGE accounts.

Orally transmitted folk-tales may also be, in a broad sense, considered mythological cycle material, notably, the folk-tales that describe Cian's tryst with Balor's daughter while attempting to recover the bountiful cow Glas Gaibhnenn.

The god-folk of the successive invasions are "euhemerised", i.e., described as having dwelled terrestrially and ruling over Ireland in kingship before the age of mortal men (the Milesians, or their descendants).[99] Afterwards, the Tuatha Dé Danann are said to have retreated into the sídhe (fairy mounds), cloaking their presence by raising the féth fiada (fairy mist).[100] Having disappeared but not died, the deities oftentimes make "guest appearances" in narratives categorized under other cycles. (e.g., Lugh's appearance as the divine father and Morrígan as nemesis to the Ulster hero Cuchulainn;[101] encounters of Finnian characters with dwellers of the sidhe; Cormac mac Airt's, or his grandfather's visits to the otherworldly realms.)

Collected #lore literature, while they do not belong to the cycle in entirety, nevertheless capture tidbits of lore about the deities.

Lists of Literature

In the list that follows, citations are generally only given if the wiki page for that work is not developed. Otherwise, citations are deferred to the wiki article in question. See #External links for additional titles.

prose tales

  • Aislinge Óenguso ("Dream of Angus") (remscél to TBC)
  • Altram Tige Dá Medar ("The Fosterage of the House of Two [Milk-]Vessels") (Dobbs 1929; Called "Tale of Curchóg" by O'Curry[102]).
  • Cath Muige Tuired Cunga ("The [First] Battle of Mag Tuired of Cong ")
  • Cath Maige Tuired ("The Second Battle of Mag Tuired")
  • Ceithri cathracha i r-robadar Tuatha De Danand ("[The four jewels of the Tuatha Dé Danann|The Four Jewels of the Tuatha Dé Danann]")
  • De Gabáil in t-Sída ("The Taking of the Fairy Mound") (remscél to TBC) (Vernam Hull 1933)
  • Echtra Nera[i] ("The Adventures of Nera") (remscél to TBC)
  • Eachtra Léithín ("The Adventures of Léithín") (mod. versions; Hyde 1915)
  • "How the Dagda Got His Magic Staff." (Bergin, 1927)
  • Oidheadh Chloinne Lir ("The Fate of the Children of Lir")
  • Oidheadh Chloinne Tuirenn ("The Fate of the Children of Tuirenn") (late romance)
  • Scél Tuáin meic Chairill ("The Story of Tuán son of Cairell")
  • Tochomlod Nemid co hErin (?) ("The Invasion of Nemed")(frag.; Vernam Hull 1935)
  • Tochomlod mac Miledh a hEspain i nErind. ("The Progress of the Sons of Mil from Spain to Ireland") (Dobbs 1937).[103]

verse texts

Besides independent verses, a number of poems are embedded in prose tales, etc. A number of them are also preserved in the pseudohistorical LGE, Keating, etc.

  • Arsaidh sin a eóuin Accla ("Fintan and the Hawk of Aicill")
  • Coire Érmai / Coire Goriath ("The Cauldron of Poesy")


Collected lore are not wholly of mythological content, but parts of it are. "The Fitness of Names" (#149-159, etc.) provides interesting explanations on names of Dian Cecht among others. Irish onomastica, the Dindshenchas, also include stories about deities such as Boann (under Inber Colptha), the Dagda (under Fidh nGaible), Brecan (Coire Brecain), often in developed narrative verse or prose tales. Genealogical tracts and the Roll of the Kings, various glosses (e.g. to the law treatise Senchus Mor) may also be culled for information.



Survey of prose tales

The euhemerized deities arrived in five sets of migrations (see #The invasions tradition), but none of the individual migrations tales (tochomlada; sing. tochomlod) survived intact.[104][105][106] Remnants of the migration tales are the summarized accounts given in the LGE (Book of Invasions). Apart from these are the tale of Tuan mac Cairill, Fintan mac Bóchra colloquy (see #Verse). Tuan and Fintan are ancient beings from the Antediluvian past, who have reincaranted into different creatures, and are referred to in the LGE as well.[107]

Of the battle tales (catha; sing. cath), the full narratives of the First and Second Battle of Moytura (Battles of Mag Tuired) survive in relatively late (16th century) manuscripts.[108] Other important battle tales such as the Cath Tailten (Battle of Tailten) or Orgain Tuir Chonaind ("Massacre of Conan's Tower") are lost, though abstracted in the LGE[109]

The late romance of Oidheadh Chloinne Tuireann ("The Fate of the Children of Tuireann") tells how Lugh fines the sons of Tuireann for his father Cian's murder, compelling them to collect a series of magical objects and weapons which will be useful in the second battle of Mag Tuired against the Fomorians. An earlier version of this is recorded in the LGE, with a somewhat different list of fines (eiric), with no indication the murder happened on the eve of the great battle.[110]

In the Oidheadh Chloinne Lir ("The Fate of the Children of Lir"), the eponymous children are turned into swans by their jealous stepmother, and live in swan form into Christian times, when they are converted, transformed back into human form, and die of extreme old age.

Tochmarc Étaíne ("The Wooing of Étaín") tells first of the conception of Aengus through the adultery of the Dagda and Boann, and how Aengus won the residence of the Brú na Bóinne from Boann's husband Elcmar. It goes on to tell of the various lives of Étaín, wife of Midir, who is turned into a fly and driven away by Midir's jealous first wife Fuamnach. She becomes the companion of Aengus in insect form before Fuamnach once again drives her away, and she is swallowed by a mortal woman and reborn as her daughter. Her beauty attracts the attention of the High King, Eochaid Airem, who marries her, but ultimately Midir wins her back by magic and trickery.

There is also a curious account regarding Goídel Glas, the legendary ancestor of the migratory races and eponymous creator of the Gaelic language, and how he was cured by Moses's rod from a snake bite, related to in the LGE, although Macalister is dimissive of it as fiction invented by glossators.[111]

The invasions tradition

틀:Duplication The Mythological Cycle traces the supposed history of Ireland from its earliest inhabitants before the Biblical flood, through a series of invasions to the arrival of the Goidelic-speaking Milesians or Gaels. Some of these invaders probably represent genuine historical migrations; others, like the Tuatha Dé Danann with their magical powers, are unquestionably degraded gods.[112] The primary text of this tradition is the Lebor Gabála Érenn ("Book of Invasions of Ireland"). Elements of the tradition are expended in saga texts such as the two Battles of Mag Tuired, and in early modern compilations such as the Annals of the Four Masters and Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éireann.

Before the flood

A number of traditions have been preserved about the earliest inhabitants of Ireland. The best known tradition is that of Cessair, which is recorded in the Lebor Gabála Érenn and other early texts. Cessair is said to have been a granddaughter of Noah for whom there was no room on the Ark. She and her followers – fifty women and three men – arrived only 40 days before the deluge and were wiped out, all except Fintan, who transformed into a salmon. Through a series of transformations he survived into historical times and told the tale of his people.[113]

Geoffrey Keating, in his 17th-century Foras Feasa ar Éirinn ("The Basics of Knowledge on Ireland"), records several other traditions from sources now lost. A poem he found in the Saltair of Cashel said that three daughters of the Biblical Cain were the first to see Ireland. A second tradition, a variant of the Cessair legend he found in the Book of Druimm Snechta, said that the first inhabitants of Ireland were led by a woman called Banba, who gave her name to the island. She came with a hundred and fifty women and three men, who lived there for forty years before they all died of plague, two hundred years before the flood. Another tradition he records, but does not source, is that Ireland was discovered by three fishermen from Iberia who were washed there by a storm. They returned to Iberia, brought their wives and settled in Ireland a year before the flood, when they were drowned.[114]

After the flood

Although the Lebor Gabála says Ireland was empty of inhabitants for three hundred years after the flood,[115] Keating records two contrary traditions. A poem from the Saltair of Cashel said that a young man called Adna, son of Bíth, a relative of Ninus of Nineveh, visited Ireland about a hundred and forty years after the flood, but merely plucked a fistful of grass and brought it home to show his neighbours. He also says that, according to "some of our authors", the Fomorians, led by Cichol Gricenchos, settled in Ireland a hundred years after the flood and lived there for two hundred years until they were defeated by Partholón and his followers in the Battle of Mag Ithe. The Fomorians are said to have lived on "fish and fowl",[116] and Partholón is said in the Lebor Gabála to have introduced cattle and houses to Ireland:[117]


According to the Lebor Gabála, Partholón and his followers settled in Ireland either three hundred or three hundred and twelve years after the flood. Said to have been a descendant of Magog, son of Japheth, son of Noah, Partholón is said to have sailed from Greece, via Sicily, to Iberia, and from there to Ireland. He landed at Imber Scéne (Kenmare, County Kerry). His four oxen were the first cattle in Ireland. One of his followers, Brea, was the first to build a house, and another, Samailiath, was the first to brew ale. When they arrived there was only one plain in Ireland — Senmag, the "Old Plain", near modern Tallaght. Four more plains were cleared during Partholón's lifetime, and seven lakes burst from the ground. He and all his followers – five thousand men and four thousand women – died of plague in a single week, with one exception – Tuan mac Cairill, who, like Fintan, survived through a series of transformations and told the story of his people to St Finnian.[118]

Nemed and his followers

Thirty years later another group, led by Nemed, arrived. The Lebor Gabála describes them as Greeks from Scythia, and says they sailed with forty-four ships, but only one ship survived to reach Ireland. Four lakes burst from the ground in Nemed's time, twelve plains were cleared, and three battles won against the Fomorians. Nemed eventually died of plague, and his descendants were subjected by the Fomorian leaders Morc and Conand, who demanded two-thirds of their children, wheat and milk as tribute. Nemed's son Fergus Lethderg and grandsons Semul and Erglan led a revolt against Conand's Tower on Tory Island, off the coast of County Donegal, and Conand was killed, but Morc led a counter-attack. The sea rose up and drowned them all, except for one ship containing thirty warriors, who left Ireland and scattered to the four corners of the world. Fergus Lethderg's son Britan Mael became the ancestor of the Britons. Semeon went to Greece and became the ancestor of the Fir Bolg. Bethach went to the islands of the north and became the ancestor of the Tuatha Dé Danann.[119]

Fir Bolg

The next invaders were the Fir Bolg, who first established kingship and a system of justice in Ireland. One of their kings, Rinnal, was the first to use iron spear-points[출처 필요]. According to a controversial theory of T. F. O'Rahilly, they represent a genuine historical people, the Builg or Belgae, associated further with the Iverni.

Tuatha Dé Danann

The Fir Bolg were displaced by the Tuatha Dé Danann or "Peoples of the goddess Danu", descendants of Nemed, who either came to Ireland from the north on dark clouds or burnt their ships on the shore to ensure they wouldn't retreat. They defeated the Fir Bolg king, Eochaid mac Eirc, in the first Battle of Magh Tuiredh, but their own king, Nuada, lost an arm in the battle. As he was no longer physically perfect he lost the kingship, and his replacement, the half-Fomorian Bres, became the first Tuatha Dé High King of Ireland.

Bres turned out to be a tyrant and brought the Tuatha Dé under the oppression of the Fomorians. Eventually Nuada was restored to the kingship, having had his arm replaced by a working one of silver, and the Tuatha Dé rose against the Fomorians in the second Battle of Magh Tuiredh. Nuada was killed by the Fomorian king, Balor, but Balor met his prophesied end at the hands of his grandson, Lugh, who became king of the Tuatha Dé.

The Tuatha Dé are said to have brought chariots and druidry to Ireland.

The Sons of Míl

The Tuatha Dé Danann were themselves displaced by the Milesians, descendants of Míl Espáine, a warrior who travelled the ancient world before settling in Iberia. Míl died without ever seeing Ireland, but his uncle Íth saw the island from a tower and led an advance force to scout it out. The three kings of the Tuatha Dé, Mac Cuill, Mac Cecht and Mac Gréine, had Íth killed. After his body was returned to Iberia, Míl's eight sons led a full-scale invasion.

After defeating the Tuatha Dé in battle at Slieve Mish, County Kerry, the Milesians met Ériu, Banba and Fodla, the wives of the three kings, each of whom asked them to name the island after her. Ériu is the origin of the modern name Éire, and Banba and Fodla are still used as poetic names for Ireland, much as Albion is for Great Britain.

Mac Cuill, Mac Cecht and Mac Gréine asked for a three-day truce in which the Milesians would stay at anchor nine waves' distance from shore, and the Milesians agreed, but the druids of the Tuatha Dé conjured up a storm to drive them away. However Amergin, son of Míl, calmed the sea with his poetry. The Milesians landed and defeated the Tuatha Dé at Tailtiu, but only three of Míl's sons, Eber Finn, Eremon and Amergin, survived. Amergin divided the land between his two brothers. The Tuatha Dé moved underground, into the sídhe mounds, to be ruled by Bodb Dearg.


  • Mackillop, James (1998), 《Dictionary of Celtic Mythology》, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-280120-1 

Critical Studies

Primary Sources

External links

See also

Modern era folklore편집


Finnish flood myth

In the Kalevala rune entitled "Haava" (The Wound, section 8),[120] Väinämöinen attempts a heroic feat that results in a gushing wound, the blood from which covers the entire earth. This deluge is not emphasized in the Kalevala version redacted by Elias Lönnrot, but the global quality of the flood is evident in original variants of the rune. In one variant collected in Northern Ostrobothnia in 1803/04, the rune tells:

The blood came forth like a flood
the gore ran like a river:
there was no hummock
and no high mountain
that was not flooded
all from Väinämöinen's toe
from the holy hero's knee.[121]

Matti Kuusi notes in his analysis that the rune's motifs of constructing a boat, a wound, and a flood have parallels with flood myths from around the world.[122]

According to Anna-Leena Siikala, Väinämöinen's legs are of mythological and cosmogonic significance throughout Finnish mythology. For example, it is originally on Väinämöinen's knee that the primordial water-fowl first lays the world egg.[123]


Maasai People편집

Egypt (book of the dead)편집




틀:Other uses

Matsya protecting the Manu and the seven sages at the time of Deluge
The Matsya avatar comes to the rescue of Manu

In some Hindu traditions, Manu is a title accorded to a progenitor of humanity. The current period is ruled by the seventh Manu called the Vaivasvata Manu, the son of Vivasvân and his wife Samjnâ.[124]

Vaivasvata Manu, whose original name was Satyavrata, is the 7th Manu and considered the first king to rule this earth, who saved humanity from the great flood — after being warned of it by the Matsya avatar of Vishnu,[125] who had also advised him to build a giant boat. The story is mentioned in early Hindu scriptures such as the Satapatha Brahmana, and it has often been compared with the popular traditions of a Great Deluge from other cultures around the world,[126] particularly that of Noah's Ark.[127] Because Manu was believed to be absolutely honest, he was initially known as Satyavrata ("One with the oath of truth"). Vaivasvata Manu ruled as King Manu.[128][129][130] His wife was Sraddha.[131]

The Mahabharata says:

"And Manu was endued with great wisdom and devoted to virtue. And he became the progenitor of a line. And in Manu's race have been born all human beings, who have, therefore, been called Manavas. And it is of Manu that all men including Brahmanas, Kshattriyas, and others have been descended, and are therefore all called Manavas. Subsequently, O monarch, the Brahmanas became united with the Kshattriyas. And those sons Manu that of were Brahmanas devoted themselves to the study of the Vedas. And Manu begat ten other children named Vena, Dhrishnu, Narishyan, Nabhaga, Ikshakus, Karusha, Saryati, the eighth, a daughter named Ila,[132] Prishadhru the ninth, and Nabhagarishta, the tenth. They all betook themselves to the practices of Kshattriyas. Besides these, Manu had fifty other sons on Earth. But we heard that they all perished, quarrelling with one another."[133][134]


According to the Puranas, the genealogy of Vaivasvata, the 7th Manu, is as follows:

  1. Brahma
  2. Marichi, one of the 10 Prajapatis created by Brahma.
  3. Kashyapa, son of Marichi and Kala. Kashyapa is regarded as the father of humanity.
  4. Vivasvan or Surya, son of Kashyapa and Aditi.
  5. Vaivasvata Manu, originally Satyavrata, son of Vivasvan (Surya) and Saṃjñā.
  6. Ikshvaku, Nabhaga, Narishyanta, Karusha, Prishadhra, Dhrishta, Sharyati, Pramshu and Nabhanedishta were the nine sons and Ila was the only daughter of Vaivasvata Manu.[135][136]

The Great Deluge

According to the Matsya Purana, the Matsya Avatar of Vishnu is believed to have appeared initially as a Shaphari (a small carp), to King Manu (whose original name was Satyavrata[129]), the then King of Kumari Kandam, while he washed his hands in a river. This river was supposed to have been flowing down the Malaya Mountains in his land of Dravida. The little Fish asked the king to save Him, and out of compassion, he put it in a water jar. It kept growing bigger and bigger, until King Manu first put Him in a bigger pitcher, and then deposited Him in a well. When the well also proved insufficient for the ever-growing Fish, the King placed Him in a tank (reservoir), that was two yojanas (16 miles) in height above the surface and on land, as much in length, and a yojana (8 miles) in breadth.[137][138] As it grew further King Manu had to put the fish in a river, and when even the river proved insufficient he placed it in the ocean, after which it nearly filled the vast expanse of the great ocean.

It was then that He (Lord Matsya), revealing Himself, informed the King of an all-destructive deluge which would be coming very soon.[128][129][139][140] The King built a huge boat which housed his family, 9 types of seeds, and animals to repopulate the earth, after the deluge would end and the oceans and seas would recede. At the time of deluge, Vishnu appeared as a horned fish and Shesha appeared as a rope, with which Vaivasvata Manu fastened the boat to horn of the fish.[141]

According to the Matsya Purana, his boat was perched after the deluge on the top of the Malaya Mountains[128][129][139] This narrative is to an extent similar to other deluge stories, like those of Utnapishtim from ancient Sumerian Mythology, and the story of Noah's ark from the Bible [127] and the Qur'an.


"The lifespan of one Manu, is 71 Mahayugas (306,720,000 years), and each Mahayuga is 4,320,000 years." (Bhagavad Gita 8.17)[142] "The duration of one manvantara, the lifespan of one Manu, is seventy-one Mahayugas, and each Mahayuga is 4,320,000 years". The present Manu has already lived for 28 Mahayugas, which is 120,960,000 years." (Srimad Bhagavatam 4.30.49).[143]

Works ascribed to Manu

According to tradition, Manava Grihyasutra, Manava Sulbasutra and Manava Dharmashastra (Manusmriti or rules of Manu) texts are ascribed to Svayambhuva Manu.[144] Manusmriti is considered by some Hindus to be the law laid down for Hindus and is seen as the most important and earliest metrical work of the Dharmaśāstra textual tradition of Hinduism.[145] At the same time it is a Smriti, so whenever there is a conflict between what is mentioned in it and that mentioned in sruti (Vedas and Upanishads) the latter is considered to be correct as it holds higher spiritual authority.


In Theosophy, the "Vaivasvatu Manu" is one of the most important beings at the highest levels of Initiation of the Masters of the Ancient Wisdom, along with Sanat Kumara, Gautama Buddha, Maitreya, the Maha Chohan, and Djwal Khul. According to Theosophy, each root race has its own Manu which physically incarnates in an advanced body of an individual of the old root race and physically progenerates with a suitable female partner the first individuals of the new root race.

Modern literature

In the Victor Hugo novel, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Claude Frollo is seen to be studying Manu's works in his study of alchemy.

See also


External links

Matsya avatar.jpg
AffiliationAvatar of Vishnu
WeaponChakra and Mace

Matsya (मत्स्य, literally "Fish") is the avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu in the form of a fish, preceding Kurma. Often listed as the first avatar in the lists of the ten primary avatars of Vishnu, Matsya is described to have rescued the first man, Manu, from a great deluge. Matsya may be depicted as a giant fish, or anthropomorphically with a human torso connected to the rear half of a fish.

The earliest accounts of the legend associate Matsya with the creator god Prajapati (identified with Brahma). However, Puranic scriptures incorporate Matsya as an avatar of Vishnu. Matsya forewarns Manu about an impending catastrophic flood and orders him to collect all the grains of the world in a boat; in some forms of the story, all living creatures are also to be preserved in the boat. When the flood destroys the world, Manu - in some versions accompanied by the seven great sages - survives by boarding the ark, which Matsya pulls to safety. In later versions of this story, the sacred texts Vedas are hidden by a demon, whom Matsya slays: Manu is rescued and the scriptures are recovered. The tale is in the tradition of the family of flood myths, common across cultures.


Matsya pulls Manu's boat after having defeated the demon.

Matsya is depicted in two forms: as a zoomorphic fish or in an anthropomorphic form. In the latter form, the upper half is that of the four-armed man and the lower half is a fish (an exception is a sculpture in the Chennakesava Temple, Somanathapura, which is Matsya as a fish-headed human.[146]) The upper half resembles Vishnu and wears the traditional ornaments and the kirita-makuta (tall conical crown) as worn by Vishnu. He holds in two of his hands the Sudarshana chakra (discus) and a shankha (conch), the usual weapons of Vishnu. The other two hands make the gestures of varadamudra, which grants boons to the devotee, and abhayamudra, which reassures the devotee of protection.[147] In another configuration, he might have all four attributes of Vishnu, namely the Sudarshana chakra, a shankha, a gada (mace) and a lotus.[148] The human torso generally wears a shawl and a garland. The shawl, worn over his elbows, may be wrapped such that the switch between the human torso and fish half is hidden. Matsya may be depicted alone or in a scene depicting his combat with a demon. A demon called Shankhasura emerging from a conch is sometimes depicted attacking Matsya with a sword as Matsya combats or kills him. Both of them may be depicted in the ocean, while the god Brahma and/or manuscripts or four men, symbolizing the Vedas may be depicted in the background.[149] In some scenes, Matsya is depicted as a fish pulling the boat with Manu and the seven great sages (Saptarishi) on it.


Matsya, Central India, 9th - 10th century. British Museum.

Early accounts of the Deluge equate Matsya with the Vedic deity Prajapati (who was identified with the creator god Brahma in post-Vedic era).[150][151] The Shatapatha Brahmana is the earliest extant text to mention Matsya and the flood myth in Hinduism. It identifies the fish with Prajapati-Brahma.[152] The central characters are the fish (Matsya) and Manu who becomes the progenitor of mankind. In this version, Manu accidentally catches a small fish in his hands, while bathing. The fish is Matsya, who asks Manu for life and protection; in return he promises to save Manu from an impending flood; and Matsya knows exactly when this is to happen. Manu agrees to help; so Matsya tells him to place him in a jar of water, and keep him safe. When Matsya has outgrown the jar, Manu must dig a pit, fill it with water and place him in it. When Matsya outgrows the pit, Manu should transfer him to the ocean. By then, he will be big enough to survive; he will be indestructible, and will help Manu survive the flood. Meanwhile, Manu should build himself a boat. Manu does exactly as the fish has instructed and eventually releases Matsya, now fully grown, into the ocean. At the appointed time, the deluge comes; Manu boards his boat and the waters rise to cover the earth. Manu calls on Matsya for help. Matsya swims to the ship and Manu ropes his vessel to the horn that has grown on Matsya's head. Then Matsya tows the ship to the safety of the highest and driest ground, at the northern mountains (interpreted as the Himalayas). Manu ties the ship to a tree, disembarks, and then slowly descends the mountain along with the now subsiding water. Manu finds himself the sole survivor on earth; all others have been washed away by the floods. Manu then takes on the task of creating the new human race. Seeking procreation, he practices austerities and worships the gods by performing sacrifices, offering butter, milk, curds and ghee (clarified butter) to the sacrificial fire. Within a year, his prayers are answered; a beautiful woman called Ida appears. He marries her, and together they initiate the race of Manu, as Aryans called themselves.[153][154]

The tale of Matsya in the Vana Parva Book of the epic Mahabharata is similar to the Shatapatha Brahmana version but also differs in some ways. Manu is introduced as Vaivasvata Manu - Vaivasvata being a patronymic - the son of the sun god Vivasvan and a powerful rishi (sage) equal to Brahma in glory. While Manu is performing religious rituals on the banks of the Chervi, he finds the fish. The legend moves in the same vein with minor modifications in that the fish grows in size, gets transferred from an earthen pot to a tank or lake and then to the mighty Ganges River (called the spouse of the Ocean) and finally to the sea. When Manu left the fish in the sea, it warned of impending danger of a catastrophic flood event, which would submerge the whole universe. The fish advised Manu to be prepared to face the catastrophe by building a massive boat to save himself and the Saptarishi (the seven great sages) and collect all seeds of the world and promised to appear when called by him as a huge horned fish to save them. As in the Shatapatha Brahmana, the horned fish appeared and the boat was tied to his horn. The fish navigated it with great force through the turbulent and salty waters of the ocean and reached the safe heights of the Himalayas. As directed by the fish, the vessel was tied to the peak of the Himalayas, which became known as the Naubandhana (the harbour). Matsya tells the sages that he is Prajapati Brahma, the lord of all beings and their saviour who rescued them from danger in the form of a fish. The fish informed that Manu would create all beings - gods, demons and men and other movable and immovable things - by the power of his austerities. The fish vanished and Manu acted on the advise of Brahma, creating all beings.[150][152][155]

Matsya pulling Manu's boat

The Matsya Purana initiates the Purana scripture tradition of identifying the fish (Matsya) with Vishnu instead of Brahma. The Purana derives its name from Matsya. It starts with the legend of Manu. King Manu renounced the world, handing his throne to his son and set off to the Malaya Mountains to perform tapas (austerities). Pleased with the austerities, Brahma granted his wish to rescue the world at the time of pralaya (dissolution of the universe). Like in the other accounts, Manu meets the tiny fish. The fish is placed in a jar, in a reservoir that is two yojanas in height, and eventually ends up in the ocean. Astonished by the fish's growth, Manu realizes that the fish is the god Vishnu. Vishnu as Matsya reveals his real identity and informs Manu that a pralaya would soon come as a yuga (epoch) and a kalpa (aeon equal to Brahma's day) would soon end. Brahma sleeps in his night and his creation dissolves, submerging the earth and all the other worlds in the cosmos in the primeval ocean. Vishnu promises to return to rescue Manu at the time of pralaya and orders him to bring all living creatures and seeds of all trees on a boat, which the gods would gift him. As pralaya came, Matsya came and pulled the boat with the serpent Shesha as the rope, fastened to his horn. In the journey towards the top of the Malaya mountains, Manu asks Matsya questions and their ensuing dialogue constitutes the rest of the text.[148][156]

Matsya preparing to slay the demon.

The Bhagavata Purana adds another reason for Vishnu to appear as Matsya. At the end of a kalpa, a danava (demon) called Hayagriva ("horse-faced") steals the sacred Veda texts when they come out of Brahma's mouth when he yawns at the start of his night, fatigued by the creation of the universe. Meanwhile, Satyavrata (also known as Vaivasvata Manu), who was the current Manu (there are multiple Manus in Puranic texts), and the king of Dravida country (South India), was performing severe austerities, sustaining only on water. Once when he was offering water oblation in the Kritamala River, a tiny shaphari fish was caught in his folded hands. As the king was about to throw away the fish, the fish pleaded to be not thrown in the water, where larger fishes would devour it. Assuring the fish protection, the king put it in a small jar and took it with him. But the fish grew larger and requested for more space, the king moved it in a small pond, but the fish soon outgrew it. As the fish outgrew water reservoirs, Satyavrata transferred it to a lake, then to larger reservoirs and subsequently to the ocean. But the fish requested Satyavrata that it was afraid of the dangerous marine predators of the ocean. Bewildered by these words, the king asked the fish to reveal his true identity, but soon deduced that this supernatural fish was none other than Vishnu and surrendered to him. Matsya-Vishnu declared that a great flood would come seven days from then and engulf the universe. He ordered Satyavrata to assemble the seven great sages and with their counsel, gather all kinds of seeds, herbs and various beings to load them on a boat, that would be sent by Vishnu on the fateful day. He instructed that the serpent Vasuki should be used as a rope to tie the boat to his fish-horn. Promising that he would sail the boat through the waters throughout the night of Brahma, Matsya disappeared after his revelation and reappeared as a horned fish on the day of the Deluge, when torrential rains drenched the earth. Satyavrata did as Vishnu instructed and fastened the boat to the horned fish (Matsya). As Matsya swam through the flood waters, he discoursed the king on various topics and revealed to him knowledge of the Vedas, Puranas, Samhitas as well as the Supreme Truth. After last wave of the flood ended, Matsya slew Hayagriva and rescued the Vedas and handed them over to Brahma, who woke after his night. The narrative ends with the narrator Sage Shuka praying to Matsya and declaring that whoever listens to this tale is absolved of sin and remembering Matsya daily grants success to the devotee.[157][158][159][160]

The Agni Purana version is similar to the Bhagavata Purana version, but mentions Manu only collecting all seeds (not living beings) and assembling the seven great sages similar to the Mahabharata version. It also adds the basis of the Matsya Purana, being the discourse of Matsya to Manu, to the Bhagavata Purana version.[161]
Matsya with the Vedas as infants.

Symbolism and comparative mythology

The story of a great Deluge is found in many civilizations across the earth. It is often related to the Genesis narrative of the flood and Noah's Ark.[148] The fish motif and saving of the scriptures from a demon being additions in the Hindu tale.[162] Similar flood myths also exist in tales from ancient Sumer and Babylonia, Greece, the Maya of Americas and the Yoruba of Africa.[148]

Matsya is believed to symbolise the first stage of evolution, as aquatic life was the first beings on earth.[148][163] The tale of Matsya may be interpreted as a creation myth where Manu creates beings of the world and men after they destroyed in the flood, though the creation is never the focus of the legend. Some authors consider the tale not a flood myth, but symbolic in nature. Manu's boat is representative of moksha (salvation), which helps one to cross over. Himalayas is treated as a boundary between the earthly existence and land of salvation beyond. God as the fish guides one to salvation. The horn of the fish is symbolic of "sacrificial values". The presence of fish seems to be an allusion to the Indian "law of the fishes", an equivalent to the "law of the jungle", when the fish seeks protection from being eaten by a larger fish. Treated as a parable, the tale advises a good king should protect the weak from the mighty, reversing the "law of fishes" and uphold dharma, like Manu, the progenitor of mankind and in particular two royal dynasties, thus an ideal king. In the tales where the demon hides the Vedas, dharma is threatened and Vishnu as the divine Saviour, rescues dharma, aided by his earthly counterpart, Manu - the king.[156]


There are very few temples dedicated to Matsya. Prominent ones include the Shankhodara temple in Bet Dwarka and Vedanarayana Temple in Nagalapuram.[163] The Koneswaram Matsyakeswaram temple in Trincomalee is now destroyed.

Matsya is generally enlisted as the first avatar of Vishnu, especially in Dashavatara (ten major avatars of Vishnu) lists. However, that was not always the case. Some lists do not list Matsya as first, only later texts start the trend of Matsya as the first avatar.[148]

Matsya is the patron deity of the Meenas, who claim descent from the deity. The Meenas call Matsya Meenesh, the Lord of the Meenas or the fish (Meena) Lord. Meenas celebrates Meenesh Jayanti as birthday of Meenesh.

In Rajasthan there are many temples of Meenesh, but the first Meenesh temple was in Pushkar, Rajasthan.[164] A Meenesh temple is also situated in Malarana chour village of Sawai Madhopur district of Rajasthan.[165]

See also

Further reading

  • Bonnefoy, Yves. (1993). Asian Mythologies. University of Chicago Press. pp. 79–80. ISBN 0-226-06456-5.
  • Nanditha Krishna (2009년 7월 20일). 《Book Of Vishnu》. Penguin Books India. ISBN 978-0-14-306762-7. 
  • Rao, T.A. Gopinatha (1914). 《Elements of Hindu iconography》. 1: Part I. Madras: Law Printing House. 
  • Mani, Vettam (1975). 《Puranic Encyclopaedia: a Comprehensive Dictionary with Special Reference to the Epic and Puranic Literature》. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8426-0822-0. 

External links

Kumari kandam편집
Lemuria/ Kumari Kandam
TypeHypothetical lost continent, equated with the lost land of Kumari Kandam named in the Kanda Puranam and alluded to in Sangam literature

Kumari Kandam [166] (Tamil:குமரிக்கண்டம், Kumarikkaṇṭam; 30,000 BC – 16,000 BC) is the name of a supposed sunken landmass referred to in the ancient Tamil and Sanskrit Matsya Purana. It is said to have been located in the Indian Ocean, south of present-day Kanyakumari district at the southern tip of India.

References in Tamil literature According to the Matsya Purana, Manu was the king of Dravidadesa land in Kumari Kandam. There are scattered references in Sangam literature, such as Kalittokai 104, to how the sea took the land of the Pandiyan kings, after which they conquered new lands to replace those they had lost.[167] There are also references to the rivers Pahruli and Kumari, that are said to have flowed in a now-submerged land.[168] The Silappadhikaram, one of the Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature written in first few centuries CE, states that the "cruel sea" took the Pandiyan land that lay between the rivers Pahruli and the mountainous banks of the Kumari, to replace which the Pandiyan king conquered lands belonging to the Chola and Chera kings (Maturaikkandam, verses 17-22). Adiyarkkunallar, a 12th century commentator on the epic, explains this reference by saying that there was once a land to the south of the present-day Kanyakumari, which stretched for 700 kavatam from the Pahruli river in the north to the Kumari river in the south. As the modern equivalent of a kavatam is unknown, estimates of the size of the lost land vary from 1,400 마일 (2,300 km) to 7,000 마일 (11,000 km) in length, to others suggesting a total area of 6-7,000 square miles, or smaller still an area of just a few villages.[169]

This land was divided into 49 nadu, or territories, which he names as seven coconut territories (elutenga natu), seven Madurai territories (elumaturai natu), seven old sandy territories (elumunpalai natu), seven new sandy territories (elupinpalai natu), seven mountain territories (elukunra natu), seven eastern coastal territories (elukunakarai natu) and seven dwarf-palm territories (elukurumpanai natu). All these lands, he says, together with the many-mountained land that began with KumariKollam, with forests and habitations, were submerged by the sea.[168] Two of these Nadus or territories were supposedly parts of present-day Kollam and Kanyakumari districts.

None of these texts name the land "Kumari Kandam" or "Kumarinadu", as is common today. The only similar pre-modern reference is to a "Kumari Kandam" (written குமரிகண்டம், rather than குமரிக்கண்டம் as the land is called in modern Tamil), which is named in the medieval Tamil text Kantapuranam either as being one of the nine continents,[170] or one of the nine divisions of India and the only region not to be inhabited by barbarians.[171] 19th and 20th century Tamil revivalist movements, however, came to apply the name to the territories described in Adiyarkkunallar's commentary to the Silappadhikaram.[172] They also associated this territory with the references in the Tamil Sangams, and said that the fabled cities of southern Madurai (Ten Madurai) and Kapatapuram where the first two Sangams were said to be held were located on Kumari Kandam.[173] These sangams may have overlapped in parallel to the third historic sangam; the second century BCE Tissamaharama Tamil Brahmi inscription detailing the thiraLi muRi (written agreement of the assembly) was excavated a few miles from the coast of the historic Tenavaram temple, Matara, Sri Lanka.

Modern revival

Kumari Kandam, as identified with Lemuria

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Tamil nationalists came to identify Kumari Kandam with Lemuria, a "lost continent" posited in the 19th century to account for discontinuities in biogeography. In these accounts, Kumari Kandam became the "cradle of civilization", the origin of human languages in general and the Tamil language in particular.[174] These ideas gained notability in Tamil academic literature over the first decades of the 20th century, and were popularized by the Tanittamil Iyakkam, notably by self-taught Dravidologist Devaneya Pavanar, who held that all languages on earth were merely corrupted Tamil dialects.

R. Mathivanan, then Chief Editor of the Tamil Etymological Dictionary Project of the Government of Tamil Nadu, in 1991 claimed to have deciphered the still undeciphered Indus script as Tamil, following the methodology recommended by his teacher Devaneya Pavanar, presenting the following timeline (cited after Mahadevan 2002):

ca. 200,000 to 50,000 BC: evolution of "the Tamilian or Homo Dravida",
ca. 200,000 to 100,000 BC: beginnings of the Tamil language
50,000 BC: Kumari Kandam civilisation
20,000 BC: A lost Tamil culture of the Easter Island which had an advanced civilisation
16,000 BC: Lemuria submerged
6087 BC: Second Tamil Sangam established by a Pandya king
3031 BC: A Chera prince in his wanderings in the Solomon Islands saw wild sugarcane and started cultivation in Present Tamil nadu.
1780 BC: The Third Tamil Sangam established by a Pandya king
7th century BC: Tolkappiyam (the earliest known extant Tamil grammar)

Popular culture

  • Kumari Kandam appeared in the The Secret Saturdays episodes "The King of Kumari Kandam" and "The Atlas Pin." This version is a city on the back of a giant sea serpent with its inhabitants all fish people.[175]

Loss and imagination

Sumathi Ramaswamy's book, The Lost Land of Lemuria: Fabulous Geographies, Catastrophic Histories (2004) is a theoretically sophisticated study of the Lemuria legends that widens the discussion beyond previous treatments, looking at Lemuria narratives from nineteenth-century Victorian-era science to Euro-American occultism, colonial, and post colonial India. Ramaswamy discusses particularly how cultures process the experience of loss.

See also


  • Iravatham Mahadevan, Aryan or Dravidian or Neither? A Study of Recent Attempts to Decipher the Indus Script (1995-2000) EJVS (ISSN 1084-7561) vol. 8 (2002) issue 1 (March 8).[4]
  • Ramaswamy, Sumathi (1999), “Catastrophic Cartographies: Mapping the Lost Continent of Lemuria”, 《Representations》 67 (67): 92–129, doi:10.1525/rep.1999.67.1.01p0048w 
  • Ramaswamy, Sumathi (2000), “History at Land's End: Lemuria in Tamil Spatial Fables”, 《The Journal of Asian Studies》 (The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 59, No. 3) 59 (3): 575–602, doi:10.2307/2658944, JSTOR 2658944 
  • Ramaswamy, Sumathi (2004), 《The Lost Land of Lemuria: Fabulous Geographies, Catastrophic Histories》, Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-24440-0 

External links

Andaman Islands (India)편집

Pūluga (or Puluga) is the creator in the religion of the indigenous inhabitants of the Andaman Islands. According to Andaman mythology, Puluga ceased to visit the people when they became remiss of the commands given to them at the creation. Then, without further warning he sent a devastating flood. Only four people survived this flood: two men, Loralola and Poilola, and two women, Kalola and Rimalola. When they landed they found they had lost their fire and all living things had perished. Puluga then recreated the animals and plants but does not seem to have given any further instructions, nor did he return the fire to the survivors.[176]

Andaman Islands
Andaman Islands.PNG
Location of the Andaman Islands.
LocationBay of Bengal
Coordinates북위 12° 30′ 동경 92° 45′  / 북위 12.500° 동경 92.750°  / 12.500; 92.750
ArchipelagoAndaman and Nicobar Islands
Total islands572
Major islandsNorth Andaman Island, Little Andaman, Middle Andaman Island
Area8,249 km2 (3,185 sq mi)
Highest elevation732 m (2,402 ft)
Highest pointSaddle Peak
Union TerritoryAndaman and Nicobar Islands
Capital cityPort Blair
Population343,125 (as of 2011)
Density48 /km2 (124 /sq mi)
Ethnic groupsMainland Indians
Great Andamanese
Additional information
Official websitewww.and.nic.in
Detailed map of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands

The Andaman Islands are a group of Indian Ocean archipelagic islands in the Bay of Bengal, between the Indian peninsula to the west and Burma to the north and east. Most of the islands are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory of India, while a small number in the north of the archipelago belong to Burma such as the Coco Islands.


Comparative distributions of Andamanese indigenous peoples, pre-18C vs present-day

Early inhabitants

The Andaman islands have been inhabited for several thousand years, at the very least. The earliest archaeological evidence yet documented goes back some 2,200 years; however, the indications from genetic, cultural and isolation studies suggests that it may have been in the Middle Paleolithic.[177] The indigenous Andamanese people appear to have lived on the islands in substantial isolation from that time until the 18th century CE.

The Andamans are theorized to be a key stepping stone in a great coastal migration of humans from Africa via the Arabian peninsula, along the coastal regions of the Indian mainland and towards Southeast Asia, Japan and Oceania.[178]

Traveler reports

The name of the Andaman Islands is ancient. A theory that became prevalent since the late 19th century is that it derives from Hanuman, the Malay form of Hanuman, the Sanskrit name of the Indian monkey-god.[179][180]

The name first appears in the work of Arab geographers of the 9th century (Soleyman in 851).[출처 필요] It is possible that ancient geographers like Ptolemy also knew of the Andamans but referred to them by a different name. The Persian navigator Buzurg ibn Shahriyar of Ramhormuz, in his 10th century book Ajaib al-Hind (The wonders of India) described the islands as being inhabited by fierce cannibalistic tribes. The book also mentions an island he called Andaman al-Kabir (Great Andaman).[181][182]

The Andaman and Nicobar islands are called Timaittivu ("impure islands" in Tamil) in Chola Dynasty chronicles.[183]

Marco Polo briefly mentions the Andamans (calling them Angamanain), though it is uncertain whether he visited the islands and if he did, whether he met the natives, because he describes them as having heads like dogs.[184][185] Another Italian traveler, Niccolò de' Conti (c. 1440), mentioned the islands and said that the name means "Island of Gold".

Chola empire

From 800 to 1200 AD, the Tamil Chola dynasty created an empire that eventually extended from southeastern peninsular India to parts of Malaysia.[186] Rajendra Chola I (1014 to 1042 CE) occupied the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to use them as a strategic naval base to launch a naval expedition against the Sriwijaya empire (a Hindu-Malay empire based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia).

Maratha empire

The Maratha admiral Kanhoji Angre used the Andamans as a base and "fought the British off these islands until his death in 1729." [187][188]

British colonization and penal colony

In 1789, the government of Bengal established a naval base and penal colony on Chatham Island in the southeast bay of Great Andaman. The settlement is now known as Port Blair (after the Bombay Marine lieutenant Archibald Blair who founded it). After two years, the colony was moved to the northeast part of Great Andaman and was named Port Cornwallis after Admiral William Cornwallis. However, there was much disease and death in the penal colony and the government ceased operating it in May 1796.[187]

In 1824, Port Cornwallis was the rendezvous of the fleet carrying the army to the First Burmese War. In the 1830s and 1840s, shipwrecked crews who landed on the Andamans were often attacked and killed by the natives, alarming the British government. In 1855, the government proposed another settlement on the islands, including a convict establishment, but the Indian Rebellion of 1857 forced a delay in its construction. However, because the rebellion gave the British so many prisoners, it made the new Andaman settlement and prison urgently necessary. Construction began in November 1857 at Port Blair using inmates' labor, avoiding the vicinity of a salt swamp that seemed to have been the source of many of the earlier problems at Port Cornwallis.

In 1867, the ship Nineveh wrecked on the reef of North Sentinel Island. The 86 survivors reached the beach in the ship's boats. On the third day, they were attacked with iron-tipped spears by naked islanders. One person from the ship escaped in a boat and the others were later rescued by a British Royal Navy ship.[189]

For some time, sickness and mortality were high, but swamp reclamation and extensive forest clearance continued. The Andaman colony became notorious with the murder of the Viceroy Richard Southwell Bourke, 6th Earl of Mayo, on a visit to the settlement (8 February 1872), by a Muslim convict, a Pathan from Afghanistan, Sher Ali. In the same year, the two island groups Andaman and Nicobar, were united under a chief commissioner residing at Port Blair.

The Ross Island prison headquarters, 1872

From the time of its development in 1858 under the direction of James Pattison Walker, and in response to the mutiny and rebellion of the previous year, the settlement was first and foremost a repository for political prisoners. The Cellular Jail at Port Blair when completed in 1910 included 698 cells designed for solitary confinement; each cell measured 4.5 m (15 ft) by 2.7 m (9 ft) with a single ventilation window 3 미터 (10 ft) above the floor. A notable prisoner there was Vinayak Damodar Savarkar.

The Indians imprisoned here referred to the Island and its prison as Kala Pani ("black water");[190] a 1996 film set on the island took that term as its title Kaalapani.[191]). The number of prisoners who died in this camp is estimated to be in the thousands.[192] Many more died of harsh treatment and the harsh living and working conditions in this camp.[193]

The Viper Chain Gang Jail on Viper Island was reserved for troublemakers, and was also the site of hangings. In the 20th century, it became a convenient place to house prominent members of India's independence movement.

Japanese occupation

Ross Island in 2004
Andaman Islands

The Andaman and Nicobar islands were occupied by Japan during World War II.[194] The islands were nominally put under the authority of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (Provisional Government of Free India) headed by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose. Netaji visited the islands during the war, and renamed them as Shaheed (Martyr) & Swaraj (Self-rule). On 30 December 1943, during the Japanese occupation, Subhas Chandra Bose, who was controversially allied with the Japanese, first raised the flag of Indian independence. General Loganathan, of the Indian National Army, was Governor of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which had been annexed to the Provisional Government. Before leaving the islands, the Japanese rounded up and executed 750 civilians.[195] After the end of the war the islands briefly returned to British control, before becoming part of the newly independent state of India.

At the close of the World War II, the British government announced its intention to abolish the penal settlement. The government proposed to employ former inmates in an initiative to develop the island's fisheries, timber, and agricultural resources. In exchange inmates would be granted return passage to the Indian mainland, or the right to settle on the islands. The penal colony was eventually closed on 15 August 1947 when India gained independence. It has since served as a museum to the independence movement.

Recent history

In April 1998, American photographer John S Callahan organized the first surfing project in the Andamans, starting from Phuket in Thailand with the assistance of Southeast Asia Liveaboards (SEAL), a UK owned dive charter company. With a crew of international professional surfers, they crossed the Andaman Sea on the yacht Crescent and cleared formalities in Port Blair. The group proceeded to Little Andaman Island, where they spent ten days surfing several spots for the first time, including Jarawa Point near Hut Bay and the long right reef point at the southwest tip of the island, named Kumari Point. The resulting article in SURFER Magazine, "Quest for Fire" by journalist Sam George, put the Andaman Islands on the surfing map for the first time.[196] Footage of the waves of the Andaman Islands also appeared in the film "Thicker than Water", shot by cinematographer Jack Johnson, who later achieved worldwide fame as a popular musician. Callahan went on to make several more surfing projects in the Andamans, including a trip to the Nicobar Islands in 1999.

On 26 December 2004, the coast of the Andaman Islands was devastated by a 10-미터 (33 ft) high tsunami following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. Strong oral traditions in the area warned of the importance of moving inland after a quake and is credited with saving many lives. In the aftermath, more than 2,000 people were confirmed dead and more than 4,000 children were orphaned or had lost one parent. At least 40,000 residents were rendered homeless and were moved to relief camps.[197] On 11 August 2009, a magnitude 7 earthquake struck near the Andaman Islands, causing a tsunami warning to go into effect. On 30 March 2010, a magnitude 6.9 earthquake struck near the Andaman Islands.


Sunset Point, Andaman
This photo was taken at the beach no.3 at Haveleck in the Andaman Islands .

The Andaman Archipelago is an oceanic continuation of the Burmese Arakan Yoma range in the North and of the Indonesian Archipelago in the South. It has 325 islands which cover an area of 6,408 km2 (2,474 mi2),[198] with the Andaman Sea to the east between the islands and the coast of Burma.[187] North Andaman Island is 285 킬로미터 (177 mi) south of Burma, although a few smaller Burmese islands are closer, including the three Coco Islands.

Chidiya Tapu, Andaman

The Ten Degree Channel separates the Andamans from the Nicobar Islands to the south. The highest point is located in North Andaman Island (Saddle Peak at 732 m (2,402 ft)).[198]:33

The subsoil of the Andaman islands consists essentially of Late Jurassic to Early Eocene ophiolites and sedimentary rocks (argillaceous and algal limestones), deformed by numerous deep faults and thrusts with ultramafic igneous intrusions.[199] There are at least 11 mud volcanoes on the islands.[199]

The climate is typical of tropical islands of similar latitude. It is always warm, but with sea-breezes. Rainfall is irregular, but usually dry during the north-east, and very wet during the south-west, monsoons.


The Middle Andamans harbour mostly moist deciduous forests. North Andamans is characterized by the wet evergreen type, with plenty of woody climbers.

The natural vegetation of the Andamans is tropical forest, with mangroves on the coast. The rainforests are similar in composition to those of the west coast of Burma. Most of the forests are evergreen, but there are areas of deciduous forest on North Andaman, Middle Andaman, Baratang and parts of South Andaman Island. The South Andaman forests have a profuse growth of epiphytic vegetation, mostly ferns and orchids.

The Andaman forests are largely unspoiled, despite logging and the demands of the fast-growing population driven by immigration from the Indian mainland. There are protected areas on Little Andaman, Narcondam, North Andaman and South Andaman, but these are mainly aimed at preserving the coast and the marine wildlife rather than the rainforests.[200] Threats to wildlife come from introduced species including rats, dogs, cats and the elephants of Interview Island and North Andaman.



Andaman forests contain 200 or more timber producing species of trees, out of which about 30 varieties are considered to be commercial. Major commercial timber species are Gurjan (Dipterocarpus spp.) and Padauk (Pterocarpus dalbergioides). The following ornamental woods are noted for their pronounced grain formation:

Padauk wood is sturdier than teak and is widely used for furniture making.

There are burr wood and buttress root formations in Andaman Padauk. The largest piece of buttress known from Andaman was a dining table of 13 ft × 7 ft (4.0 m × 2.1 m). The largest piece of burr wood was again a dining table for eight.

The holy Rudraksha (Elaeocarps sphaericus) and aromatic Dhoop resin trees also are found here.


The Andaman islands are home to a number animals, many of them endemic.


The island's endemic mammals include

The banded pig (Sus scrofa vittatus), also known as the Andaman wild boar and once thought to be an endemic subspecies,[201] is protected by the Wildlife Protection Act 1972 (Sch I). The spotted deer (Axis axis), the Indian muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak) and the sambar (Rusa unicolor) were all introduced to the Andaman islands, though the sambar did not survive.

Interview Island (the largest wildlife sanctuary in the territory) in Middle Andaman holds a population of feral elephants, which were brought in for forest work by a timber company and released when the company went bankrupt. This population has been subject to research studies.


Endemic or near endemic birds include

The islands' many caves, such as those at Chalis Ek are nesting grounds for the edible-nest swiftlet, whose nests are prized in China for bird's nest soup.[202]

Reptiles and amphibians

The islands also have a number of endemic reptiles, toads and frogs, such as the South Andaman krait (Bungarus andamanensis) and Andaman water monitor (Varanus salvator andamanensis).

There is a sanctuary 45 miles from Havelock Island for saltwater crocodiles. Over the past 25 years there have been 24 crocodile attacks with four fatalities, including the death of American tourist Lauren Failla. The government has been criticized for failing to inform tourists of the crocodile sanctuary and danger, while simultaneously promoting tourism.[203] Crocodiles are not only found within the sanctuary, but throughout the island chain in varying densities. They are habitat restricted, so the population is stable but not large. Populations occur throughout available mangrove habitat on all major islands, including a few creeks on Havelock. The species uses the ocean as a means of travel between different rivers and estuaries, thus they are not as commonly observed in open ocean. It is best to avoid swimming near mangrove areas or the mouths of creeks; swimming in the open ocean should be safe, but it is best to have a spotter around.

The coral reef at Havelock in Andaman


The population of the Andaman was 343,125 in 2011,[204] having grown from 50,000 in 1960. The bulk of the population originates from immigrants who came to the island since the colonial times, mainly of Bengali, Hindustani and Tamil backgrounds.[205]

Indigenous Andamanese

Of the people who live in the Andaman Islands, a small minority of about 1,000 are the so-called Andamanese, the aboriginal inhabitants (adivasi) of the islands. By the 1850s when they first came into sustained contact by outside groups, there were estimated 7,000 Adamanese, divided into the following major groups:

As the numbers of settlers from the mainland increased (at first mostly prisoners and involuntary indentured labourers, later purposely recruited farmers), these indigenous people lost territory and numbers in the face of punitive expeditions by British troops, land encroachment and various epidemic diseases. Presently, there remain only approximately 400–450 indigenous Andamanese. The Jangil were soon extinct. The Great Andamanese were originally 10 distinct tribes with 5,000 people in total; most of the tribes are extinct, and the survivors, now just 52, speak mostly Hindi.[206] The Onge are reduced to less than 100 people. Only the Jarawa and Sentinelese still maintain a steadfast independence and refuse most attempts at contact; their numbers are uncertain but estimated to be in the low hundreds.


Port Blair is the chief community on the islands, and the administrative centre of the Union Territory. The Andaman Islands form a single administrative district within the Union Territory, the Andaman district (the Nicobar Islands were separated and established as the new Nicobar district in 1974).

Cultural references

The islands are prominently featured in Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes mystery, The Sign of the Four, as well as in M. M. Kaye's Death in the Andamans. The magistrate in Lady Gregory's play Spreading the News had formerly served in the islands. A principal character in the book Six Suspects by Vikas Swarup is from the Andaman Islands. Kaalapani (Malayalam) and Sirai Chaalai (Tamil), a 1996 Indian film by Priyadarshan, depicts the Indian freedom struggle and the lives of prisoners in the Cellular Jail in Port Blair. Island's End is a 2011 novel by Padma Venkatraman about the training of an indigenous shaman.


The only airport in the islands is Vir Savarkar Airport in Port Blair, which has scheduled services to Kolkata and Chennai and Delhi, Banglore and Bhubaneswar. The airport is under control of the Indian Navy. Only Daytime flying is allowed.

Due to the length of these routes and the small number of airlines flying to the islands, fares have traditionally been relatively expensive, although cheaper for locals than visitors. Fares are high during peak seasons of spring and winter, but fares have been decreased over the time due to large expansion of aviation industry in India.

See also


External links

Central Asia/Turkestan편집


Yu the Great편집

For the Han dynasty general called Yu by his first name, see Deng Yu

Yu the Great
King Yu of Xia.jpg
Yu the Great, Color on silk at the National Palace Museum
Chinese 大禹

Yu the Great (Chinese: 大禹; pinyin: Dà Yǔ, c. 2200 - 2100 BC),[207] was a legendary ruler in ancient China famed for his introduction of flood control, inaugurating dynastic rule in China by founding the Xia Dynasty, and for his upright moral character.[208][209]

Few, if any, records exist from the period of Chinese history when Yu reigned. Because of this, the vast majority of information about his life and reign comes from collected pieces of oral tradition and stories that were passed down in various areas of China, many of which were collected in Sima Qian's famous Records of the Grand Historian. Yu and other "sage-kings" of Ancient China were lauded by Confucius and other Chinese teachers, who praised their virtues and morals.[210]

Yu is one of the few Chinese rulers posthumously honored with the epithet "the Great".

Ancestry and early life

According to several ancient Chinese records, Yu was the 8th great-grandson of the Yellow Emperor: Yu's father Gun was the 5th great-grandson of Emperor Zhuanxu; Zhuanxu's father Changyi was the second son of the Yellow Emperor.[211][212][213][214] Yu was said to be born at Mount Wen (Chinese: 汶山), in modern day Beichuan County, Sichuan Province,[215] though there are debates as to whether he was born in Shifang instead.[216] Yu's mother was a woman of the Youxin clan named either Nüzhi (Chinese: 女志) or Nüxi (Chinese: 女嬉).

As a child, Yu's father Gun moved the people east toward the Chinese heartland. King Yao enfeoffed Gun as lord of Chong, usually identified as the middle peak of Mount Song. Yu is thus believed to have grown up on the slopes of Mount Song, just south of the Yellow River.[217] He later married a woman from Mount Tu (Chinese: 塗山) who is generally referred to as Tushan-shi (Chinese: 塗山氏;literally "Lady Tushan").[218] They had a son named Qi, a name literally meaning "revelation".[218]

Great Yu Controls the Waters

Han Dynasty depiction of Yu.

During the reign of king Yao, the Chinese heartland was frequently plagued by floods that prevented further economic and social development.[219] Yu's father, Gun, was tasked with devising a system to control the flooding. He spent more than nine years building a series of dikes and dams along the riverbanks, but all of this was ineffective, despite (or because of) the great number and size of these dikes and the use of a special self-expanding soil. As an adult, Yu continued his father's work and made a careful study of the river systems in an attempt to learn why his father's great efforts had failed.

Collaborating with Houji - a semi-mythical agricultural master about whom little is concretely known - Yu successfully devised a system of flood controls that were crucial in establishing the prosperity of the Chinese heartland. Instead of directly damming the rivers' flow, Yu made a system of irrigation canals which relieved floodwater into fields, as well as spending great effort dredging the riverbeds.[213] Yu is said to have eaten and slept with the common workers and spent most of his time personally assisting the work of dredging the silty beds of the rivers for the 13 years the projects took to complete. The dredging and irrigation were successful, and allowed ancient Chinese culture to flourish along the Yellow River, Wei River, and other waterways of the Chinese heartland. The project earned Yu renown throughout Chinese history, and is referred to in Chinese history as "Great Yu Controls the Waters" (Chinese: 大禹治水; pinyin: Dà Yǔ Zhì Shuǐ). In particular, Mount Longmen along the Yellow River had a very narrow channel which blocked water from flowing freely east toward the ocean. Yu is said to have brought a large number of workers to open up this channel, which has been known ever since as "Yu's Gateway" (Chinese: 禹門口).[213]

Apocryphal stories

In a mythical version of this story, presented in Wang Jia's 4th century AD work Shi Yi Ji, Yu is assisted in his work by a yellow dragon and a black turtle (not necessarily related to the Black Tortoise of Chinese mythology).[220] Another local myth says that Yu created the Sanmenxia "Three Passes Gorge" of the Yangzi River by cutting a mountain ridge with a divine battle-axe to control flooding.[221]

Traditional stories say that Yu sacrificed a great deal of his body to control the floods. For example, his hands were said to be thickly callused, and his feet were completely covered with callus. In one common story, Yu had only been married four days when he was given the task of fighting the flood. He said goodbye to his wife, saying that he did not know when he would return. During the 13 years of flooding, he passed by his own family's doorstep three times, but each time he did not return inside his own home. The first time he passed, he heard that his wife was in labor. The second time he passed by, his son could already call out to his father. His family urged him to return home, but he said it was impossible as the flood was still going on. The third time Yu was passing by, his son was older than 10 years old. Each time, Yu refused to go in the door, saying that as the flood was rendering countless numbers of people homeless, he could not rest.[218][222]

Yu was supposed to have killed Gong Gong's minister Xiangliu, a nine-headed snake monster.

The Nine Provinces

The Nine Zhou, or provinces, in a reconstructed view.

King Shun, who reigned after his father Yao, was so impressed by Yu's engineering work and diligence that he passed the throne to Yu instead of to his own son. Yu is said to have initially declined the throne, but was so popular with other local lords and chiefs that he agreed to become the new emperor, at the age of 53. He established a capital at Anyi (Chinese: 安邑) - the ruins of which are in modern Xia County, in southern Shanxi Province - and founded what would be called the Xia Dynasty, traditionally considered China's first dynasty.[223]

Yu's flood control work is said to have made him intimately familiar with all regions of what was then Han Chinese territory. According to the Book of History, Yu divided the Chinese "world" into nine zhou or provinces. These were Jizhou (冀州), Yanzhou (兗州), Qingzhou (青州), Xuzhou (徐州), Yangzhou (揚州), Jingzhou (荊州), Yuzhou (豫州), Liangzhou (梁州) and Yongzhou (雍州).[224]

According to the Rites of Zhou there was no Xuzhou or Liangzhou, instead there was Youzhou (幽州) and Bingzhou (并州), but according to the Erya there was no Qingzhou or Liangzhou, instead there was Youzhou (幽州) and Yingzhou (營州).[224] Either way there were nine divisions. Once he had received bronze from these nine territories, he created ding vessels called the Nine Tripod Cauldrons.[225] Yu then established his capital at Yang City (陽城).[226] According to the Bamboo Annals, Yu killed one of the northern leaders, Fangfeng (防風) to reinforce his hold on the throne.[227][228]

Yu mausoleum in Shaoxing


Yu temple in Yu mausoleum

According to the Bamboo Annals, Yu ruled the Xia Dynasty for 45 years; and, according to Yue Jueshu (越絕書), he died from an illness.[228][229] It is said that he died at Kuaiji Mountain (會稽山), south of present day Shaoxing, while on a hunting tour to the eastern frontier of his empire, and was buried there. The Yu mausoleum (大禹陵) known today was first built in the 6th century CE during the Southern dynasty in his honor.[230] It is located four kilometers southeast of Shaoxing city.[230] Most of the structure was rebuilt many times in later periods. The three main parts of the mausoleum are the Yu tomb (禹陵), temple (禹廟) and memorial (禹祠).[231] In many statues he is seen carrying an ancient plow (耒耜). A number of emperors in imperial times have travelled there to perform ceremonies in his honor, notably Qin Shi Huang.[229]

Influence on society


In the Republic of China era Sun Yat-sen envisioned great plans for water control like Yu the Great including a 30 million horsepower dam across the Yangtze River.[232] However the plans did not come into being as the Kuomintang were at war with Japan and the Communist Party of China.[232][233]

Beichuan, Wenchuan and Dujiangyan towns in Sichuan have all made claims to be the birthplace of Yu the great.[234]

In popular culture

Yu, played by Vince Crestejo, is the eldest of the evil System Lords, in the science fiction television series Stargate SG-1. He was introduced as Yu the Great in Fair Game, and the Jade Emperor, the exalted Yu Huang Shang Ti in Summit, who are separate figures in Chinese mythology.

See also

Yu the Great
Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors
King of China
traditionally 2205 BCE – 2147 BCE
Spouse(s)Fu Xi[235]
ParentsJade Emperor

Nüwa (also Nuwa, Nü-wa, Nu-wa and Nügua; traditionalChinese: ; simplifiedChinese: 女娲; pinyin: Nǚwā; Wade–Giles: Nü3-wa1) is a goddess in ancient Chinese mythology best known for creating mankind and repairing the wall of heaven. Depending on the source, she might be considered the second or even the first Chinese ruler, with most sources not putting her on the role, but only her brother and/or husband Fu Xi.


Nüwa was referred to in many poems and books of songs.

The Shan Hai Jing, dated between the Warring States period and the Han Dynasty, describes Nüwa's intestines as being scattered into ten spirits.[236]

In Liezi (c. 475 - 221 BC), Chapter 5 "Questions of Tang" (Chinese: 卷第五 湯問篇), author Lie Yukou describes Nüwa repairing the original imperfect heaven using five-colored stones, and cutting the legs off a tortoise to use as struts to hold up the sky.

In Songs of Chu (c. 340 - 278 BC), Chapter 3 "Asking Heaven" ( Chinese: 问天), author Qu Yuan writes that Nüwa molded figures from the yellow earth, giving them life and the ability to bear children. After demons fought and broke the pillars of the heavens, Nüwa worked unceasingly to repair the damage, melting down the five-coloured stones to mend the heavens.

In Huainanzi (c. 179 - 122 BC), Chapter 6 Lanmingxun (Chinese: 覽冥訓), author Liu An tells that in remote antiquity the four poles of the Universe collapsed and the world descended into chaos; the firmament was no longer able to cover everything and the earth was no longer able to support itself; fires burned wild and waters flooded the land; fierce beasts ate common people, and ferocious birds attacked the old and the weak. So Nüwa tempered the five-colored stones to mend the heavens, cut off the feet of the great turtle to support the four poles, killed the black dragon to help the earth, and gathered the ash of reed to stop the flood. (In a variation of this tale, the four corners of the sky collapsed and the world with its nine regions split open.)

Nuwa and Fu Xi as depicted from murals of the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD)

In Shuowen Jiezi (c. 58 - 147 AD), China's earliest dictionary, under the entry for Nüwa author Xu Shen describes her as being both the sister and the wife of Fu Xi. Nüwa and Fu Xi were pictured as having snake like tails interlocked in an Eastern Han Dynasty mural in the Wuliang Temple in Jiaxiang county, Shandong province.

In Duyi Zhi (Chinese: 獨異志; c. 618 - 907 AD), Volume 3, author Li Rong describes in the account "Opening of the Universe"[출처 필요] a brother and a sister living on the Kunlun Mountain. The sister's name was Nüwa. The brother and sister wished to become husband and wife but felt shy and guilty about this desire. So the brother took his younger sister to the top of the Kunlun Mountain and prayed, "If the heavens allow us to be man and wife, please let the smoke before us gather. If not, please let the smoke scatter." The smoke before them gathered together; thus Nüwa came to live with her elder brother. She made a fan with grass to hide her face. The present custom of women covering their faces with fans originated from this story.[출처 필요]

In Yuchuan Ziji ( Chinese: 玉川子集 c. 618 - 907 AD), Chapter 3 ( Chinese: "與馬異結交詩" 也稱 "女媧本是伏羲婦"; pinyin: "Yu Mayi Jie Jiao Shi" YeCheng "Nüwa ben shi Fu Xi fu"), author Lu Tong describes Nüwa as the wife of Fu Xi.

In Siku Quanshu ( simplifiedChinese: 四库全书;traditionalChinese: 四庫全書; c. 618 - 907 AD), Sima Zhen provides commentary on the prologue chapter to Sima Qian's Shiji, "Supplemental to the Historic Record: History of the Three August Ones," wherein it is found that the Three August Ones are Nüwa, Fu Xi, and Shennong; Fu Xi and Nüwa have the same last name, Feng (Chinese: ). Note: Sima Zhen's commentary is included with the later Siku Quanshu compiled by Ji Yun and Lu Xixiong.

In the collection Four Great Books of Song (c. 960 - 1279 AD), compiled by Li Fang and others, Volume 78 of the book Imperial Readings of the Taiping Era contains a chapter "Customs by Yingshao of the Han Dynasty" in which it is stated that there were no men when the sky and the earth were separated. Thus Nüwa used yellow clay to make people. But the clay was not strong enough so she put ropes into the clay to make the bodies erect. It is also said that she prayed to gods to let her be the goddess of marital affairs. Variations of this story exist.


Since Nüwa is presented differently in so many myths/legends, it is not accurate to tie her down as a creator, mother, or goddess. Depending on the myth, she is responsible for being a wife, sister, man, tribal leader (or even empress), creator, maintainer, etc. It is not clear from the evidence which view came first. Regardless of the origins, most myths present Nüwa as female in a procreative role after a calamity. She was also known as the creator of humans through clay but there has been many theories to this.


The earliest literary role seems to be the upkeep and maintenance of the Wall of Heaven, whose collapse would obliterate everything and everything.

There was a quarrel between two of the more powerful gods, and they decided to settle it with fists. When the water god, Gong Gong, saw that he was losing, he smashed his head against Mount Buzhou (不周山), a pillar holding up the sky. The pillar collapsed and caused the sky to tilt towards the northwest and the earth to shift to the southeast. This caused great calamities, such as unending fires, vast floods, and the appearance of fierce man-eating beasts. Nüwa cut off the legs of a giant tortoise and used them to supplant the fallen pillar, alleviating the situation and sealing the broken sky using stones of seven different colors, but she was unable to fully correct the tilted sky. This explains the phenomenon that sun, moon, and stars move towards the northwest, and that rivers in China flow southeast into the Pacific Ocean.

Other versions of the story describe Nüwa going up to heaven and filling the gap with her body (half human half serpent) and thus stopping the flood.[출처 필요] According to this legend some of the minorities in South-Western China hail Nüwa as their goddess and some festivals such as the 'Water-Splashing Festival' are in part a tribute to her sacrifices.[출처 필요]


The next major role of Nüwa is of a creator deity. However, not many stories ascribe to her the creation of everything; they usually confine her to the creation of mankind. The legend states that Nüwa existed in the beginning of the world. She felt lonely as there were no animals so she began the creation of animals and humans. On the first day she created chickens. On the second day she created dogs. On the third day she created sheep. On the fourth day she created pigs. On the fifth day she created cows. On the sixth day she created horses. On the seventh day she began creating men from yellow clay, sculpting each one individually, yet after she had created hundreds of figures in this way she still had more to make but had grown tired of the laborious process.

So instead of hand crafting each figure, she dipped a rope in clay and flicked it so blobs of clay landed everywhere; each of these blobs became a common person. Nüwa still laboriously crafted some people out of clay, who became nobles.

Wife or sister

By the Han Dynasty, she is described in literature with her brother Fu Xi as the first of the Three August Ones and Five Emperors. Paintings depicting them joined as half people-half serpent or dragon date to the Warring States period.

Miao goddess

Nüwa and Fu Xi are also found under different names (Nkauj Muam and Nraug Nus[237]) as originators of mankind through an act of incest after the Flood in legends and myths of the Miao people.

In history

Paintings of Nüwa, and her consort Fu Xi, date to the Warring States period.

Herbert James Allen erroneously translated Tang Dynasty historian Sima Zhen's interpolated prologue to the Han dynasty Sima Qian's Shiji. In one of his more serious flaws, Nüwa was described as male even though the (女) in the name means female and the wa (媧) also contains the female radical.

Appearance in Fengshen Yanyi

Nüwa is featured within the famed Ming dynasty novel Fengshen Bang. As featured within this novel, Nüwa is very highly respected since the time of the Xia Dynasty for being the daughter of the Jade Emperor; Nüwa is also regularly called the "Snake Goddess". After the Shang Dynasty had been created, Nüwa created the five-colored stones to protect the dynasty with occasional seasonal rains and other enhancing qualities. Thus in time, Shang Rong asked King Zhou of Shang to pay her a visit as a sign of deep respect. After Zhou was completely overcome with lust at the very sight of the beautiful ancient goddess Nüwa (who had been sitting behind a light curtain), he would write a small poem on a neighboring wall and take his leave. When Nüwa later returned to her temple after visiting the Yellow Emperor, Nüwa would see the foulness of Zhou's words. In her anger, she swore that the Shang Dynasty will end in payment for his foulness. In her rage, Nüwa would personally ascend to the palace in an attempt to kill the king, but was suddenly struck back by two large beams of red light.

After Nüwa realized that King Zhou was already destined to rule the kingdom for twenty-six more years, Nüwa would summon her three subordinates—the Thousand-Year Vixen (later becoming Daji), the Jade Pipa, and the Nine-Headed Pheasant. With these words, Nüwa would bring destined chaos to the Shang Dynasty, "The luck Cheng Tang won six hundred years ago is dimming. I speak to you of a new mandate of heaven which sets the destiny for all. You three are to enter King Zhou's palace, where you are to bewitch him. Whatever you do, do not harm anyone else. If you do my bidding, and do it well, you will be permitted to reincarnate as human beings." Thus, with these words, Nüwa would never be heard of again, but would still be a major indirect factor towards the Shang Dynasty's fall.

See also


External links

Great Flood (China)편집

The Great Flood of China (Chinese: 大洪水; pinyin: Dà Hóngshuǐ, or just 洪水) (also known as the Gun-Yu myth[238]) was a major flood event that continued for at least two generations, which resulted in great population displacements among other disasters, such as storms and famine: according to mythological and historical sources, it is traditionally dated to the third millennium BCE, during the reign of the Emperor Yao. Treated either historically or mythologically, the story of the Great Flood and the heroic attempts of the various human characters to control it and to abate the disaster is a narrative fundamental to Chinese culture. Among other things, the Great Flood of China is key to understanding the history of the founding of both the Xia Dynasty and the Zhou Dynasty, it is also one of the main flood motifs in Chinese mythology, and it is a major source of allusion in Classical Chinese poetry.

Literary history

Chinese history as a continuously recorded literary tradition begins with the ancient documents transmitted to posterity through the Records of the Grand Historian, of Sima Qian, which begin with the reign of the Yellow Emperor,[239] and incorporate two discourses by Confucius.[240] According to these, the great-grandson (or fourth successor) of the Yellow Emperor was Yao. Beginning with the reign of Yao, additional literary sources become available, including the Classic of History (collected and edited by Confucius), which begins with the "Canon of Yao" 堯典, describing the events of Yao's reign.[241] Although, the "Canon of Yao" is problematic in regards to textual transmission, at best it seems to represent an early textual reconstruction and at worst a fabrication based on available knowledge or sources from the 3rd or 4th centuries CE. "The Counsels of Great Yu" is considered to be one of the reliably transmitted pre-Qin texts. In any case, these and other texts of the preserved literature mark the beginnings of the Chinese historical tradition. Other important texts include the poem Heavenly Questions (Tianwen) collected in the Chu Ci which is attributed to Qu Yuan and the famous mythological compendium Classic of the Mountains and Seas (Shanhaijing). Furthermore centuries of scholarship have gone into piecing together a narrative from the bits, pieces, and occasionally longer sections found in these and other early sources, sometimes being subjected to heavy editorial handling in terms of viewpoint.

Collected mythology

Mythological stories besides having been preserved both in various literary forms, have also been collected from various oral traditions, some of these folktales are still told. Some of these sources are from people of the Han ethnicity and some from other ethnic groups.


The story of the Great Flood plays a dramatic role in Chinese mythology, and it its various versions represent one of a number of examples of a motif of flood myths from around the world. There are a number of flood narratives in Chinese mythology, which while somewhat lacking in internal consistency as well as incorporating various magical transformations and including the interventions of various divine or semi-divine beings, nevertheless share certain common features.[242] As opposed to myths involving the flooding of specific rivers[243] or Ma Gu and the periodic alteration of sea and mulberry orchards; as a whole, it seems that the myths centered around the Great Flood share certain similar outlooks, such as a certain emphasis on the flood being from natural causes, rather than the result of "universal punishment for human sin".[244] Another common feature seems to be the alleviation of the flooding by constructing dikes and dams, digging canals, together with widening or deepening existing channels, as well as teaching these skills to others, as in the cases of Nüwa, Gun, and Yu the Great.[244] So, one of the distinct motifs of the myth of the Great Flood of China is an emphasis on the heroic and praiseworthy efforts made in order to mitigate the disaster.[245] Another key motif is the development of civilization and bettering the human situation despite the disaster of the deluge.[245] During the course of fighting, surviving, and eventually getting the inundation problems under control, much progress was also made in terms of land management, beast control, and agricultural techniques: these and other developments are integral to the narrative, and exemplify a wider approach to human health and societal well being than just dealing with emergency management of the flood and its immediate effects. According to legend, a comprehensive approach to societal development resulted not only in wide scale cooperation and an effort by much of the population in many localities necessary to get the flood under control but also lead to the establishment of the first state of China, the Xia Dynasty (ca. 2070 – ca. 1600 BC).


Flood begins

Emperor Yao. Inscription reads: "The God Yao, Fang Xun, was humane like Heaven itself, and wise like a divine being; to be near him was like approaching the sun, to look at him was like gazing into clouds".[246]

It was during the reign of Emperor Yao that the Great Flood began, a flood so vast that no part of Yao's territory was spared, and both the Yellow River and the Yangzi valleys flooded.[168] The alleged nature of the flood is shown in the following quote:

Like endless boiling water, the flood is pouring forth destruction. Boundless and overwhelming, it overtops hills and mountains. Rising and ever rising, it threatens the very heavens. How the people must be groaning and suffering!

According to both historical and mythological sources, the flooding continued relentlessly. Yao sought to find someone who could control the flood, and turned for advice to his special adviser, or advisers, the Four Mountains (四嶽 or 四岳, Sìyuè); who, after deliberation, gave Emperor Yao some advice which he did not especially welcome.

Yao appoints Gun

Upon the insistence of Four Mountains, and over Yao's initial hesitation, the person Yao finally consented to appoint in charge of controlling the flood was Gun, the Prince of Chong, who was a distant relative of Yao's through common descent from the Yellow Emperor.[168]

Gun's efforts

According to the main mythological tradition, Gun's plan of flood control was through the use of a miraculously continuously self-expanding soil, Xirang.[238] So, Gun choose to obtain the Xirang by stealing it from the Supreme Divinity, which he did; however, the Supreme Divinity became quite angered at this importunity.[238] Year in and year out, many times, and to great extents, Gun applied the magical Xirang earth, attempting to block and barricade the flood waters with dams, dikes, and embankments which he built facilitated by utilizing the special powers of the magic soil, yet Gun was never able to abate the problems of the Great Flood. Whether Gun's failure to abate the flood was due to divine wrath against him or to defects in his approach to hydrological engineering remains an unanswered question—although one pointed out over two thousand years ago by Qu Yuan, in his "Heavenly Questions".[247]

Shun in power

A depiction of the system of the zhou, or "islands" (now reinterpreted as "provinces"), a system which Shun is credited with developing as a tool to allow political administration of a territory with ongoing flooding making normal communications impossible, although the number and locations of zhou have varied over time.

Even after nine years of the efforts of Gun, the flood continued to rage on, leading to the increase of all sorts of social disorders. The administration of the empire was becoming increasingly difficult; so, accordingly, at this point, Yao offered to resign the throne in favor of his special adviser(s), Four Mountains: however, Four Mountains declined, and instead recommended Shun – another distant relative to Yao through the Yellow Emperor; but one who was living in obscurity, despite his royal lineage.[248] Yao proceeded to put Shun through a series of tests, beginning with wiving Shun with his two daughters and ending by sending him down from the mountains to the plains below where Shun had to face fierce winds, thunder, and rain.[249] After passing all of Yao's tests, not the least of which being establishing and continuing a state of marital harmony together with Shun's two daughters, Shun took on administrative responsibilities as co-emperor.[250] Among these responsibilities, Shun had to deal with the Great Flood and its associated disruptions, especially in light of the fact that Yao's reluctant decision to appoint Gun to handle the problem had failed to fix the situation, despite having been working on it for the previous nine years. Shun took steps over the next four years to re-organize the empire, in such a way as to solve immediate problems and to put the imperial authority in a better position to deal with the flood and its effects. Although Shun's organization (or re-organization) of the flooded and increasingly flooded lands into zhou or islands (the political ancestors of the modern zhou or provinces, both of which may be written with the same character, ) alleviated some of the administrative difficulties as a work around to various problems, the fact remained that despite the additional four years of effort, Gun still had not only failed to achieve any success towards solving the main problem of the ongoing flooding, but the water even kept on rising. Gun insisted on staying the course with the dikes, insisting that despite the overwhelming failure so far that the people work even harder and to continue to build more and higher[251] Not only that, but Gun questioned the legitimacy of Shun as a ruler due to his modest background.[252]

Acts of Shun

Emperor Shun performs divination in the palace, with Yu present.

After the solemnities of his final accession to power, the first thing Shun did was to reform the calendar.[253] Next, for the period of a month, Shun convoked a series of meetings, ceremonies, and interviews at the imperial capital with the Four Mountains and the heads, lords, or princes of the realm's houses, clans, surnames, tribes, and nations.[253] Shun then went to Mount Tai (Taishan), as the beginning of his tour of inspection of the flood-ravaged realm[254] Here, at Taishan, he met with the princes of the eastern regions; and, after certain religious ceremonies, he standardized weights, measures, and ritual.[255] Then he went on to do the same to the South, the West, and the North, meeting at the sacred mountains of each region with the princes and leaders of each region, and standardizing their rules, measures, and practices.[256] All of these acts can be seen as preparatory to the fighting of the flood, as this was an effort requiring extraordinary levels of synchronized and coordinated activity over a relatively large territory: the timing was synchronized through the calendar reform and the engineering measures were made possible by standardizing the weights and measures.[257] Towards the end of the year, Shun returned to the imperial seat, and after a sacrificial offering of a bullock at his ancestral temple, he then put into action the plan that he had developed during his working tour of inspection.[256] One of these was to divide the empire into twelve administrative units (zhou), each one administered from the highest mountain within that area.[256] This was doubtlessly a useful expedient in the face of the rising and unpredictable flood waters. Another of Shun's acts was administrative reform.

Gun's demise

With Gun's overwhelming failure to control the flood waters and his questioning of the legitimacy of Shun's rule, he became labeled as an intransigent. Accordingly, as part of his administrative reforms, Shun had Gun banished to Feather Mountain. Accounts vary considerably about the details of Gun's demise; but, in any case, the sources seem to agree that he met the end of his human existence at Feather Mountain (although again accounts vary as to whether this end was death, through execution by Zhurong, or through a metamorphic transformation into — depending on account — a yellow bear, a three-footed tortoise, or a yellow dragon.[258])

Gun's son Yu

Somehow, Gun had a son Yu. Various myths suggest that this occurred under circumstances that would not meet the normal criteria for historical fact. Yu would continue the struggle to contain the flood waters.

Great Yu controls the flood

Yu the Great and his human and chelonian associates, fighting the flood. Relief outside the Water Resources and Hydro Power Lab, Wuhan University (2005)

Yu tried a different approach to the project of flood control; which in the end having achieved success, earned Yu renown throughout Chinese history, in which the Gun-Yu Great Flood is commonly referred to as "Great Yu Controls the Waters" (Chinese: 大禹治水; pinyin: Dà Yǔ Zhì Shuǐ). Yu's approach seems to have involved an approach more oriented toward drainage and less towards containment with dams and dikes. According to the more fancily embellished versions of the story it was also necessary for him to subdue various supernatural beings as well as recruit the assistance of others, for instance a channel-digging dragon and a giant mud-hauling tortoise (or turtle).

The inundating waters seemed to assail the heavens, and in their extent embraced the hills and overtopped the great mounds, so that the people were bewildered and overwhelmed.... I opened passages for the streams throughout the nine provinces and conducted them to the seas. I deepened the channels and conducted them to the streams.

Acquisition of agricultural civilization

Besides the motif of controlling the flood waters another motif is particularly characteristic of the Chinese Gun Yu flood myth, namely the acquisition of the agricultural civilization.[259] In some versions, this includes the appointment of Ji Qi (later called Houji) as Minister of Agriculture. Other versions go into the details of how a tiny remnant of people consisting of only two or a few individuals managed to survive the flood and the re-population/civilization process following the world-wide disaster, and/or how grain seeds or fire were obtained.[260] Another figure in this regard is Yi, also known as Boyi or Bo Yi.


After his work in controlling the flood waters, Yu became sole emperor and went on to found the Xia dynasty, when his son Qi of Xia succeeded him, thus establishing the beginning of a tradition of dynastic succession through primogeniture. But, before this, after ending his work against the flooding, Yu was said to have assembled all of the heroes/gods involved in fighting the flood together on Mount Guiji (in modern Zhejiang) at a certain time; but, when Fangfeng arrived late Yu had him executed — later it turned out that Fangfeng was late because he had stopped to fight a local flood which he encountered on his way.

Other flood myths

Other floods besides the one described in the Gun-Yu mythology also exist in Chinese mythology. It is not always clear what the degree of separation there is between the different flood accounts, and to what account they are conflated. This is an area of ongoing research. The Nüwa-Fuxi mythology provides an example in this regard. In these accounts, generally all of humanity is said to have been destroyed by a great flood except for one brother and a sister pair, who subsequently repopulate the world. A less widespread flood myth involves the goddess Ma Gu: this myth involves the cyclic rise and fall of the ocean level over the eons: sometimes the sea floor is under water; at other times, it turns into mulberry fields. However, the Ma Gu material seems to be distinct from the idea of a great flood upon the land of China. Similarly, a number of local flood myths exist. Some of these share features with the Nüwa-Fuxi material.


Today, the importance of the Gun-Yu mythos and the Great Flood of Chinese mythology from the anthropological-historic, the artistic and poetic dimensions, and its presence in modern Chinese culture.


The narrative of the Great Flood of prehistoric China may provide some insight into social development during this era. David Hawkes comments on the way that the various versions of the Gun-Yu story seem to contrast the relative success or failure, or at least the differences, between Gun, the father, and his son, Yu. Hawkes proposes a symbolic interpretation of a societal transition. In this case, Gun represents a society at an earlier technological stage, which engages in small scale agriculture which involves raising areas of arable land sufficiently above the level of the marshes existing then in the flood plains of the Yellow River system, including tributaries: from this perspective the "magically-expanding" xirang soil can be understood as representing a type of floating garden, made up of soil, brushwood, and similar materials. Yu and his work in controlling the flood would symbolize a later type of society, a one which possessed of technological innovations allowing a much larger scale approach to transforming wetlands to arable fields. Hawkes explains the miraculous transformations of the landscape which appear in the mythological descriptions as symbolically representative of a gridded drainage system engineered to permanently eliminate entire marsh areas, in favor of agriculturally exploitable fields.[261]


The Xihe brothers receive orders from emperor Yao to organise the calendar.

The historian K. C. Wu believes that the "Canon of Yao" ("yaodian") in the Book of History (Shujing) has historical value, despite being one of the "second batch" or "new" texts comprising this collection of documents, which despite the problematic nature of their textual transmission, and that they appear to be reconstructed or heavily edited and interpolated (as compared with the "first" or "old" batch, which supposedly survived the Fires of Qin (the Burning of books and burying of scholars together with the destruction by fire of the Qin imperial library at the collapse of its dynasty). The first batch documents allegedly remained hidden for about a century, until accidentally discovered and handed over to a descendent of Confucius. Wu accepts that the "yaodian" is not a direct copy of the original, however he argues that it was based on the same, authentic sources as the first batch documents, perhaps even being to some extent being based on the actual original. However, the clinching factor which K. C. Wu claims is objective, extra-textual confirmation of "Yao's Canon" (and by implication, the rest of the second batch documents) has directly to do with dating the Great Flood, specifically to around the year 2200 BCE. This is based on comparing astronomical data from the text with modern astronomical or astrophysical analysis.[262]

At the beginning of his reign, Yao was supposed to have appointed four ministerial officials (two sets of two brothers) to make the necessary astronomical observations for a reformed calendar. Each of these individuals were sent to the limits of the royal territory, one in each of the cardinal directions, where they were supposed to observe certain stars at sunset on each of the solstices and equinoxes, so the results could then be compared, and the calendar accordingly adjusted. K. C. Wu cites references from two modern astronomers that largely confirm a date of around 2200 for Yao's reign, which is in accord with traditional, accepted dating.[263]

In a more mythological view of Yao and his reign, this evidence for accurate astronomical observations could be interpreted as an intrusion of archeoastronomy into the realm of myth.

See also


  • 息壤 Article on Xirang from the Chinese Wikipedia.


  • Classic of History (書經), traditionally first compiled and edited by Confucius (孔夫子), in about Fifth to Sixth Century BCE, in what is now China. (ISBN of original unavailable.)
  • Christie, Anthony (1968). Chinese Mythology. Feltham: Hamlyn Publishing. ISBN 0-600-00637-9.
  • Cotterell, Yong Yap and Arthur Cotterell (1975). The Early Civilization of China. New York: G.P.Putnam's Sons. ISBN 399-11595-1
  • Hawkes, David, translator and introduction (2011 [1985]). Qu Yuan et al., The Songs of the South: An Ancient Chinese Anthology of Poems by Qu Yuan and Other Poets. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-044375-2
  • Wu, K. C. (1982). The Chinese Heritage. New York: Crown Publishers. ISBN 0-517-54475-X.
  • Yang, Lihui, et al. (2005). Handbook of Chinese Mythology. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533263-6

Further reading

  • Lewis, Mark Edward (2006). 《The Flood Myths of Early China》. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-6663-9. 


한국에도 지방에서 구전되어 오는 구비문학에서 대홍수 설화를 볼 수 있다. 대표적인 것이 목도령 설화장자못 설화이다.

목도령 설화편집

선녀가 어느 날 지상에 내려와 쉬다가 계수나무 정령에 반해 아름다운 동자를 낳는다. 동자의 이름은 목도령(木道令)이다. 아이가 일곱 살이 되던 해 어머니가 하늘나라로 올라가자 폭풍우와 함께 몇 달 동안 가 내린다. 계수나무는 목도령에게 "너는 내 아들이다. 나는 곧 폭풍우 때문에 무너지게 된다. 너는 내 등에 타야 살 수 있다"라고 한다. 쓰러진 계수나무 위에 올라탄 목도령은 물결을 따라 흘러간다. 어느덧 비는 그치고 목도령은 백두산에서 신선이 된다.[264]

목도령(木道令) 또는 나무도령한국 설화에 등장하는 신선으로, 계수나무의 정령과 선녀 사이서 태어났다고 전해졌다. 나무의 아들로 태어난 소년이 대홍수 때 아버지인 나무를 타고 가다 구해 준 동물들의 보은으로 곤경을 벗어나 혼인하여 인류의 시조가 되고 나중에 백두산신선이 된다는 설화다. [265][266]

목도령 대홍수 설화

신이담 중 기원담에 속하며, "목도령설화", "참나무 아들로 태어난 도령", "홍수설화" 등으로도 불린다. 전국 여러 지역에서 두루 구전되고 있다. 줄거리는 다음과 같다.

선녀(혹은 자식없는 과부)가 어느 날 지상에 내려와 쉬다가 계수나무 정령(혹은 나무의 신)의 정기에 감하여, 잉태하고 아름다운 동자를 낳는다. 동자의 이름은 목도령이다. 목도령이 일곱 살이 되던 해 어머니가 하늘나라로 올라가게 된다. 목도령은 나무 밑에 가서 나무를 아버지라고 부르며 놀아서, 목도령이라고 불리게 되었다. 그러자 하루는 계수나무가 목도령에게 "너는 내 아들이다. 나는 곧 폭풍우 때문에 무너지게 된다. 너는 내 등에 타야 살 수 있다"라고 한다. 그리쓰러진 계수나무 위에 올라탄 목도령은 물결을 따라 흘러간다. 넘어진 나무를 타고 떠내려가던 목도령은 살려 달라고 애걸하는 개미를 만나 아버지인 나무의 허락을 받고 그 개미들을 구해 주었다. 또 모기 떼들도 구해 주었다. 그렇게 구하다 보니 모든 세계의 동물들을 구하게 되었고, 마지막에 한 소년이 살려 달라고 하는 것을 보고 구해 주자고 하였더니 나무가 반대하였으나, 목도령이 우겨서 그 소년을 구해 주었다고 한다. [265]
옛날 하늘의 선녀가 땅에 내려와 나무 밑에서 쉬다가 나무신의 정기와 관계를 가져 아들을 낳았다. 선녀는 하늘로 올라가고 소년은 나무 밑에 가서 나무를 아버지라고 부르며 놀아서 나무도령이라고 불리게 되었다. 하루는 나무가 소년을 부르더니 앞으로 큰 비가 와서 자기가 넘어지거든 자기의 등에 타라고 나무도령에게 일렀다.

어느날 갑자기 큰비가 내리기 시작하더니 그치지 않아서 세상이 온통 물바다를 이루었다. 넘어진 나무를 타고 떠내려가던 나무도령은 살려달라고 애걸하는 개미를 만나 아버지인 나무의 허락을 받고 그 개미들을 구해주었다. 또 모기떼들도 구해주었다. 마지막에 한 소년이 살려달라고 하는 것을 보고 구해주자고 하였더니 나무가 반대하였으나 나무도령이 우겨서 그 소년을 구해주었다.

비가 멎고 나무도령 일행은 높은 산에 닿았다. 두 소년은 나무에서 내려와 헤매다가 한 노파가 딸과 시비를 데리고 사는 집에 정착하게 되었다. 구해준 소년은 그 딸을 차지하려고 노파에게 나무도령을 모함하여 어려운 시험을 당하게 하였다. 그럴 때마다 구해주었던 동물들이 와서 도와주어, 결국은 나무도령은 그 딸과 결혼하였고, 구해 준 소년은 밉게 생긴 시비와 결혼하였다. 대홍수로 인류가 없어졌기 때문에 그 두 쌍이 인류의 새로운 시조가 되었다. [266]

대홍수 이후의 목도령 설화

비가 멎고 대홍수가 끝날 무렵 목도령 일행은 높은 산에 닿았다(이 높은 산이 백두산이라고 한다). 두 소년은 나무에서 내려와 헤매다가 한 노파가 딸과 시비를 데리고 사는 집에 정착하게 되었다. 구해 준 소년은 그 딸을 차지하려고 노파에게 목도령을 모함하여 어려운 시험을 당하게 하였다. 그럴 때마다 구해 주었던 동물들이 와서 도와주었다. 특히 개미떼가 목도령을 많이 도왔고, 결국은 나무도령은 그 딸과 혼인하였고, 구해 준 소년은 밉게 생긴 시비와 혼인하였다. 대홍수로 모든 인류가 없어졌기 때문에 그 두 쌍이 인류의 새로운 시조가 되었다고 한다. 그리고 후에 목도령은 백두산의 신선이 되었다고 한다. [265]

다른 대홍수 설화와의 공통점

기원전 6세기의 고대 인도 문헌인 사타파타 브라마나(Satapata Brahmana)에는 죽게 된 물고기를 살려 준 선행 때문에 배를 마련하여 대홍수에서 살아남을 수 있었다는 내용이 있으며, 중국 문헌인 육도집경(六度集經)이라는 불전에도 이와 비슷한 내용이 수록되어 있다. 그래서 한국의 설화가 외국 설화의 영향을 받았으리라고 추측도 있으나, 외국의 것은 선행에 대한 보상이 주어진다는 교훈적 성격이 강한 반면에, 사람에 대한 배신감을 절실하게 함축하고 있어서 보다 깊은 이치와 의미를 담고 있다.[265][266]

같이 보기

장자못 설화편집

옛날에 인색하고 심보 고약한 부자가 살고 있었다. 하루는 장자가 집 외양간에서 쇠똥을 치우고 있었는데, 지나가던 스님이 와서 장자에게 시주를 부탁하였다. 그러자 장자는 바랑에 쌀 대신 쇠똥을 바랑에 퍼주었다. 이것을 본 장자의 며느리가 장자 몰래 쌀을 퍼 바랑에 담아 주며 장자의 무례함을 사과하였다. 그러자 스님은 며느리에게 "지금 곧 자신을 따라 피해야 한다. 피할때는 절대로 뒤를 돌아보지 말라."고 말했다. 며느리는 곧 어린아이를 들쳐업고 집을 떠나 산을 오르는데 뒤에서 벼락이 치는 듯 천지를 뒤흔드는 큰 소리가 들려왔다. 그 소리에 며느리는 스님의 당부를 잊고 집이 걱정되어 뒤를 돌아보고 말았다. 그런데 장자의 집은 큰 연못으로 변해있었다. 며느리는 뒤를 돌아본 순간 등에 업고 있던 어린아이와 함께 그 자리에서 돌로 변해버렸다. 그 후 비가 오는 날이면 장자의 집이었던 연못에서 다듬이질 소리가 들려온다고 한다.

장자못 설화(長者-說話) 또는 아침못전설, 용두못전설(龍頭-傳說)은 한국의 대표적인 지명설화이다. 장자못이란 연못의 이름의 유래에 관한 설화로 한국 전역에 널리 퍼져있다. <옹고집전>의 근원설화로도 알려져 있다. 현재 장자못으로 불리는 연못은 한국 전역에 백여 곳 이상이어서 정확히 설화속 장자못이 어딘지는 알 수 없다.

이 설화는 전국적인 분포를 보이며 가장 널리 알려진 대표적인 지명전설의 하나이다. 현재 장자못이 있다고 확인된 곳만 하여도 백여군데가 된다. 풍부한 구전설화에 비하여 문헌자료는 거의 없는 편으로 《조선읍지》에 구전자료를 기록한 두편이 있을 뿐이다. [267]


옛날, 인색하고 심보 고약한 장자(큰 부자)가 살고 있었다. 하루는 장자가 외양간에서 쇠똥을 치우고 있었는데, 지나가던 스님이 와서 장자에게 시주를 부탁하였다. 그러자 장자는 바랑에 쌀 대신 쇠똥을 바랑에 퍼주었다.[268]이것을 본 장자의 며느리가 장자 몰래 쌀을 퍼 바랑에 담아 주며 장자의 무례함을 사과하였다.

그러자 스님은 며느리에게 "지금 곧 자신을 따라 피해야 한다. 피할때는 절대로 뒤를 돌아보지 말라."고 말했다. 며느리는 곧 어린아이를 들쳐업고 집을 떠나 산을 오르는데 뒤에서 벼락이 치는 듯 천지를 뒤흔드는 큰 소리가 들려왔다. 그 소리에 며느리는 스님의 당부를 잊고 집이 걱정되어 뒤를 돌아보고 말았다.

그런데 장자의 집은 큰 연못으로 변해있었다. 며느리는 뒤를 돌아본 순간 등에 업고 있던 어린아이와 함께 그 자리에서 돌로 변해버렸다. 그 후 비가 오는 날이면 장자의 집이었던 연못에서 다듬이질 소리가 들려온다고 한다. [267]


충남 공주시 우성면 옥성리의 대물터처럼 지명에 얽힌 지명설화의 한 유형이지만 인색한 부자가 중에게 쇠똥을 준 것을 부끄럽게 생각하여 몰래 시주한 장자의 며느리가 중이 제시한 금기를 어겨 바위가 되었다는 이야기가 모두 함께 하고 있다. 구약성서아브라함의 사촌인 과 관련된 소돔고모라의 등장인물과 비슷한 내용이다. [267]

전해오는 이야기

인색한 부자가 지나가는 중을 학대하였더니, 그 중이 부자에게 더 부자가 될 수 있는 방법을 가르쳐 준다고 속이고는 현재 발복(發福)의 근원인 명당의 혈(穴)을 자르게 하였다. 탐욕스러운 부자는 욕심이 나서 그대로 하였다가 망해 버렸다는 이야기는 징벌의 수단으로 풍수리지설로 이용하여 내려오고 있다. 유사한 설화로는 자기 집 종을 학대하자 종의 자식이 집을 나가 풍수지리를 공부하고 돌아와서 주인집의 명당혈(明堂穴)을 자르게 하여 망하게 하였다는 설화도 있다. [267]

같이 보기


Flood legend of Temuans편집

The Temuans are one of indigenous peoples of Malaysia.

They speak Temuan, an Austronesian language. Like other indigenous tribes in Malaysia, most Temuans live in poverty.

Flood Legend

Many thousand years ago, a lot of Temuan people died because they had committed "Celau" (the sins that angered god and their ancestors). Their god has sent a "Celau" punishment in a form of a Great Flood which had drowned all the Temuan sinners that day. Only two of the Temuans, named Mamak and Inak Bungsuk survived that day by climbing at Eagwood tree at Gunung Raja (Royal Mountain) located at the border of Selangor and Pahang state. There was a Temuan village over there named Kampung Orang Asli Pertak. Mamak and Inak Bungsuk survived because they had an enchanting mantra or spell to ease down the "Celau" storm. Gunung Raja (Royal Mountain) became the birth places and ancestral home of the Temuan tribe. Mamak Bungsuk (Adam) and Inak Bungsuk (Eve) are the Temuan analogues of Adam and Eve in the myth of the birth of humanity.


A basic traditional Temuan belief is that their God and ancestors are always present with them, guarding their safety.

At the end of every year, the Temuans celebrate Aik Gayak Muyang (Ancestor Day in English). This celebration is to thank their God and ancestors for the crops they grow and for the peaceful life they have had.

The Temuans believe they were placed on the earth (Tanah Tujuh) by Muyang (God) to be guardians of the rain forest and that if they fail in their sacred duty, the whole world will turn upside down and humanity will perish. Each river, hill, stream, rock, tree and shrub is animated by a guardian spirit. Rivers are guarded by dragons (naga) and snakes (ular) which often cause mayhem if their homes are desecrated.

The Temuan’s culture reflects their belief in these nature spirits. Their animism takes the form of taboos, herbal remedies, ritual ceremonies and magic. They have dukun (healers) and a village bomoh (shaman) who, when in a trance state, communicates with the nature spirits. It is the shaman who leads the tribe in the annual sawai - an ancient earth healing ritual to honour their ancestors and appease the guardian spirits.


Some traditional superstitions still held by Temuans:

1. Respect for their elders & mdash; bad luck is said to strike those who fail in this.

2. They do not praise a baby, in the belief that it would make the child sick and die.

3. If a Temuan is travelling and a little rain falls, he must slip a leaf into his ear to protect himself on his journey.

4. If a Temuan desires something he cannot get, he must say pinah hunan and put their saliva on his neck, in the belief that failure to do so would result in an accident.

5. A Temuan who must leave a meal in a hurry without eating food must tempot (touch the food to his skin) before leaving, in the belief that failure to do so would result in an accident or death.

6. A Temuan must stay quiet during thunderstorm. If he makes noise, the Thunder god will mistake him for a devil and strike him. Temuans believe that a thunder strike occurs when the Thunder god is hunting devils. That is why they must stay quiet & mdash; to prevent the Thunder god from striking at them.

7. A murderer will be haunted by his victim's ghost.

8. Stay away from a place that was haunted, to avoid being disturbed by an evil spirit.

External links

Lao (Indochina)편집

Khun Borom편집

Khun Borom Rachathirath is the legendary progenitor of the Tai-speaking peoples, considered by the Lao and others to be the father of their race.

In the framework of Chinese historiography Khun Borom is identified as Piluoge (皮羅閣) who unified the kingdom of Nanzhao's six parts and ruled it in 728—748. He had military assistance and titles from Emperor Xuanzong of Tang, and in 740 established his capital at Daiho near modern Dali.


According to the myth of Khun Borom, commonly related among the Lao, people in ancient times were wicked and crude. A great deity destroyed them with a flood, leaving only three worthy chiefs who were preserved in heaven to be the founders and guides for a new race of people. The deity sent the three chiefs back to the earth with a buffalo to help them till the land. The chiefs and the buffalo arrived in the land of Muang Then (believed to be present-day Dien Bien Phu in Vietnam). Once the land had been prepared for rice cultivation, the buffalo died and a gourd vine grew from his nostril. From the gourds on the vine, the new human race emerged—relatively dark-skinned aboriginal peoples emerging from gourds cut open with a hot poker, and the lighter skinned Lao emerging from cuts made with a chisel.

The gods then taught the Tai people how to build houses and cultivate rice. They were instructed in proper rituals and behaviour, and grew prosperous. As their population grew, they needed aid in governing their relations and resolving disputes. Indra, the king of gods, sent his son, Khun Borom, to be the ruler of the Tai people. Khun Borom ruled the Tai people for 25 years, teaching them to use new tools and other arts. After this quarter-century span, Khun Borom divided the Tai kingdom among his seven sons, giving each one of them a portion of the kingdom to rule. The eldest son, Khun Lo, was given the Dian Kingdom- modern-day Kunming. Other sons were assigned to conquer the Jiuli tribes.


Some interpreters of the story of Khun Borom believe that it describes Tai-speaking peoples arriving in Southeast Asia from China (mythically identified with heaven, from which the Tai chiefs emerge after the flood). The system of dividing and expanding a kingdom in order to provide for the sons of a ruler agrees in general with the apparent organization and succession practices of ancient Tai village groups was called mueang.

Khun Bourom Maharasa dynasty - The great King of the Nan Chao (Ai Lao) Empire. Khun Borom had nine sons, and seven of them became kings in different kingdoms in "Lamthong":

  1. "Khun Lor" ruled Moung Sawa (Sua), (Luang Phrabang, Laos)
  2. "Khun Palanh" ruled Sipsong Panna, (Yunnan, China)
  3. "Khun Chusong" ruled Tung Kea, (Muang Huao-Phanh to Tonkin, Vietnam)
  4. "Khun Saiphong" ruled Lanna, (Chiang Mai, Thailand)
  5. "Khun Ngua In" ruled Ayuthaya, (Thailand)
  6. "Khun Lok-Khom" ruled Moung Hongsa (Inthaputh), (Shan state, Burma)
  7. "Khun Chet-Cheang" ruled Moung Phuan, (Xieng Khouang, Laos).

There were 19 kings after Khun Lor who ruled Muang Sawa (Sua). The last one was Khun Vaang.

After his death, his son who was named "Lang", took the throne and was then named "King Langthirath". After King Langthirath died, his son (Thao Khamphong) was crowned as "King Souvanna Khamphong." After King Souvanna Khamphong died, his son "Chao Fifah" or "Khamhiao" took the throne. Chao Fifah (Khamhiao) had six sons and one of them was "Chao Fa-Ngum". King Fa Ngum was the creator of the Lan Xang Kingdom during his reign in the 13th century.

Both King Mangrai of Chiang Mai and Uthong of Ayutthaya are said to have been descendants of Khum Borom's younger sons.

Scholar David K. Wyatt believes that the Khun Borom myth may provide insight into the early history of the Tai people in Southeast Asia. Versions of the Khun Borom myth occur as early as 698 CE in Siang Khwang, and identify Tai-speaking kingdoms that would be formally established years later. This may indicate the early geographical spread of Tai-speaking peoples, and provides a mythological explanation for why modern Tai-speaking peoples are found in such widespread pockets. Linguistic analysis indicates that the division of the early Tai speakers into the language groups that gave rise to modern Thai, Lao and other languages occurred sometime between the 7th and 11th centuries CE. This split proceeded along geographic lines very similar to the division given in the Khun Borom legend.

See also



"Molok" redirects here. For the biblical deity, see Moloch.

The tale of Tiddalik the Frog is a legend from Australian Aboriginal mythology

In the telling of the myth, Tiddalik awoke one morning with an unquenchable thirst, and began to drink until all the fresh water was greedily consumed. Creatures and plant life everywhere began to die due to lack of moisture. Other animals conspired against Tiddalik, and devised a plan for him to release all of the water he had consumed. This was successfully coordinated by a wise old Wombat, when Nabunum the eel made Tiddalik laugh when he tied himself in comical shapes. As Tiddalik laughed, the water rushed out of him to replenish the lakes, swamps and rivers. The legend of Tiddalik is not only an important story of the Dreamtime, but has been the subject of popular modern children's books. In some Aboriginal cultures, Tiddalik is known as "Molok".

The story has been said to describe the Water-holding Frog (Litoria platycephala), from central Australia. The frogs burrow under ground during dry periods, and emerge during the rain to absorb large amounts of water, breed and feed. This allows it to avoid desiccation during drought, a trait not exhibited by most frogs. They were used by Indigenous Australians during times of drought as a source of water.


The story originated with the Aboriginal people of South Gippsland, Victoria but has spread worldwide since first being published. Tiddalik is commemorated in a statue in Warwick, Queensland. Various versions of the story were recorded by amateur ethnographers in the late nineteenth century; originating with the Gunai people near Port Albert, approximately 225 킬로미터 (140 mi) south-east of Melbourne. In the original story, Tiddalik formed the area's bays, estuaries, inlets and islands. The substance of the story has changed over time, with different animals being able to make Tiddalik laugh, and many of the modern versions being dissimilar to those of the nineteenth century.[269]

The Water-holding Frog (Litoria platycephala) ascribed in modern times to Tiddalik is not found in the area of the legend's origin. It is likely that Tiddalik either refers to a different frog, or is a mythical memory of a time, 10,000 to 12,000 years ago, when the landscape was sufficiently different for the frog's range to extend to the South Gippsland. While the modern story has a happy ending, with water returned for all to use, the original ends in environmental disaster. The flood caused many to drown and others to be stranded on islands. Those stranded were rescued by Borun the pelican, with the end of the tale explaining how the pelican's feathers subsequently changed from all-black to a mixture of black and white.[269]

External links

Further reading

  • Adams, L. & G.; Riordan, Chris (illustrator) (1972). 《Molok the thirsty frog (children's book)》. Sydney: Artstaff. ISBN 0-574-28165-7. 
  • Ker Wilson, Barbara; Holloway, Jan (illustrator) (1986). 《Tiddalik, the frog (children's book)》. Sydney: Golden Press. ISBN 0-7302-0313-1. 
  • Morton, John (2006). 〈Tiddalik’s Travels: the Making and Remaking of an Aboriginal Flood Myth〉. Aldo Poiani (ed.). 《Floods: Environmental, Social and Historical Perspectives》. New York: Elsevier. 139–158쪽. ISBN 978-0-12-373630-7. 
  • Troughton, Joanna (1977). 《What made Tiddalik laugh (children's book)》. West Melbourne, Vic.: Thomas Nelson Australia. ISBN 0-17-005213-3. 

In Hawaiian mythology, Nu'u was a man who built an ark with which he escaped a Great Flood. He landed his vessel on top of Mauna Kea on the Big Island. Nu'u mistakenly attributed his safety to the moon, and made sacrifices to it. Kane, the creator god, descended to earth on a rainbow, explained Nu'u's mistake.[270]

Missionaries to Hawaii in the 19th century considered him analogous to Noah of the Bible.

External links


In Māori tradition, Ruatapu was the second son of the great chief Uenuku, who belittled him for using the sacred comb of his elder brother, Kahutia-te-rangi. As revenge, Ruatapu enticed the children of the nobility into his canoe, sailed them in the ocean, and then sank it (Craig 1989:237). Kahutia-te-rangi survived with the help of a whale and was thereafter known as Paikea (Reedy 1993:142-146).

Meanwhile, Ruatapu convinced the gods of the tides to destroy the land and its inhabitants. Paikea fled to high ground and was saved through the intervention of the goddess Moa-kura-manu. One version of the myth holds that Ruatapu drowned in the flood and that her bowels became the first jellyfish (Craig 1989:237, Reedy 1989:142-146).

Flood myth

In a tradition of the Ngati Porou, a Māori tribe of the east coast of New Zealand's North Island, Ruatapu became angry when his father Uenuku elevated his younger half-brother Kahutia-te-rangi ahead of him. Ruatapu lured Kahutia-te-rangi and a large number of young men of high birth into his canoe, and took them out to sea where he drowned them. He called on the gods to destroy his enemies and threatened to return as the great waves of early summer. As he struggled for his life, Kahutia-te-rangi recited an incantation invoking the southern humpback whales (paikea in Māori) to carry him ashore. Accordingly, he was renamed Paikea, and was the only survivor (Reedy 1997:83-85).


  • R.D. Craig, Dictionary of Polynesian Mythology (Greenwood Press: New York, 1989).
  • Reedy, Anaru, Ngā Kōrero a Mohi Ruatapu, tohunga rongonui o Ngāti Porou: The Writings of Mohi Ruatapu (Canterbury University Press: Christchurch, 1993).
Carving from a Māori canoe. In Māori mythology, Tāwhaki is a semi-supernatural being associated with lightning and thunder.


The genealogy of Tāwhaki varies somewhat in different accounts. In general, Tāwhaki is a grandson of Whaitiri, a cannibalistic goddess who marries the mortal Kaitangata (man-eater), thinking that he shares her taste for human flesh. Disappointed at finding that this is not so, she leaves him after their sons Hemā and Punga are born and returns to heaven. Hemā is the father of Tāwhaki and Karihi.[271] Tāwhaki grows up to be handsome, the envy of his cousins, who beat him up and leave him for dead. He is nursed back to health by his wife, who feeds the fire that warms him with a whole log of wood. In memory of this incident, their child is named Wahieroa (Long-piece-of-firewood) (Biggs 1966:450). In some versions Tawhaki is the father of Arahuta. She was the cause of a quarrel between her parents, and her mother Tangotango took her to heaven, where they were afterwards joined by Tāwhaki.[272]

Avenges his father

Hemā, while looking for a gift for his son, trespasses into the land of the Ponaturi, who are evil beings. They capture him and Urutonga, blinding Hemā in the process. While journeying to rescue his parents, Tāwhaki meets and marries Hinepiripiri, to whom is born their son, Wahieroa. Tāwhaki and his brother Karihi rescue their enslaved mother, who tells them that light is fatal to the Ponaturi. Eventually, with the help of their mother, they trick the Ponaturi, who have returned to their house to sleep. Tāwhaki and his brother hide, after having blocked up all the chinks of the house so that no light can enter. When the Ponaturi begin to think that the night is very long, Urutonga reassures them that there is still a long time until dawn comes. They then set fire to the house, and open the door. The Ponaturi are killed by the fire and the exposure to the sunlight. The only survivors are Tonga-Hiti and Kanae.

Climbs into the heavens

Tāwhaki and his young brother set off to climb up to the sky. At the foot of the ascent they find their grandmother, Whaitiri, now blind, who sits continually counting the tubers of sweet potato or taro that are her only food.[273] Whaitiri is the guardian of the vines that form the pathway into the sky. The brothers tease her by snatching them away, one by one, and upsetting her count. Eventually, they reveal themselves to her and restore her sight. In return, she gives them advice about how best to make the climb into the sky. Karihi tries first, but makes the error of climbing up the aka taepa, or hanging vine. He is blown violently around by the winds of heaven, and falls to his death. Tāwhaki climbs by the aka matua, or parent vine, recites the right incantations, and reaches the highest of the 10 heavens. There he learns many spells from Tama-i-waho, and marries a woman named Hāpai, or as others say, Tangotango or Maikuku-makaka. They have a son, and according to some versions of the story it is this child who is named Wahieroa (Biggs 1966:450).[274]

Tribal versions

In a country like New Zealand, each tribe has a different version (or series of related versions) of a story like Tāwhaki; actually, the stories told by each storyteller within a tribe would be different, and the same storyteller would tell a slightly different tale each time it was told. To illustrate this variation in a small way, and to demonstrate that there is no one correct way to tell the story of Tāwhaki, two versions from different tribal groups are presented below.

Arawa version

In an 1850 version of Tāwhaki by Hohepa Paraone of the Arawa tribe of Rotorua (Paraone 1850:345-352, White 1887:115-119 (English), 100-105 (Māori),[275] Tāwhaki is a mortal man who is visited each night by Hāpai, a woman from the heavens. When Hāpai becomes pregnant, she tells Tāwhaki that if their child is female, he is to wash her. After their daughter Puanga is born, Tāwhaki washes her, but expresses disgust at the smell. Offended, Hāpai takes the child, climbs onto the roof of the house, and disappears into the sky.

After some months, Tāwhaki decides to go and find Hāpai and Puanga. He sets off with his two slaves. He warns the slaves not to look at the fortress of Tongameha as they pass by. One of the slaves looks, and Tongameha gouges out his eyes. Tāwhaki and the remaining slave go on, and meet Matakerepō, an old blind woman, guarding the vines (or ropes) that lead up into the heavens. Matakerepō is an ancestress of Tāwhaki's. As Matakerepō counts out her ten taro tubers, Tāwhaki removes them one by one.

Matakerepō, aware that someone is deceiving her, begins to sniff the air, and her stomach distends, ready to swallow the stranger. She sniffs towards the south, and towards all the winds. When she sniffs towards the west she catches Tāwhaki's scent and calls out 'Are you come with the wind that blows on my skin?' Tāwhaki grunts, and Matakerepō says, 'Oh, it is my grandson Tāwhaki.' Her stomach begins to shrink. Had he not been from the west wind, she would have swallowed him.

Matakerepō asks Tāwhaki where he is going. He replies that he is searching for his wife and daughter; his wife is a daughter of Whatitiri-matakamataka (or Whaitiri) and has returned to the heavens. Matakerepō shows him the pathway, advising him to set off in the morning. Tāwhaki's slave prepares a meal. Tāwhaki takes some cooked food and rubs it on the eyes of the old woman. Matakerepō is instantly cured of her blindness. In the morning, Tāwhaki presents his slave to Matakerepō, who chants a spell to help him as climbs. When he reaches the heavens, Tāwhaki disguises himself as an old slave and assists his brothers-in-law to build a canoe. Each night, the brothers-in-law return to their village, where Tāwhaki's wife and daughter are living. Pretending to be unable to keep up, Tāwhaki lets the brothers-in-law go on ahead, and returns to work on the canoe, arriving at the village much later. The next morning, Tāwhaki and the brothers-in-law return; seeing the canoe, the brothers-in-law are surprised by all the work that has been done. Each evening, Tāwhaki sits in the special seat of Hāpai, despite the protests of the villagers. These deeds of Tāwhaki bring him to Hāpai's attention, and she asks him who he is. Tāwhaki resumes his true appearance and is recognised by his wife. He performs rituals of dedication over their daughter.

Ngāti Porou version

In a legend committed to manuscript by Mohi Ruatapu of Ngāti Porou in 1971 (Reedy 1993:25-33, 126-134), Tāwhaki is a descendant of Māui. Whaitiri, a granddaughter of Māui, marries Kaitangata and has Hemā. Hemā marries Rawhita-i-te-rangi, and has Tāwhaki and his younger brother Karihi. Tāwhaki and Karihi set off to find their grandmother Whaitiri. They come to a village where a kawa (open ceremony) is being performed for Hine-te-kawa's house. They hide in the walls of the house and listen to the incantations. As the ceremony ends, Tāwhaki and Karihi leap out and kill all the people except Hine-te-kawa, who sleeps with Tāwhaki that night. She shows them the pathway they must take into the sky; it has pegs as footholds. Karihi makes several attempts at the climb, but falls to his death on the second attempt. Tāwhaki takes Karihi’s eyes and makes the climb. He comes upon Whaitiri, his blind grandmother, counting out twelve taro for her grandchildren, who are away at the village of Tama-i-waho. Tāwhaki removes the taro tubers one by one, until Whaitiri realises that it must be her grandson who she had foretold would come to find her. Tāwhaki places Karihi’s eyes into her eyes, and her sight is restored. Tāwhaki busies himself tidying his grandmother’s village, and washes and cares for her. Tāwhaki catches marries Maikuku, one of Whaitiri’s granddaughters; the other granddaughters escape to Tama-i-waho's village, up in the second sky. When they look down and see Tāwhaki and Maikuku making love outdoors, they are offended and come down and take Maikuku away into the sky. Tāwhaki, desperate to find his wife, who is pregnant, tries to ascend on a kite, but the evil Tama-i-waho sends a hākuai, a mythical bird, to attack the kite, causing Tāwhaki to fall. Tāwhaki then turns himself into a harrier hawk, and takes off. Using his adze Te Rakuraku-o-te-rangi, Tama-i-waho cuts off one of the wings of the hawk, and Tāwhaki falls to his death. After Tāwhaki's death, Maikuku bears him a son, named Wahiroa.

Flood myth

Some versions of the Māori story of Tāwhaki contain episodes where the hero causes a flood to destroy the village of his two jealous brothers-in-law. He directs his own people to relocate their village to the top of the mountain Hikurangi. A comment in Grey's Polynesian Mythology may have given the Māori something they did not have before — as A.W Reed put it, "In Polynesian Mythology Grey said that when Tāwhaki's ancestors released the floods of heaven, the earth was overwhelmed and all human beings perished — thus providing the Māori with his own version of the universal flood" (Reed 1963:165, in a footnote). Christian influence has led to the appearance of genealogies where Tawhaki's grandfather Hema is reinterpreted as Shem, son of Noah of the biblical deluge.

See also

  • Kaha'i for information on cognate deities in other Polynesian cultures


  • B.G. Biggs, 'Maori Myths and Traditions' in A.H. McLintock (editor), Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, 3 Volumes. (Government Printer: Wellington), 1966, II:447-454.
  • R.D. Craig, Dictionary of Polynesian Mythology (Greenwood Press: New York, 1989).
  • H. Paraone, "Tawhaki". (GNZMMSS 64, manuscript in Grey collection, Auckland City Library, Auckland, 1850), 345-352.
  • H. Potae, "Story of Tāwhaki," Journal of the Polynesian Society, 37 (1928), 359-66.
  • A. Reedy, Ngā Kōrero a Mohi Ruatapu, tohunga rongonui o Ngāti Porou: The Writings of Mohi Ruatapu (Canterbury University Press: Christchurch), 1993.
  • J. White, The Ancient History of the Maori, Vol I (Government Printer: Wellington, 1887). :* E.R. Tregear, Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary, (Lyon and Blair: Lambton Quay 1891), 497.
  • Journal of the Polynesian Society Vol. XXVI page 116


North America편집

Hopi mythology - Entrance into the Fourth World편집

The Hopi maintain a complex religious and mythological tradition stretching back over centuries. However, it is difficult to definitively state what all Hopis as a group believe. Like the oral traditions of many other societies, Hopi mythology is not always told consistently and each Hopi mesa, or even each village, may have its own version of a particular story. But, "in essence the variants of the Hopi myth bear marked similarity to one another."[277] It is also not clear that those stories which are told to non-Hopis, such as anthropologists and ethnographers, represent genuine Hopi beliefs or are merely stories told to the curious while keeping safe the Hopi's more sacred doctrines. As folklorist Harold Courlander states, "there is a Hopi reticence about discussing matters that could be considered ritual secrets or religion-oriented traditions."[278] David Roberts continues that "the secrecy that lies at the heart of Puebloan [including Hopi] life...long predates European contact, forming an intrinsic feature of the culture."[279] In addition, the Hopis have always been willing to assimilate foreign ideas into their cosmology if they are proven effective for such practical necessities as bringing rain.[280] As such, the Hopi had at least some contact with Europeans beginning the 16th century, and some believe that European Christian traditions may have entered into Hopi cosmology at some point. Indeed, Spanish missions were built in several Hopi villages starting in 1629 and were in operation until the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. However, after the revolt, it was the Hopi alone of all the Pueblo tribes who kept the Spanish out of their villages permanently, and regular contact with whites did not begin again until nearly two centuries later. The Hopi mesas have therefore been seen as "relatively unacculturated" at least through the early twentieth century, and it may be posited that the European influence on the core themes of Hopi mythology was slight.[281]

Major deities

A mural depicting Tawa, the Sun Spirit and Creator in Hopi mythology.

Most Hopi accounts of creation center around Tawa, the Sun Spirit. Tawa is the Creator, and it was he who formed the First World out of Tokpella, or Endless Space, as well as its original inhabitants.[282] It is still traditional for Hopi mothers to seek a blessing from the Sun for their newborn children.[283] However, other accounts have it that Tawa, or Taiowa, first created Sotuknang, whom he called his nephew. Taiowa then sent Sotuknang to create the nine universes according to his plan, and it was Sotuknang who created Spider Woman, or Spider Grandmother.[284] Spider Woman served as a messenger for the Creator and was an intercessorary between deity and the people. In some versions of the Hopi creation myth, it is she who creates all life under the direction of Sotuknang.[284] Yet other stories tell that life was created by Hard Being Woman of the West and Hard Being Woman of the East, while the Sun merely observed the process.[285][286]

Masauwu, Skeleton Man, was the Spirit of Death, Earth God, door keeper to the Fifth World, and the Keeper of Fire. He was also the Master of the Upper World, or the Fourth World, and was there when the good people escaped the wickedness of the Third World for the promise of the Fourth.[287] Masauwu is described as wearing a hideous mask, but again showing the diversity of myths among the Hopi, Masauwu was alternately described as a handsome, bejeweled man beneath his mask or as a bloody, fearsome creature. However, he is also assigned certain benevolent attributes.[288] One story has it that it was Masauwu who helped settle the Hopi at Oraibi and gave them stewardship over the land. He also charged them to watch for the coming of the Pahana (see section below), the Lost White Brother.[289] Other important deities include the twin war gods, the kachinas, and the trickster Coyote.

Maize is also vital to Hopi subsistence and religion. “For traditional Hopis, corn is the central bond. Its essence, physically, spiritually, and symbolically, pervades their existence. For the people of the mesas corn is sustenance, ceremonial object, prayer offering, symbol, and sentient being unto itself. Corn is the Mother in the truest sense that people take in the corn and the corn becomes their flesh, as mother milk becomes the flesh of the child."[290]

Feminist interpretations

Some contemporary writers tend to posit an absolute importance of the feminine to the Hopi and attribute the role of a male Creator (Tawa) to intrusions into Hopi folklore of European beliefs. In this interpretation, the Hopis traditionally saw the goddess Spider Woman as their creator, "Grandmother of the sun and as the great Medicine Power who sang the people into this fourth world we live in now.”[291] The theory holds that under centuries of pressure by white culture, Spider Woman has only recently been replaced by a male Creator and “the Hopi goddess Spider Woman has become the masculine Maseo or Tawa…”[292]

While this view of Hopi mythology is deeply controversial, certainly the Hopi have much in their culture and mythology which emphasized the importance of the feminine. For instance, the Hopi are a matrilineal society, and children belong to the clan of the mother, not the father. The Hopi Mother Nature is symbolized by both Mother Earth and the Corn Mother. "Spider Woman, Sand Altar Woman, and other female spirits [are] conceived to be the mothers of all living things. This mother is represented in the cult by the sipapu, the opening in the floor of the underground ceremonial chamber, or kiva, for the sipapu is the womb of Mother Earth, just as it is the hole through which humankind originally emerged from the underworld."[293]

However, Hopi religion was and is presided over by men, as were most political functions within the villages. Most importantly, it was only men who perform the required dances and ceremonies which brought rain to the Hopi.

Four Worlds

Hopi legend tells that the current earth is the Fourth World to be inhabited by Tewa's creations. The story essentially states that in each previous world, the people, though originally happy, became disobedient and lived contrary to Tewa's plan; they engaged in sexual promiscuity, fought one another and would not live in harmony. Thus, the most obedient were led (usually by Spider Woman) to the next higher world, with physical changes occurring both in the people in the course of their journey, and in the environment of the next world. In some stories, these former worlds were then destroyed along with their wicked inhabitants, whereas in others the good people were simply led away from the chaos which had been created by their actions.

Entrance into the Fourth World

A Hopi petroglyph in Mesa Verde National Park. The boxy spiral shape near the center of the photo likely represents the sipapu, the place where the Hopi emerged from the earth in their creation story.

Two main versions exist as to the Hopi's emergence into the present Fourth World. The more prevalent is that Spider Grandmother caused a hollow reed (or bamboo) to grow into the sky, and it emerged in the Fourth World at the sipapu. The people then climbed up the reed into this world, emerging from the sipapu. The location of the sipapu is given as in the Grand Canyon.

The other version (mainly told in Oraibi) has it Tewa destroyed the Third World in a great flood. Before the destruction, Spider Grandmother sealed the more righteous people into hollow reeds which were used as boats. Upon arriving on a small piece of dry land, the people saw nothing around them but more water, even after planting a large bamboo shoot, climbing to the top, and looking about. Spider Woman then told the people to make boats out of more reeds, and using island "stepping-stones" along the way, the people sailed east until they eventually arrived on the mountainous coasts of the Fourth World.

While it may not be possible to positively ascertain which is the original or "more correct" story, Harold Courlander writes, at least in Oraibi (the oldest of the Hopi villages), little children are often told the story of the sipapu, and the story of an ocean voyage is related to them when they are older.[294] He states that even the name of the Hopi Water Clan (Patkinyamu) literally means "A Dwelling-on-Water" or "Houseboat". However, he notes the sipapu story is centered on Walpi and is more accepted among Hopis generally.[294]


Upon their arrival in the Fourth World, the Hopis divided and went on a series of great migrations throughout the land. Sometimes they would stop and build a town, then abandon it to continue on with the migration. However, they would leave their symbols behind in the rocks to show that the Hopi had been there. Long the divided people wandered in groups of families, eventually forming clans named after an event or sign that a particular group received upon its journey.[295] These clans would travel for some time as a unified community, but almost inevitably a disagreement would occur, the clan would split and each portion would go its separate way. However, as the clans traveled, they would often join together forming large groups, only to have these associations disband, and then be reformed with other clans. These alternate periods of harmonious living followed by wickedness, contention, and separation play an important part of the Hopi mythos. This pattern seemingly began in the First World and continues even into recent history.

In the course of their migration, each Hopi clan was to go to the farthest extremity of the land in every direction. Far in the north was a land of snow and ice which was called the Back Door, but this was closed to the Hopi. However, the Hopi say that other peoples came through the Back Door into the Fourth World. This Back Door could be referring to the Bering land bridge, which connected Asia with far north North America. The Hopi were led on their migrations by various signs, or were helped along by Spider Woman. Eventually, the Hopi clans finished their prescribed migrations and were led to their current location in northeastern Arizona.

Most Hopi traditions have it that they were given their land by Masauwu, the Spirit of Death and Master of the Fourth World.

Sacred Hopi tablets

Hopi tradition tells of sacred tablets which were imparted to the Hopi by various deities. Like most of Hopi mythology, accounts differ as to when the tablets were given and in precisely what manner.

Perhaps the most important was said to be in the possession of the Fire Clan, and is related to the return of the Pahana. In one version, an elder of the Fire Clan worried that his people would not recognize the Pahana when he returned from the east. He therefore etched various designs including a human figure into a stone, and then broke off the section of the stone which included the figure's head. This section was given to Pahana and he was told to bring it back with him so that the Hopi would not be deceived by a witch or sorcerer.[296] This one is Truth, the stone has an Indian face of black, white and grey with black feathers, and it is not etched but looks more like ink that soaked into the stone.

Another version has it that the Fire Clan was given a sacred tablet by Masauwu, who as the giver of fire was their chief deity. In this version the human figure was purposely drawn without a head, and a corner of the stone was broken off. Masauwu told them that eventually the Pahana would return bringing the broken-off corner of the stone, but if in the meantime a Hopi leader accepted a false religion, he must assent to having his head cut off as drawn on the stone.[297]

This same story holds that three other sacred tablets were also given to the Hopi. These were given to the Bear Clan by their patron deity Söqömhonaw, and essentially constituted a divine title to the lands where the Hopi settled after their migrations. The Hopi had a Universal Snake Dance. The third of these was etched with designs including the sun, moon, stars, clouds, etc. on one side with six human figures on the other.[298] A letter from the Hopi to the President of the United States in 1949 also declared that "the Stone Tablets, upon which are written the boundaries of the Hopi Empire, are still in the hands of the Chiefs of Oraibi and Hotevilla pueblos..."[299]


Drawings of kachina dolls from an 1894 anthropology book.

Historically speaking, the kachina religion long predates European contact, and its traces have been found which date to as early as 1325 A.D.[300] However, it remains an open question among scholars as to whether the kachina religion was an indigenous creation, or an import from Mexico. The similarity of many aspects of Hopi religion to that of the Aztecs to the south strongly suggest the latter to many scholars.[301] For example, the Hopi horned or plumed serpent Awanyu uncannily resembles the Aztec Quetzecoatl, as does the Hopi legend of the Pahana.

To the Hopi, kachinas are supernatural beings who represent and have charge over various aspects of the natural world. They might be thought of as analogous to Greco-Roman demi-gods or Catholic saints. There are literally hundreds of different Kachinas, which may represent anything from rain to watermelon, various animals, stars, and even other Indian tribes. However, the kachinas are also thought to be the spirits of dead ancestors, and they may come to the Hopi mesas in the form of rain clouds.[300]

The Hopi say that during a great drought, they heard singing and dancing coming from the San Francisco Peaks. Upon investigation, they met the Kachinas who returned with the Hopi to their villages and taught them various forms of agriculture. The Hopi believe that for six months out of the year, the Kachina spirits live in the Hopi villages. After the Home Dance in late July or early August, the Kachinas return to the San Francisco Peaks for six months. The Hopi believe that these dances are vital for the continued harmony and balance of the world. It serves the further and vital purpose of bringing rain to the Hopi's parched homeland.


The true Pahana (or Bahana) is the Lost White Brother of the Hopi. Most versions have it that the Pahana or Elder Brother left for the east at the time that the Hopi entered the Fourth World and began their migrations. However, the Hopi say that he will return again and at his coming the wicked will be destroyed and a new age of peace, the Fifth World, will be ushered into the world. As mentioned above, it is said he will bring with him a missing section of a sacred Hopi stone in the possession of the Fire Clan, and that he will come wearing red. Traditionally, Hopis are buried facing eastward in expectation of the Pahana who will come from that direction.[302]

The legend of the Pahana seems intimately connected with the Aztec story of Quetzalcoatl, and other legends of Central America.[280] This similarity is furthered by the liberal representation of Awanyu, the horned or plumed serpent, in Hopi and other Puebloan art. This figure bears a striking resemblance to figures of Quetzacoatl, the feathered serpent, in Mexico. In the early 16th century, both the Hopis and the Aztecs believed that the coming of the Spanish conquistadors was the return of this lost white prophet. Unlike the Aztecs, upon first contact the Hopi put the Spanish through a series of tests in order to determine their divinity, and having failed, the Spanish were sent away from the Hopi mesas.[303]

One account has it that the Hopi realized that the Spanish were not the Pahana based upon the destruction of a Hopi town by the Spanish. Thus when the Spanish arrived at the village of Awatovi, they drew a line of cornmeal as a sign for the Spanish not to enter the village, but this was ignored. While some Hopi wanted to fight the invaders, it was decided to try a peaceful approach in the hope that the Spanish would eventually leave.[304] However, Spanish accounts record a short skirmish at Awatovi before the Hopis capitulated. Frank Waters records a Hopi tradition that the Spanish did ignore a cornmeal line drawn by the Hopis and a short battle followed.

Tovar [the leader of the Spanish] and his men were conducted to Oraibi. They were met by all the clan chiefs at Tawtoma, as prescribed by prophecy, where four lines of sacred meal were drawn. The Bear Clan leader stepped up to the barrier and extended his hand, palm up, to the leader of the white men. If he was indeed the true Pahana, the Hopis knew he would extend his own hand, palm down, and clasp the Bear Clan leader's hand to form the nakwach, the ancient symbol of brotherhood. Tovar instead curtly commanded one of his men to drop a gift into the Bear chief's hand, believing that the Indian wanted a present of some kind. Instantly all the Hopi chiefs knew that Pahana had forgotten the ancient agreement made between their peoples at the time of their separation. Nevertheless, the Spaniards were escorted up to Oraibi, fed and quartered, and the agreement explained to them. It was understood that when the two were finally reconciled, each would correct the other's laws and faults; they would live side by side and share in common all the riches of the land and join their faiths in one religion that would establish the truth of life in a spirit of universal brotherhood. The Spaniards did not understand, and having found no gold, they soon departed.[305]

In popular culture

The art film/avant-garde opera Koyannisqatsi references both the Hopi term Ko.yan.nis.qatsi ("life out of balance"), and three Hopi prophecies —i.e. warnings or eschatology.

David Lanz and Paul Speer's 1987 New Age album Desert Vision has a track named "Tawtoma."


  • Courlander, Harold, The Fourth World of the Hopis: The Epic Story of the Hopi Indians as Preserved in Their Legends and Traditions (University of New Mexico Press, 1987).
  • Dozier, Edward, The Pueblo Indians of North America (Case Studies in Anthropology, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1970).
  • Gunn Allen, Paula, The Sacred Hoop (Boston: Beacon Press, 1992).
  • Hultkrantz, Ake, “The Religion of the Goddess in North America,” The Book of the Goddess Past and Present: An Introduction to Her Religion, Carl Olson, editor (New York: Crossroad Publishing Co., 1990).
  • McLeod, Roxie, Dreams and rumors: a history of "Book of the Hopi" Thesis (M.A.) (University of Colorado, 1994). MLA.
  • Wall, Dennis, and Virgil Masayesva, “People of the Corn: Teachings in Hopi Traditional Agriculture, Spirituality, and Sustainability,” American Indian Quarterly, Summer/Fall 2004, Vol. 28, Issue ¾, pp. 435–453.
Flood myth of W̱SÁNEĆ peoples편집
Two Saanich people with GG Heye, 1938.jpg
Elsie Copper and her brother, who is wearing traditional Saanich dance regalia. George Gustav Heye, right. 1938 photo, NMAI.
Regions with significant populations
English, Sənčaθən
Christianity, Animism
Related ethnic groups
Coast Salish
Map of the Saanich Reserves

The Saanich or W̱SÁNEĆ are indigenous nations from the north coast of the Olympic Peninsula in Washington, the Gulf and San Juan Islands, southern Vancouver Island and the southern edge of the Lower Mainland in British Columbia.


Tribal School

Four of the Saanich first nations, Tsartlip, Pauquachin, Tseycum and Tsawout, created the ȽÁU,WELṈEW̱ Tribal School in 1989. It holds classes from preschool to grade 9, where SENĆOŦEN, the W̱SÁNEĆ language and W̱SÁNEĆ culture are taught along with the provincial curriculum. The school is also a venue for community events.[306]

External links

See also


  • Bill, Adriane; Cayou, Roxanne; & Jim, Jacqueline. (2003). NET'̸'E NEḰA'̸' SḴELÁLṈEW'̲' [One green tree]. Victoria, B.C.: First Peoples’ Cultural Foundation & L̵ÁU,WELṈEW̲ Tribal School. ISBN 1-4120-0626-0.
  • Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
  • Montler, Timothy. (1996). Languages and dialects in Straits Salishan. Proceedings of the International Conference on Salish and Neighboring Languages, 31, 249-256.
  • Montler, Timothy. (1999). Language and dialect variation in Straits Salishan. Anthropological linguistics, 41 (4), 462-502.
  • YELḰÁTT̵E [Claxton, Earl, Sr.]; & STOLC̸EL̵ [Elliot, John, Sr.]. (1994). Reef Net Technology of the Saltwater People. Brentwood Bay, B.C.: Saanich Indian School Board.
Comox people - Legend of Queneesh편집
This article refers to the Comox people. For other uses please see the disambiguation page at Comox (disambiguation).
Map showing traditional territory of the Island Comox; Mainland Comox not shown
Total population
850 (1983)[307]
Regions with significant populations
캐나다 캐나다 (브리티시컬럼비아 브리티시컬럼비아 주)
English, Comox
Christianity, native
Related ethnic groups
Coast Salish peoples

The Komox people, usually known in English as the Comox people and also spelled K'omoks, are an indigenous group of Coast Salishan-speaking people in Comox, British Columbia and in the Toba Inlet and Malaspina Peninsula areas of the British Columbia mainland across Georgia Strait. Those at the town of Comox are known as the Island Comox, those across the strait are known as the Mainland Comox and are formed of two groups, the Sliammon and the Klahoose. They historically spoke the Komox language, which is divided into two dialects, Island Comox and Mainland Comox. The Island Comox have close ties to the Lekwildok or Southern Kwakiutl of Campbell River and Quadra Island.


Modern-day Komox are organized in four band governments:





Mesoamerican flood myths편집

A large number of Mesoamerican flood myths have been documented in written form or passed down through the times in oral tradition. Some clearly have Christian influences, but others are believed by scholars to represent native flood myths of pre-Columbian origin.[308] One myth documented among the Tlapanec and Huaxtecs has a man and his dog as the sole survivors of the deluge, but the man finds out that the dog takes the shape of a woman during the day when he is away - the man and the dogwoman then repopulates the earth. Another myth found among the Aztec and Totonac peoples relate how a human couple survive by hiding in a hollow vessel and start to cook a fish when the water subsides - when the smoke reaches the heaven the gods become angry and punish them by turning them into dogs or monkeys depending on the version.

In Maya mythology as expressed in the Popol Vuh the creator gods attempted to create creatures who would worship them three times before finally succeeding in creating a race of humans that would pay proper homage to their creators. The three previous creations were destroyed. The third race of humans carved from wood were destroyed by a flood, mauled by wild animals and smashed by their own tools and utensils.[309] Maya flood myths recorded by Diego de Landa and in the Chilam Balam of Chumayel holds that the only survivors of the flood were the four Bacabs who took their places as upholders of the four corners of the sky.[310]

In Mesoamerican myth a variety of reasons are given for the occurrence of the flood: either the world was simply very old and needed to be renewed, or the humans had neglected their duty to adore the gods, or they were punished for a transgression (cannibalism, for example). Many of the modern myths included obviously Christian references such as the murder of Abel by Cain as the reason. In Mesoamerican myth the flood was but one of several destructions of the creation - usually the first of three or four such cataclysmic events, although there is some evidence that the Aztecs considered the flood to be the fourth of them. A large number of Mesoamerican flood myths, especially recorded among the Nahua (Aztec) peoples tell that there were no survivors of the flood and creation had to start from scratch, while other accounts relate that current humans are descended from a small number of survivors, in some accounts the survivors transgress against the gods by lighting a fire, and consequently are turned into animals. Horcasitas acknowledges that the dog-wife tale and the tale of transgression by fire and subsequent turning into animals of the flood survivors may be of pre-Columbian origin.[311]


Horcasitas, Fernando (1988). 〈An analysis of the deluge myth in Mesoamerica〉. Alan Dundes (ed.). 《The Flood Myth》. Berkeley: University of California Press. 183–220쪽. ISBN 0-520-05973-5. OCLC 15629162. 
Markman, Roberta H.; and Peter T. Markman (1992). 《The Flayed God: the Mesoamerican Mythological Tradition; Sacred Texts and Images from pre-Columbian Mexico and Central America》. San Francisco: Harper. ISBN 0-06-250528-9. OCLC 25507756. 
Tedlock, Dennis; (ed. & trans.) (1985). 《Popol Vuh: The Definitive Edition of the Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life and the Glories of Gods and Kings》. with commentary based on the ancient knowledge of the modern Quiché Maya. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-45241-X. OCLC 11467786. 

South America편집

Unu Pachakuti편집

In Incan mythology, Unu Pachakuti is the name of a flood that Viracocha caused to destroy the people around Lake Titicaca, saving two to bring civilization to the rest of the world.

The process of destruction is linked with a new construction. It has a very deep meaning in the language and traditions. Some people would translate it as "?".

Legend of Trentren Vilu and Caicai Vilu편집

The Legend of Trentren Vilu and Caicai Vilu is the "legend of the geography and origin of the Chiloean archipelago, and mountains of southern Chile", which was caused by a fierce battle between two mythical snakes, Trentren Vilu (trentren="related with the earth", vilu="snake") and Caicai Vilu (Caicai="related with the water", vilu="snake").


The Trentren Vilu is the god of Earth, and is a generous spirit and protecter of all earth's life. Caicai Vilu is the god of Water and the origin of all that inhabits it, and rules the seas.

According to this myth, thousands of years ago, what is now the Chiloé Province was once one contiguous landmass with continental Chile. One day a monstrous serpent appeared and inundated the lowlands, valleys, and mountains, submerging all the flora and fauna. Without delay, Trentren Vilu appeared to start a confrontation with his enemy, elevating the land and protecting it from disaster. The battle persisted a long time. Trentren Vilu reached a costly victory, he won the battle, but was unable to restore the land to its primeval state leaving it in the dismembered form it still has today.

At the end of the hostilities, Caicai Vilu left as representative and owner of all the seas, the king Millalobo (Millalonco), who was conceived during the invasion when a beautiful woman fell in love with a sea lion.

This legend describes the new region formed of water and earth and delineates the marine life style of Chiloé.

See also


  • Tom D. Dillehay. Monuments, empires, and resistance: the Araucanian polity and ritual narratives. Cambridge studies in archaeology. Cambridge University Press, 2007. ISBN 0-521-87262-6, ISBN 978-0-521-87262-1
Monument to Bochica in Cuitiva, Boyacá, Colombia

Bochica is a figure in the mythology of the Muisca (Chibcha) culture, which existed during the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores in areas comprising parts of present day Colombia and Panama. He was the founding hero of their civilization, who according to legend brought morals and laws to the people and taught them agriculture and other crafts.[312]

Similarly to the Incan god Viracocha, the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl and several other deities from Central and South American pantheons, Bochica is described in legends as being bearded. The beard, once mistaken as a mark of a prehistoric European influence and quickly fueled and embellished by spirits of the colonial era, had its single significance in the continentally insular culture of Mesoamerica. The "Anales de Cuauhtitlan" is a very important early source which is particularly valuable for having been originally written in Nahuatl. The Anales de Cuauhtitlan describes the attire of Quetzalcoatl at Tula:

"Immediately he made him his green mask; he took red color with which he made the lips russet; he took yellow to make the facade; and he made the fangs; continuing, he made his beard of feathers..." (Anales de Cuauhtitlan., 1975, 9.)"

In this quote the beard is represented as a dressing of feathers, fitting comfortably with academic impressions of Mesoamerican art. The connotation of the word 'beard' by Spanish colonizers was grossly abused as foundation for embellishment and fabrication of an original European influence in Mesoamerica.

Interestingly, not one cultural representation of either of these gods, painted, sculpted, et cetera, show them bearded in any sense the Spanish colonizers believed they would have been. No evidence in the abundance of Mesoamerican art are their signs of European influence, most stridently ruled out by the likenesses they gave themselves and their gods.


There have been questions on the authenticity of the preserved stories, and to what level they have been corrupted by the beliefs and imagery incorporated by Spanish Christian missionaries and monks who first chronicled the native legends.[314]


According to Chibcha legends, Bochica was a bearded man who came from the east. He taught the primitive Chibcha people ethical and moral norms and gave them a model by which to organize their states, with one spiritual and one secular leader. Bochica also taught the people agriculture, metalworking and other crafts before leaving for the west to live as an ascetic. When the Chibcha later forsook the teachings of Bochica and turned to a life of excess, a flood engulfed the Savannah of Bogotá, where they lived. Upon appealing for aid from their hero, Bochica returned on a rainbow and with a strike from his staff, created the Tequendama Falls, through which the floodwaters could drain away.[312][315]

Claims of historicity편집

Earth's sea level rose dramatically in the millennia after the Last Glacial Maximum

Ancient Shuruppak, Ur, Kish, Uruk, Lagash, and Ninevah all present evidence of flooding. However, the evidence comes from different times.[316] In Israel, there is no such evidence of a widespread flood.[317]

The geography of the Mesopotamian area was considerably changed by the filling of the Persian Gulf after sea waters rose following the last ice age. Global sea levels were about 120m lower up till 18,000 BP and rose till at 8,000 BP they reached the current levels, which are now an average 40m above the floor of the Gulf, which was a huge (800 km (500 mi) x 200 km (120 mi)) low-lying and fertile region in Mesopotamia, in which human habitation is thought to have been strong around the Gulf Oasis for 100,000 years. A sudden increase in settlements above the present water level is recorded at around 7,500 BP.[318][319]

Nanabozho in Ojibwe flood story from an illustration by R.C. Armour, in his book North American Indian Fairy Tales, Folklore and Legends, (1905).

Adrienne Mayor[320] promoted the hypothesis that flood stories were inspired by ancient observations of seashells and fish fossils in inland and mountain areas. The ancient Greeks, Egyptians, Romans, and Chinese all documented the discovery of such remains in these locations; the Greeks hypothesized that Earth had been covered by water on several occasions, citing the seashells and fish fossils found on mountain tops as evidence of this history.[출처 필요]

Christian geologist Ward Sanford has proposed that the filling of the Persian Gulf after the last ice age could have been a catastrophic event giving rise to the flood stories. He proposes a silt dam near the Hormuz Strait which temporarily held back the rising sea levels. "If a breach in the dam was flowing at, say, 100 times the flow of the present-day Tigris and Euphrates, it would have taken several months for the Persian Gulf to fill - the exact sort of timing referred to by the flood account."[321]

Speculation regarding the Deucalion myth has also been introduced, whereby a large tsunami in the Mediterranean Sea, caused by the Thera eruption (with an approximate geological date of 1630–1600 BC), is the myth's historical basis. Although the tsunami hit the South Aegean Sea and Crete it did not affect cities in the mainland of Greece, such as Mycenae, Athens, and Thebes, which continued to prosper, indicating that it had a local rather than a regionwide effect.[322]

Another hypothesis is that a meteor or comet crashed into the Indian Ocean around 3000–2800 BC, created the 30 킬로미터 (19 mi) undersea Burckle Crater, and generated a giant tsunami that flooded coastal lands.[323]

It has been postulated that the deluge myth may be based on a sudden rise in sea levels caused by the rapid draining of prehistoric Lake Agassiz at the end of the last Ice Age, about 8,400 years ago.[324]

One of the latest, and quite controversial, hypotheses of long term flooding is the Black Sea deluge hypothesis, which argues for a catastrophic deluge about 5600 BC from the Mediterranean Sea into the Black Sea. This has been the subject of considerable discussion.[325][326]


The Creation, beginning of the antediluvian (i.e., pre-Flood) world. (Artist's rendition by James Tissot)

The antediluvian (or pre-diluvian) period – meaning "before the deluge" – is the period referred to in the Bible between the Fall of man and the Deluge (flood) in the biblical cosmology. The narrative takes up chapters 1-6 (excluding the flood narrative) of Genesis. The term found its way into early geology and lingered in science until late Victorian era. Colloquially, the term is used to refer to any ancient and murky period.

Timing the antediluvian period

The biblical flood

Noah prepares to leave the antediluvian worlds, Jacopo Bassano and assistants, 1579

In the Christian Bible and Hebrew Torah, the antediluvian period begins with the Creation according to Genesis and ends with the destruction of all life on the earth except those saved with Noah in the Ark. According to Bishop Ussher's 17th-century chronology, the antediluvian period lasted for 1648 years, from creation at 4004 BC to the flood at 2348 BC.[327] The elements of the narrative include some of the best-known stories in the Bible—the Creation itself, Adam and Eve, and Cain and Abel—followed by the genealogies tracing the descendants of Cain and Seth, the third son of Adam and Eve. (These genealogies provide the framework for the biblical chronology, in the form A begat B in his Xth year).[328]

The Bible speaks of this era as being a time of great wickedness. There were Gibborim (giants) in the earth in those days as well as Nephilim; some translations identify the two as one and the same. The Gibborim were unusually powerful; Genesis calls them "heroes of old, men of renown;" (Enoshi Ha Shem). The antediluvian period ended when God sent the Flood to wipe out all life except Noah, his family, and the animals they took with them. Nevertheless, the Nephilim (literally meaning 'fallen ones', from the Hebrew root n-f-l 'to fall') reappear much later in the biblical narrative, in Numbers 13:31-33 (where the spies sent forth by Moses report that there were Nephilim or "giants" in the Promised Land).

In early geology

Strata of "Secondary rock", Lyme Regis
The Deluge subsides, thought in early geology to be responsible for the formation of sediments, with only traces of the antediluvian world. Thomas Cole, 1829

Early scientific attempts at reconstructing the history of the Earth were founded on the biblical narrative and thus used the term Antediluvian to refer to a period understood to be essentially similar to the biblical one.[329] Early scientific interpretation of the biblical narrative divided the Antediluvian into sub-periods:

  • Pre-Adamitic (the first 5 days, Gen 1:1 to Gen 2:3)
    • Primary (the formation of the physical universe and the earth)
    • Secondary (creation of plants and animals)
  • Adamitic (or Tertiary, from the creation of man to the Great Flood; Gen 2:5 to Gen 7.8), corresponding to St. Augustine's First Age of his Six Ages of the World[330]

Prior to the 19th century, rock was classified into three main types: primary or primitive (igneous and metamorphic rock), secondary (sedimentary rock) and tertiary (sediments). The primary rocks (like granite and gneiss) are void of fossils and were thought to be associated with the very creation of the world in the primary Pre-Adamitic period. The secondary rocks, often containing copious fossils, though human remains had not been found, were thought to have been laid down in the secondary Pre-Adamitic period. The tertiary rocks (sediments) were thought to have been put down after Creation and possibly in connection to a flood event, and were thus associated with the Adamitic period.[331] The post-flood period was termed the Quaternary, a name still in use in geology.

As mapping of the geological strata progressed in the early decades of the 19th century, the estimated lengths of the various sub-periods were greatly increased. The fossil rich Secondary Pre-Adamitic period was divided up into the Coal period, the Lias and the Chalk period, later expanded into the now-familiar geologic time scale of the Phanerozoic.[329] The term antediluvian was used in natural science well into the 19th century and lingered in popular imagination despite increasingly detailed stratigraphy mapping the Earth's past, and was often used for the Pleistocene period, where humans existed alongside now extinct megafauna.[329]

The antediluvian world

Creationist interpretation

Garden of Eden by Thomas Cole, 1828. The lush vegetation and foggy atmosphere are typical of biblical interpretation of the antediluvian period.
The end of the Edenic period, Adam and Eve are thrust into a bleak antediluvian world. Thomas Cole, 1828

Writers such as William Whiston (A New Theory of the Earth 1696) and Henry Morris (The Genesis Flood 1961) describe the antediluvian period as follows:[332][333]

  • People lived much longer than those alive today, typically between 700–950 years, as reported in the genealogies of Genesis;
  • The Earth contained many more people than the Earth contained in 1696. Whiston calculated that as many as 500 million humans may have been born in the antediluvian period, based on assumptions about lifespans and fertility rates;
  • There were no clouds or rain. Instead, the Earth was watered by mists which rose from the Earth. (Another interpretation is that the Earth was covered completely by a global cloud layer; the upper waters mentioned in the Creation. This is commonly called the Canopy view).[334]

In 19th-century science

During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the understanding of the nature of early Earth went through a transformation from a biblical or deist interpretation to a scientific one. Even back in the early 18th century, Plutonists had argued for an ancient Earth, but the full impact of the depth of time involved in the Pre-Adamitic period was not commonly accepted until uniformitarianism as presented in Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology of 1830.[335] While vast aeons of time were involved, the narrative of the pre-Adamitic world was still influenced by the biblical story of creation in this transition. A striking example is a description from "Memoires of Ichtyosauri and Plesiosauri", 1839:

An "ungarnished and desolated world which echoed the flapping of [pterodactyl] leathern wings" was lit by "the angry light of supernatural fire", shining on a "sunless and moonless" world, before the creation of these heavenly "lights".[336]

A modern view of the ancient world, along with abandoning the term Antediluvian, came about with the works of Darwin and Agassiz in the 1860s.

The antediluvian monsters

An "antediluvian monster", a Mosasaurus discovered in a Maastricht limestone quarry, 1770 (contemporary engraving)

From antiquity, fossils of large animals were often quoted as having lived together with the giants from the Book of Genesis: e.g. the Tannin or "great sea monsters" of Gen. 1,21. They are often described in later books of the Bible, especially by God Himself in the Book of Job: e.g. Re'em in verse 39,9, Behemoth in chapter 40 and Leviathan in chapter 41.[337][338] With the advent of geological mapping in the early 19th century, it became increasingly obvious that much of the fossils associated with the "secondary" (sedimentary) rock, notably large animals like Ichthyosaurs, Mosasaurs, Pliosaurs and the various giant mammals found when excavating the Catacombs of Paris, were neither those of giant humans nor of any extant animals. The geologists of the day increasingly came to use the term Antediluvian only for the younger strata containing fossils of animals resembling those alive today.[339]

Other uses

  • The term is also used in the field of Assyriology for kings, according to the Sumerian king list, supposed to have reigned before the great flood.
  • The adjective antediluvian is sometimes used figuratively to refer to anything that is of great age and/or outmoded. H. P. Lovecraft was particularly fond of the term, using it frequently in his horror stories.
  • The Antediluvian Steampunk / Biblical Fantasy series by C.D. Sutherland: The Dragoneers (2011): Book One of the Chronicles of Susah, [340] and The Lost Dragoneer (2013): Book Two of the Chronicles of Susah. [341] is set eighty years before the great flood. The series is built around the daughter of Noah, in a world with technologies equal to or better than modern times awaiting eventually destruction by the deluge. Most interesting is a presence of an external ice shield, frozen water, surrounding the Earth at low Earth orbit altitudes.

See also

See also편집

The Great Flood, by anonymous painter, The vom Rath bequest, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam




  1. Leeming, David (2004). “Flood | The Oxford Companion to World Mythology”. Oxfordreference.com. 2010년 9월 17일에 확인함. 
  2. Bandstra 2009, 61, 62쪽.
  3. Atrahasis, lines 7-9
  4. Pritchard, James B. (ed.), Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1955, 1969). 1950 1st edition at Google Books. p.44: "...a flood [will sweep] over the cult-centers; to destroy the seed of mankind; is the decision, the word of the assembly [of the gods]."
  5. The great flood – Hindu style (Satapatha Brahmana).
  6. Matsya Britannica.com
  7. Klaus K. Klostermaier (2007). 《A Survey of Hinduism》. SUNY Press. 97쪽. ISBN 0-7914-7082-2. 
  8. Sunil Sehgal (1999). 《Encyclopaedia of Hinduism: T-Z, Volume 5》. Sarup & Sons. 401쪽. ISBN 81-7625-064-3. 
  9. Cotter, David W. (2003). 《Genesis》. Collegeville (Minn.): Liturgical press. 49쪽. ISBN 0814650406. 
  10. Ewa Wasilewska (2000). 《Creation stories of the Middle East》. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. 146–쪽. ISBN 978-1-85302-681-2. 2011년 5월 23일에 확인함. 
  11. Black, J.A., Cunningham, G., Fluckiger-Hawker, E, Robson, E., and Zólyomi, G. (1998) The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature. Oxford.
  12. http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t. Translation of versions of The Death of Gilgamesh
  13. http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.5.2.5# Translation of The Poem of Early Rulers
  14. George, A. R. (2003) The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic: Introduction, Critical Edition and Cuneiform Texts. Oxford University Press
  15. http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.5.6.1# Translation of The Instructions of Shuruppak
  16. Speculated by Samuel Noah Kramer as deriving from sources from as early as 2500 BC, Kramer concluded that "Ziusudra had become a venerable figure in literary tradition by the middle of the third millennium B.C." , (Samuel Noah Kramer "Reflections on the Mesopotamian Flood," Expedition, 9, 4, (summer 1967), pp 12-18.)
  17. The variant versions are not direct translations of a single original.
  18. Lambert and Millard, Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets in the British Museum, London, 1965.
  19. Lambert and Millard, Atrahasis: The Babylonian Story of the Flood, Oxford, 1969
  20. Burkert, The Orientalizing Revolution: Near Eastern Influence on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age (Harvard) 1992, pp 88–91.
  21. Lambert and Millard, pages 8–15
  22. The Akkadian determinative dingir, which is usually translated as “god” or “goddess” can also mean “priest” or “priestess” (Margaret Whitney Green, Eridu in Sumerian Literature, PhD dissertation, University of Chicago [1975], p. 224) although there are other Akkadian words (e.g. ēnu and ēntu) that are also translated priest and priestess. The noun “divine” would preserve the ambiguity in dingir.
  23. On some tablets the under-god Weila or Aw-ilu, was slain for this purpose.
  24. http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/mesopotamian/gilgamesh/tab11.htm
  25. http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.5.6.1#
  26. http://www-etcsl.orient.ox.ac.uk/section2/tr211.htm
  27. Tigay, pages 238–239
  28. Of these and other editorial changes to the Atrahasis text in Gilgamesh Dr. Tigay comments, “The dropping of individual lines between others which are preserved, but are not synonymous with them, appears to be a more deliberate editorial act. These lines share a common theme, the hunger and thirst of the gods during the flood.”
  29. (Tigay 1982)
  30. Georges Roux, Ancient Iraq, pages 123, 502
  31. Dalley, Stephanie, Myths from Mesopotamia, Oxford University Press (1989), p. 40–41
  32. Andrew George, page xix
  33. “The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature; The death of Gilgameš (three versions, translated)”. 
  34. Andrew George, page 101, “Early Second Millennium BC” in Old Babylonian
  35. Andrew George, pages xxiv–xxv
  36. Kovacs, The Epic of Gilgamesh, Tablet XI, p. 95-103. (Lines 1-203)
  37. "Literary tradition depicts Eridu as a city of the marshes and tells of a large body of fresh water, the Abzu, in the immediate vicinity of Eridu." Eridu in Sumerian Literature, Margaret Whitney Green, PhD disseration, University of Chicago, August 1975, page 6.
  38. Kovacs, The Epic of Gilgamesh, Tablet XI, p. 95-103, 104-108. (Lines 1-203 & 204-319)
  39. (Tigay 1982, 217쪽), "The eleventh tablet of the late version consists of two separate components: the flood story from Atrahasis, and the rest of Gilgamesh's encounter with Utnapishtim."
  40. Lambert & Millard, page 93
  41. (Tigay 1982, 220, 225쪽)
  42. Andrew George, p. xliv.; Lambert and Millard p. 12
  43. Frymer-Kensky, Tikva Simone (2006), Studies in Bible and feminist criticism, Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. p. 354
  44. George, Andrew (2003), The Babylonian Gilgamesh epic: introduction, critical edition and cuneiform texts, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 506, 875-876. Apparently, the appearance of large numbers of drowned dragonflies—or mayflies according to George—was a common phenomenon associated with Mesopotamian river floods.
  45. (Tigay 1982, 226쪽)
  46. (Tigay 1982, 244쪽)
  47. (Tigay 1982, 245쪽)
  48. Andrew George, page 90
  49. Kovacs, page 99
  50. Ships and Seafaring in Ancient Times, Lionel Casson, page 86.
  51. Ancient Iraq, Georges Roux, page 502 Table II
  52. Parpola, page 109
  53. The Assyrian Dictionary, John Brinkman et al. (editors), University of Chicago, 1980, vol. I–J under igaru, page 36.
  54. Rene Labat, Manuel D'Épigraphie Akkadienne, 1988, sign 374.
  55. Parpola, page 111, line 142
  56. The Assyrian Dictionary, Brinkman et al. (editors), vol. Š part 1, pages 58–59 under šadú.
  57. S. Langdon, "The Chaldean Kings Before the Flood", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1923, pages 251–259.
  58. Andrew George, page 94
  59. Heidel page 87
  60. Kovacs, page 102, at 12th line from the top.
  61. Parpola, page 111
  62. The Assyrian Dictionary, Brinkman et al. (editors), vol. Z, page 131.
  63. Eridu in Sumerian Literature, Margaret Whitney Green, pages 8, 169.
  64. Green, pages 201–202
  65. Green, page 98, at 21st line from top.
  66. Andrew George, page 95.
  67. Margaret Whitney Green, Eridu in Sumerian Literature, PhD dissertation, University of Chicago (1975), p. 224.
  68. Parpola, page 128
  69. Rosenberg, Donna (1994). 《World Mythology: An Anthology of the Great Myths and Epics》. Lincolnwood, Chicago: National Textbook Company. 196–200쪽. ISBN 0-8442-5765-6. 
  70. Plato’s Critias 111b
  71. Entry Ωγύγιος at Liddell & Scott
  72. Gaster, Theodor H. Myth, Legend, and Custom in the Old Testament, Harper & Row, New York, 1969.
  73. Plato, Laws, Book III, 677a
  74. The Greek original text is "μυριάκις μύρια ἔτη διελάνθανεν", where μυριάς is the myriad or 10,000 (years)
  75. Luce, J.V. (1971), "The End of Atlantis: New Light on an Old Legend" (Harper Collins)
  76. Entry λᾶας at Liddell & Scott
  77. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1. 40. 1
  78. Plato, Laws, Book III, 682a
  79. Jacob and Wilheim Grimm, Household Tales, "The Louse and the Flea"
  80. D.L. Ashliman, "The Grimm Brothers' Children's and Household Tales (Grimms' Fairy Tales)"
  81. Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae 15:9
  82. According to John O'Donovan, Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland (1849), pp. xxiii-xxiv, the manuscript K1 in the Royal Irish Academy is actually a fair copy of Mícheál Ó Cléirigh's autograph made by his fellow-master Peregrine O'Clery. The author's original manuscript was probably sent to Louvain.
  83. Charles Squire, Celtic Myth and Legend (1905), p. 13.
  84. John Carey, in an introduction to the 1993 edition of R. A. Stewart Macalister's English translation; Francis John Byrne, in his Irish Kings and High-Kings (pp. 9–10) refers to the work as "a fantastic compound of genuine racial memories, exotic Latin learning and world history derived from Orosius and Isidore of Seville, euhemerised Celtic mythology, dynastic propaganda, folklore, and pure fiction".
  85. T. F. O'Rahilly (1946), p.264.
  86. R. A. Stewart Macalister, Irish Texts Society, Volume 35, p.252. Macalister later softened his opinion.
  87. T. F. O'Rahilly (1946), p. 264 and pp. 154 ff. O'Rahilly's opinions, however, are not uncontested.
  88. Graves (1948), p. 48 and p. 100.
  89. For one example see Graves (1948), pp. 229 ff. Graves was impressed by the fact that even though the pre-Christian Druidic alphabet of Ireland had letters named after Irish trees, several of these names were phonetically identical or nearly identical to their Phoenician and Greek counterparts: aleph and ailm (pronounced alev); beth and beith; resh and ruis (pronounced rush); nun and nin; eta and eadha; yodh and idho; mu and muin.
  90. Encyclopaedia Britannica, "A Coruña".
  91. Harry Mountain, The Celtic Encyclopaedia, p. 380
  92. Orosius, Historiae Adversum Paganos, 1:2:71 and 1:2:80 and Isidore of Seville, Etymologies, 14:6:6
  93. The application of the term seems to have gained currency with Arbois de Jubainville, c. 1881-1883; usage predating this applies the term generally e.g. to Norse mythology, and not specifically to Irish mythology
  94. The Irish form na Scéalta Miotaseolaíochta)focal.ie is even more contrived, since the term has rarely if ever been used in any publication.
  95. Mackillop 1998, mythological cycle "Somewhat awkward today, the phrase 'Mythological Cycle' was coined to describe those early stories that, in the absence of a Celtic cosmology, deal most with origins and the discernible remnants of pre-Christian religion; its first usage pre-dates the currency of 'Celtic Mythology'"
  96. Mackillop 1998, 'Tuatha Dé Danann' "..principal family of euhemerized pre-Christian Deities".
  97. Mackillop 1998, loc. cit.
  98. Mackillop 1998, loc cit.
  99. Arbois de Jubainville & Best 1903, 7쪽, "The Tuatha De Danann, also, after having been with visible body, sole masters of the earth, assume in a later age invisibility, and share with men folk the dominion of the world"
  100. Mackillop 1998, 'féth fiada', the story of the assigning by Mananán of the sidhe to individual TDD is found in the tale Altrom Tighe Dá Medar. But cf. De Gabáil in t-Sída (cited below). The LGE explains away the magic fog as smoke from the ships the TDD burnt upon arrival.
  101. Lugh appears in the Compert Con Cúlainn, the Great Queen in the Táin Bó Cúailnge proper and possibly, under a different moniker, in the Táin Bó Regamna.
  102. Atlantis III (1862), p. 384ff
  103. The text published in Dobbs 1937 was noticed by O'Curry, but evidently he felt this was not a full-fledged migration tale, but an excerpted account only (on par with the LGE), and characterized it as merely a source for the Battle of Tailtiu.
  104. Arbois de Jubainville & Best 1903, talks about he "catalogue of Irish epic literature" in the LL of and other mss., which is a listing of the important tales (primscéla). There is a sub-list under the heading "'Tochomoloda' or Emigration", and "of the thirteen pieces contained in this .. seven are mytological: 1. Tochomold Partholon.." (p.4); "Unfortunately, none of the seven pieces.. is now extant" (p.12), except for the Nemed fragment (see list below). The author dates the compiling of the original catalogue to 700 CE, with later additions to the list around 950 CE.
  105. See O'Curry 1878, 243-쪽 for a discussion of the catalogue (ancient lists of story titles), and his Appendix No. LXXXIX, 584-593 for a transcription of the actual catalogue from the Book of Leinster. Cf. Tochlomod
  106. Cf. however Vernam Hull 1935 and Dobbs 1937.
  107. e.g. at틀:Macalister
  108. first battle in a unique manuscirpt (TCD H 2.17); second battle in Harl. 5280, and a RIA 24 P 9 somewhat later (c. 1650). See Scéla site.
  109. O'Curry 1878, loc. cit. (p.583-, catalogue from LL); see O'Curry's footnotes.
  110. Macalister 1941, Part IV, Section VII, ¶319
  111. Macalister 1939, Vol. 2, p.134(=notes to ¶119), "..is glossarial"
  112. Mackillop 1998, pp. 259–262
  113. Lebor Gabála Érenn §26–29
  114. Geoffrey Keating, Foras Feasa ar Éirinn 1.5
  115. Lebor Gabála Érenn §30
  116. Geoffrey Keating, Foras Feasa ar Éirinn 1.6
  117. Lebor Gabála Érenn §38
  118. Lebor Gabála Érenn §30–38
  119. Lebor Gabála Érenn §39–54
  120. Bosley, K., translator (1999) The Kalevala. Oxford World's Classics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  121. Kuusi, M., Bosley, K., and Branch, M., editors and translators (1977) Finnish folk poetry: epic: an anthology in Finnish and English. Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society. p 94
  122. Kuusi, M., Bosley, K., and Branch, M., editors and translators (1977) Finnish folk poetry: epic: an anthology in Finnish and English. Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society.
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  141. Matsya Purana, Ch.II, 1-19
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  162. Krishna p. 35
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  177. Palanichamy, Malliya G. Suraksha Agrawal, Yon-Gang Yao, Quing-Peng Kong, Chang Sun, Faisal Khan, Tapas Kumar Chaudhuri, and Ya-Ping Zhang. 2006. Comment on "Reconstructing the Origin of Andaman Islanders. Science 311:470 (27 January 2006). Andamanese,Tamil and Malayalam are the major languages spoken here.
  178. Spencer Wells (2002). 《The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey》. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11532-X. ... the population of south-east Asia prior to 6000 years ago was composed largely of groups of hunter-gatherers very similar to modern Negritos ... So, both the Y-chromosome and the mtDNA paint a clear picture of a coastal leap from Africa to south-east Asia, and onward to Australia ... DNA has given us a glimpse of the voyage, which almost certainly followed a coastal route va India ... 
  179. Temple, R. C. (Reprint: 1996). 《Imperial Gazetteer of India Provincial Series: Andaman and Nicobar Islands》. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. 6쪽. ISBN 9788120608764. 
  180. William Wilson Hunter, James Sutherland Cotton, Richard Burn, William Stevenson Meyer (1908). “Imperial Gazetteer of India”. Great Britain India Office, Clarendon Press. ... The name has always been in historical times some form of Andaman, which more than probably represents Handuman, the Malay from Hanuman, treating the islands as the abode of the Hindu mythological monkey people or savage aboriginal ... 
  181. Adhir Chakravarti, Narendra Nath Bhattacharyya (1998). 《India and South-East Asia Socio-Econo-Cultural Contacts: Socio-econo-cultural Contacts》. Punthi Pustak. ISBN 81-86791-14-0. 2008년 11월 16일에 확인함. ... The Ajaib al- Hind of Buzurg (c. AD 1000) mentions an island named Andaman al-Kabir ... 
  182. Buzurg ibn Shahriyar, translated by: L. Marcel Devic and Peter Quennell (1928). “The Book of the Marvels of India: from the Arabic”. G. Routledge & sons. 
  183. Government of India (1908). “The Andaman and Nicobar Islands: Local Gazetteer”. Superintendent of Government Printing, Calcutta. ... In the great Tanjore inscription of 1050 AD, the Andamans are mentioned under a translated name along with the Nicobars, as Timaittivu, Islands of Impurity and as the abode of cannibals ... 
  184. Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Francesco Cavalli-Sforza (1995). 《The Great Human Diasporas: The History of Diversity and Evolution》. Basic Books. ISBN 0-201-44231-0. ... Marco Polo said they were fearsome, but, because he also says they had dogs' heads, I doubt he had been to the islands himself ... 
  185. Marco Polo (Henry Yule, trans.). “The Travels of Marco Polo”. And I assure you all the men of this Island of Angamanain have heads like dogs, and teeth and eyes likewise; in fact, in the face they are all just like big mastiff dogs! 
  186. Woodbridge Bingham, Hilary Conroy, Frank William Iklé (1964). “A History of Asia”. Allyn and Bacon. ... Maldives, Nicobar, and Andaman islands all were brought under the sway of its navy. In the Tamil peninsula itself Chola subdued the kingdoms of Pandya ... 
  187. Olivier Blaise. “Andaman Islands, India”. PictureTank. ... Kanhoji Angre, a Maratha admiral had his base on the island in the early 18th century. From there, he attacked passing Portuguese, Dutch and English merchant vessels. Kanhoji Angre was never defeated. He died in 1729. The British established their first colony in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in 1789, which was abandoned in 1796 ... 
  188. Asra Nomani (2004). 《Tantrika: Traveling the Road of Divine Love》. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-251714-7. ... A Maratha admiral, Kanhoji Angre, fought the British off these islands until his death in 1729 ... 
  189. “The Last Island of the Savages”. 《American Scholar》. 2000년 9월 22일. 
  190. “History of Andaman Cellular Jail”. Andamancellularjail.org. 2010년 5월 14일에 확인함. 
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  192. “Andaman Islands Political Prisoners”. Andamancellularjail.org. 2010년 5월 14일에 확인함. 
  193. “Opinion / News Analysis : Hundred years of the Andamans Cellular Jail”. Chennai, India: The Hindu. 2005년 12월 21일. 2010년 5월 11일에 보존된 문서. 2010년 5월 14일에 확인함. 
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  195. Werner Gruhl, Imperial Japan's World War Two, 1931–1945, Transaction Publishers, 2007 ISBN 978-0-7658-0352-8
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  197. Carl Strand and John Masek, 편집. (2007). 《Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake and Tsunami of December 26, 2004》. Reston, VA: ASCE, Technical Council on Lifeline Earthquake Engineering. ISBN 9780784409510. 
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  212. Book of Lineages (世本)
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  238. Yang, 74
  239. Wu, 49
  240. Wudide and Dixixing, Wu, 55
  241. Wu, 65
  242. Christie, 83–91
  243. for example, the Yellow River and the Count thereof, Christie, 79–83
  244. Christie, 83
  245. Yang, 117
  246. Birrell, Chinese Mythology, ISBN 0-8018-6183-7, p.71
  247. Yang, 127-128
  248. Wu, 70-71
  249. Wu, 74–76
  250. Wu, 76–77
  251. Wu, 85
  252. Wu, 86
  253. Wu, 77
  254. Wu, 77-78
  255. Wu, 78
  256. Wu, 82
  257. Wu, 78-79
  258. Christie, 87
  259. Yang, 116-117
  260. Yang, 114-117
  261. Hawkes, 138-139
  262. Wu, 35-44, 66-67, and 450-467. Especially 465.
  263. Wu, 66-67 and 467
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  268. 욕을 퍼붇고 내쫓거나 뜨거운 물을 끼얹거나 문전박대했다는 줄거리가 대세를 이루고 있다. 쇠똥 얘기의 변용인듯 하다.
  269. Morton, John. “Who is Tiddalik?”. The Victorian Frog Group. 2007년 12월 10일에 확인함. 
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  271. In some versions, Tāwhaki's mother is Urutonga.
  272. Grey, Sir George (1885). 《Polynesian Mythology and Ancient Traditional History of the New Zealand Race》. Auckland: H. Brett. 41쪽. 29-Nov-2010에 확인함. 
  273. In other stories, the blind woman guarding the vines is Tāwhaki's ancestress Matakerepō.
  274. In other versions, when Tāwhaki reaches the sky-world he disguises himself. When at last he reveals himself, he is reconciled with Tangotango, and their daughter Arahuta. Some versions say that he decided to stay in the sixth heaven, Ngā Atua, where he displays his power with lightning and thunder. In others stories, Tāwhaki's wife is named Hinepiripiri; they are the parents of Matuku and Wahroa.
  275. White unaccountably attributes this Te Arawa story to the Ngāi Tahu tribe of the South Island; he also has 'Pihanga' instead of 'Puanga' for the name of Tāwhaki's daughter.
  276. SENĆOŦENStory - ȽÁUWELṈEW, FirstVoices.com
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  279. David Roberts. The Pueblo Revolt, 5 (Simon and Schuster, 2004).
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  281. David Roberts. The Pueblo Revolt, 48.
  282. Harold Coulander. The Fourth World of the Hopis: The Epic Story of the Hopi Indians as Preserved in their Legends and Traditions, 17 (University of New Mexico Press, 1987)
  283. Louise Udall. Me and Mine: The Life Story of Helen Sekaquaptewa, 7 (University of Arizona Press, 1969)
  284. Frank Waters. The Book of the Hopi, 3-5 (Penguin Books, 1963).
  285. H.R. Voth. The Traditions of the Hopi, 1 (Chicago, 1905)
  286. Harold Courlander explains that this version of the story is an attempt to amalgamate two conflicting Hopi traditions dealing with two female deities, Spider Grandmother and Huruing Wuhti (Hard Being Woman). Spider Grandmother has a central role or myths where the Hopi arrive in the Fourth World via the sipapu, whereas Hard Being Woman is related to Hopi legends that they arrived in the Fourth World by boat. The Fourth World of the Hopi, 205.
  287. Harold Coulander. The Fourth World of the Hopis, 22.
  288. Hamilton A. Tyler. Pueblo Gods and Myths, 5-7 (University of Oklahoma Press, 1964)
  289. Dan Kotchongva. Where is the White Brother of the Hopi Indian?, in Improvement Era (1936).
  290. Dennis Wall and Virgil Masayesva, "People of the Corn: Teachings in Hopi Traditional Agriculture, Spirituality, and Sustainability", American Indian Quarterly, Summer/Fall 2004, pages 435–453.
  291. Paula Gunn Allen, The Sacred Hoop, Beacon Press, 1992, page 19.
  292. Gunn Allen, page 41.
  293. Ake Hultkrantz, "The religion of the Goddess in North America", Crossroad Publishing Co., 1990, pages 213–14.
  294. Harold Courlander. The Fourth World of the Hopis, p.205.
  295. See, e.g. Harold Courlander. The Fourth World of the Hopi, 35.
  296. Harold Courlander, The Fourth World of the Hopi, 31.
  297. Frank Waters, The Book of the Hopi, 31
  298. Frank Waters, The Book of the Hopi, 33 (Penguin Books, 1963).
  299. Waters, The Book of the Hopi, 323.
  300. David Roberts. The Pueblo Revolt, 36.
  301. David Roberts. The Pueblo Revolt, 45.
  302. Harold Coulander. The Fourth World of the Hopis, 31.
  303. Raymond Friday Locke. The Book of the Navajo, 139-140 (Hollaway House 2001).
  304. Harold Courlander. The Fourth World of the Hopis, 176.
  305. Frank Waters. The Book of the Hopi, 252.
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  320. Adrienne Mayor (2011). 《The First Fossil Hunters: Paleontology in Greek and Roman Times: with a new introduction by the author》. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691058636. 
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  322. Castleden, Rodney (2001) "Atlantis Destroyed" (Routledge).
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Bandstra, Barry L. (2009). 《Reading the Old Testament : an introduction to the Hebrew Bible》 4판. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/ Cengage Learning. 59-62쪽. ISBN 0495391050. 

Further reading편집

Bailey, Lloyd R. Noah, the Person and the Story, University of South Carolina Press, 1989. ISBN 0-87249-637-6
Best, Robert M. Noah's Ark and the Ziusudra Epic, Sumerian Origins of the Flood Myth, 1999, ISBN 0-9667840-1-4.
Dundes, Alan (ed.) The Flood Myth, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1988. ISBN 0-520-05973-5 / 0520059735
Faulkes, Anthony (trans.) Edda (Snorri Sturluson). Everyman's Library, 1987. ISBN 0-460-87616-3.
Greenway, John (ed.), The Primitive Reader, Folkways, 1965.
Grey, G. Polynesian Mythology. Whitcombe and Tombs, Christchurch, 1956.
Lambert, W. G. and Millard, A. R., Atrahasis: The Babylonian Story of the Flood, Eisenbrauns, 1999. ISBN 1-57506-039-6.
Masse, W. B. "The Archaeology and Anthropology of Quaternary Period Cosmic Impact", in Bobrowsky, P., and Rickman, H. (eds.) Comet/Asteroid Impacts and Human Society: An Interdisciplinary Approach Berlin, Springer Press, 2007. p. 25–70.
Reed, A. W. Treasury of Maori Folklore A.H. & A.W. Reed, Wellington, 1963.
Reedy, Anaru (trans.), Nga Korero a Pita Kapiti: The Teachings of Pita Kapiti. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch, 1997.

External links편집

Category:Comparative mythology
Category:Flood myths
Category:Fertile Crescent
Category:Mesopotamian mythology
Category:Water and religion